
 

Terms of Use  Created by: Kirt Blattenberger, owner of RF Cafe  Website: https://www.rfcafe.com RF Cascade Workbook 2018™ is protected by United States copyright law. Unauthorized copying, alteration, or distribution of this spreadsheet is prohibited by law. As a lawful owner of a RF Cascade Workbook 2018™ user license, you are permitted to make modifications for your unique application; however, this workbook may not be modified and distributed or sold as a new product. Please visit the RF Cafe website to submit payment for RF Cascade Workbook 2018™. Payment may be made via the PayPal(tm) online credit card system, or via cash or check using the mailing address provided on the RFCafe.com website. Disclaimer: RF Cascade Workbook 2018™ is offered AS IS. Your use of RF Cascade Workbook 2018™ implies you alone accept responsibility for results obtained through its use, and will hold harmless Kirt Blattenberger, RF Cafe, and all legal assigns for any losses incurred through its use. RF Cascade Workbook 2018™ has been tested very thoroughly, and there are no known problems at the time of this release. Discrepancies that affect accurate results, if discovered, will be fixed ASAP and a replacement version will be provided at no cost. Also, any and all User modifications to RF Cascade Workbook 2018™  other than entering values in the provided Unlocked cells, negates any and all responsibility by RF Cafe for the integrity of the software. Unprotecting a worksheet negates responsibility by RF Cafe. Thank you for your support. Your contributions help keep RF Cafe online. 
Inserting or deleting rows and columns  If columns are inserted or deleted for increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of components, be sure to properly copy and paste formulas per published Excel standards so that preceding and/or succeeding calculations are continuous; otherwise, calculation flow will be lost and the results will be incorrect. A guide for properly inserting/deleting columns and/or rows can be found on the RFCafe.com website. After inserting or deleting columns or rows, be sure to validate results before using RF Cascade Workbook 2018™ for critical work. https://www.rfcafe.com/business/software/rfcascadeworkbook2018/rfcascadeworkbook2018insertdeletecolumns.htm DO NOT for any reason insert a component column to the left of the first or last component column, or to the right of the first two component columns. Doing so will not permit proper copying of formula cells and results will be invalid. Consider instead hiding component columns you do not want displayed on the charts rather than deleting the columns. Results from component parameters in hidden columns will still be included in the overall calculations, but will not appear in the charts. See instruction provided in Excel to hide/unhide columns. If you add or delete rows, be careful not to affect any of the rows occupied by original RF Cascade Workbook 2018 cells. Doing so will likely invalidate calculations. 
Note to RF Cascade Workbook 2018 users regarding calculated system Max and Min values  Calculated Max and Min values for NF, OIP2, OIP3, and OP1dB in RF Cascade Workbook 2018™ (WSD™) may by your choice use either just the GainNom values, OR the GainMax and GainMin values per the RF Cascade Workbook 2018™ (RFCW™) method. Using the GainMax and GainMin values calculates the absolute worst case values for NF, OIP2, OIP3, and P1dB, but some people only want the results of the component itself being at a Max or Min value (using just nominal gain) rather than having every component in the system is at the extreme edge of a tolerance. Therefore, if you have a system defined for a version of RFCW and enter it identically in WSD™, the calculated Max and Min values will only match the RFCW™ values if you set all four options in the "Use Gain MaxMin for NF, OIP2, OIP3, and OP1dB MaxMin calcs?" area to "Yes." 
Change cell formats with userdefined Styles  Cell Styles are defined by name using the builtin Excel feature. Doing so allows you to change the style of all similar cell types (Param Titles, User Input, Section Titles, etc.) in one place and have that style automatically be applied to all cells using that definition. It is similar to using a Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) in HTML web page design. You may redefine any or all cells to suit your preference. Note that it might be necessary to turn off Worksheet Protection to do so (be sure to turn it back on afterward). 
Dropdown menus  Always use dropdown menus when provided for selecting options. Doing so prevents the conditional statements in formulas from misinterpreting your selection. 
Change cell formats with userdefined Styles  Cell Styles are defined by name using the builtin Excel feature. Doing so allows you to change the style of all similar cell types (Param Titles, User Input, Section Titles, etc.) in one place and have that style automatically be applied to all cells using that definition. It is similar to using a Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) in HTML web page design. You may redefine any or all cells to suit your preference. Note that it might be necessary to turn off Worksheet Protection to do so (be sure to turn it back on afterward). You can also change the worksheet background if you do not like the one provided. 
Set printable area  Control over what area of the worksheet will print is available with the Set Print Area feature. These instructions work for Excel 2007, but your version might be slightly different. 1) Go to the worksheet whose print area you want set 2) Use the cursor to highlight the area to be printed 3) Menu selection: "File">"Print Area">"Set Print Area" 4) Use Print Preview to verify selection To force entire selection area to print on a single sheet 1) Menu selection: "File">"Page Setup..." 2) Select the "Page" tab 3) In the "Scaling" area, set to fit 1 page(s) wide by 1 page(s) tall 
Worksheet Protection  All cells except those provided for user data entry (blue backgrounds) are locked in order to prevent accidental overwriting of formulas and labels. It is recommended that you do not unlock them, but if you do, remember to lock them again before proceeding. See the WSD Terms of Use section regarding liability. Unlock protected cells by selecting the "Unprotect Sheet" option provided by Excel. Lock the protected cells by selecting the "Protect Sheet" option provided by Excel. (do an Internet search on Excel worksheet protection if you are not familiar with it) The following Protection is implemented in RF Cascade Workbook 2018™: • "Start" Worksheet: Protection enabled and cannot be Unprotected by the user. • "System Definition" Worksheet: Protection enabled, but it can be Unprotected by the user.  use password provided in email when purchasing  a password is not required when reenabling Protection (leave the 'Password' field blank)  Important !!! When enabling Protection, be certain to check off the 'Edit objects' box or Macros will not run !!! • "Help" Worksheet: Protection enabled and cannot be Unprotected by the user. • "Icons" Worksheet: Protection enabled, but it can be Unprotected by the user (no password is set, none is required). • "Revision History" Worksheet: Protection enabled and cannot be Unprotected by the user. • VBA (Developer) Code: Protection enabled and cannot be Unprotected by the user. 
Reset row heights with AutoFit  Click button to have Excel's "AutoFit Row Height" function readjust rows to their standard heights. 
Mouseover comments  Extensive use of mouseover comments is provided in order to give instant help with most properties and functions in RF Cascade Workbook 2018™. This 'Help' worksheet contains the text of the mouseover comments, along with additional information. Turn comments On or Off in the Excel Options screen. 

Notes:  1) Most of the cells in the RF Cascade Workbook 2018™ workbook are locked to prevent accidental overwriting of formulas and/or references used by the VBA macro code (see notes above on Protection). Use the builtin "Protect Sheet" and "Unprotect Sheet" menu selections. Be sure to relock the worksheet to prevent accidental overwriting (you may use your own password, but none is required). 2) Use the Excel "Cell Styles" function to globally change the background color and font style. You can delete the background image after Unprotecting the worksheet. 3) The following convention is used when referring to ordered components in cascaded calculations: A lower case "n" indicates an individual component parameter and an upper case "N" indicates the cumulative cascaded value. Both "n" and "N" are the numbered order in the cascade, beginning at the input with the first stage being (n=N=1), the second being (n=N=2), etc. Using gain as an example: Gain[n] is the individual component's gain, Gain[n1] is the previous component's gain, and Gain[n+1] is the succeeding component's gain. Similarly, GainNom[N] is the cumulative cascaded nominal gain up to and including that of component Gain[n]. 4) The following convention is used with cascaded parameter formulas: Parameter names beginning with an upper case letter indicate a decibel unit value; e.g. NF[N] has units of dB and Psig[N] has units of dBm. Parameter names beginning with a lower case letter indicate a linear unit value; e.g. nf[N] is a ratio and psig[N] has units of milliwatts. 5) The absolute value of a parameter is indicated with the traditional vertical lines: value = ABS(value). 6) Units are indicated by curly brackets {dB, dBm, V, etc.}. 7) OIP2, OIP3, OP1dB, and OPmax parameters are always referenced to the component output. Allowing an option for either input or outputreferenced values creates an opportunity for errors. For convenience, inputreferenced equivalent values are calculated for the specified outputreferenced values. Convert between input and outputreferenced values as follows: IOIP2 = OOIP2  Gain, OOIP2 = IOIP2 + Gain IOIP3 = OOIP3  Gain, OOIP3 = IOIP3 + Gain IOP1dB = OOP1dB  Gain + 1, OOP1dB = IOP1dB + Gain  1 OPmaxLimited has no equivalent inputreferenced value 8) Cascaded GainMin and GainMax values, and formulas that reference them, depend on whether or not "Use VSWR" is selected. 9) The term "cumulative" as used herein refers to the results of cascaded calculations on a stagebystage, componentbycomponent basis. 

Navigation  Move around the worksheet by using the "Navigation" dropdown lists to select the area of interest. 

Chart Size/Position  All the charts are stacked on top of each other, with the top chart being the one selected by the "Select Chart" dropdown list. Left: This is where the left edge of the charts stack is positioned. Top: This is where the top edge of the charts stack is positioned. Width: This is overall width of the charts stack. Height: This is overall height of the charts stack. Left  Top  Width  Height >= 10 {approximate size in pixels} If the stack becomes misaligned due to user actions or due to editing of size and/or position numbers, click "Realign Charts" button to resize and reposition them all uniformly. The original format has each stage's output in the center of the related cell; you might prefer to align outputs with the right side of the cells to indicate the value represented at the output of the stage. Note: If you add a new chart to the "System Definition" worksheet and then click the "Realign Charts button, it will most likely disappear somewhere in the stack beneath the others. It will not be added to the dropdown list for bringing to the top (that is a function provided by the VBA code, which is not Useraccessible). Your best option is to modify an existing chart that is in the list, or if you must create a new chart, place it on a separate page so it will not be included in the realignment and resizing action. 
Select Chart  All the charts are stacked on top of each other, with the top chart being the one selected by the "Select Chart" dropdown list. 

Pin {dBm}  The system input signal power. It can represent a single tone or a distribution of signals across the system noise bandwidth. §Power{dBm} <= Pin <= §Power{dBm} §Defined in the "Min/Max Component Definition Limits" area. Thermal noise power at 25 °C (room temperature) in a 1 Hz bandwidth, is 174 dBm. 1 gigawatt is +120 dBm. 
Ambient Temp. {°C}  The ambient system temperature used for noise power calculations. 273.15 <= Temp <= 200 {°C} 273.15 °C is absolute zero. 200 °C is 1,832 °F. Room temperature is typically defined as 25 °C. 
Minimum SNR {dB}  The minimum signaltonoise ratio (SNR) used for calculating the dynamic range (DR). 100 <= Min SNR <= 100 {dB} Negative SNR values are permitted because signal processing can use wideband signals below the noise floor; e.g., with spread spectrum. 
Include VSWR Error
 Use the provided incell dropdown box to make your selection. "Yes" causes the VSWR amplitude error of each component interface to be added to the cascaded GainMin and GainMax values. "No" ignores VSWR amplitude errors. Except where noted, all Max and Min cascaded calculations that depend on the Gain value will be affected by this setting. 
Frequency Units  Use the provided incell dropdown menu to select frequency units. These units are used for all frequencydependent calculations, including noise power. Options: Hz, kHz, MHz, GHz, THz 

Icons  Copy and paste icons from the "Icons" worksheet (click on tab), or create your own icons and paste them in. Uniformly arrange icons by doing the following:  Use the Select Objects tool (Find & Select toolbar menu) to drag the cursor around the row of icons. Alternatively, select the first icon with the left mouse button, then hold down the Control key while leftclicking all the other icons.  Under the Page Layout  Align dropdown menu, click on Align Middle, and then click on Distribute Horizontally. 
"Icons" Worksheet  Standard icon size is 58 pixels wide by 32 pixels high. You can make them any size you like, however, and you can create your own custom icons and store them on the worksheet. Clicking the "Center Icons" button will position all icons on the worksheet inside the center of the cell where the upper left corners of the icons are located. If you click the button and an icon seems to have disappeared, it is probably sitting on top of the icon above and/or to the left of the cell where it should be (due to your having inadvertently positioned its top left corner in the wrong cell). 
Component Name  The names entered here are reflected at the tops of all other component input and calculation areas. 

Recommended noeffect (null) values for "empty" component stages  The following values are recommended for filling empty component stages so that they have no appreciable effect on the cascade calculations of populated stages. Your specific application might require other values, however. Component Specifications Gain {dB} = 0 NF {dB} = 0 OIP2 {dBm} = +249 OIP3 {dBm} = +249 OP1dB {dBm} = +249 Opmax {dBm} = +249 Input RL {dB} = 50 Output RL {dB} = 50 Filter Specifications Filter Pass Type =  Filter Xfer Function =  Filter Order (N) = leave blank Filter Ripple (N) = leave blank Upper Cutoff {Freq. Units} = leave blank Lower Cutoff {Freq. Units} = leave blank NBW to Use {Freq. Units} = 999999 MixerLo Specifications LO Frequency {Freq. Units} = leave blank Sideband (L,U) =  Trial Input Freq. {Freq. Units} = leave blank 
Gain {dB}  The component's nominal gain (Gain) value. Gain is positive if the component increases signal strength, and is negative if it decreases signal strength. §Decibels{dB} <= Gain <= §Decibels{dB} §Defined in the "Min/Max Component Definition Limits" area. Note: When Gain is negative, the NF should be set equal to the absolute value of Gain. A red "NF" warning is displayed in the component's Status cell if it is not. 
±Gain {dB}  The component's maximum gain variation (±Gain) relative to nominal. §Decibels{dB} <= ±Gain <= §Decibels{dB} §=Defined in the "Min/Max Component Definition Limits" area. A negative value causes the gain variation to add to cumulative GainMax and GainMin values in the opposite direction.
Note: When Gain is negative, ±NF should be set to the absolute value of ±Gain. A red "±" warning is displayed in the component's Status cell if it is not. 
NF {dB}  The component's nominal noise figure (NF) value. §Decibels{dB} <= NF <= §Decibels{dB} §=Defined in the "Min/Max Component Definition Limits" area. Note: When Gain is negative, the NF should be set equal to the absolute value of Gain. A red "NF" warning is displayed in the component's Status cell if it is not. 
±NF {dB}  The component's maximum noise figure variation (±NF) relative to the nominal. §Decibels{dB} <= ±NF <= §Decibels{dB} §=Defined in the "Min/Max Component Definition Limits" area. A negative value causes the NF variation to add to cumulative NFMax and NFMin values in the opposite direction. Note: When Gain is negative, ±NF should be set to the absolute value of ±Gain. A red "±" warning is displayed in the component's Status cell if it is not. 
OIP2 {dBm}  The component's nominal output 2ndorder intercept point (OIP2) value. §Power{dBm} <= OIP2 <= §Power{dBm} §=Defined in the "Min/Max Component Definition Limits" area. Note: Using a large value (e.g., 200) for unspecified components helps prevent them from affecting the cascade calculation; however, the yaxis scale (set to Auto by default) will squash to where smaller values cannot be distinguished. Set the yaxis scale to a Maximum of whatever your highest expected OIP2 value is to prevent squashing. 
±OIP2 {dB}  The component's maximum OIP2 variation (±OIP2) relative to nominal. §Power{dBm} <= ±OIP2 <= §Power{dBm} §=Defined in the "Min/Max Component Definition Limits" area. A negative value causes the gain variation to add to cumulative OIP2Max and OIP2Min values in the opposite direction. 
IIP2 {dBm}  The component's nominal input 2ndorder intercept point (IIP2) value. IIP2 = OIP2  Gain {dBm} Note: This is a calculated value and cannot be edited. 
OIP3 {dBm}  The component's nominal output 3rdorder intercept point (OIP3) value. §Power{dBm} <= OIP3 <= §Power{dBm} §=Defined in the "Min/Max Component Definition Limits" area. Note: Using a large value (e.g., 200) for unspecified components helps prevent them from affecting the cascade calculation; however, the yaxis scale (set to Auto by default) will squash to where smaller values cannot be distinguished. Set the yaxis scale to a Maximum of whatever your highest expected OIP3 value is to prevent squashing. 
±OIP3 {dB}  The component's maximum OIP3 variation (±OIP3) relative to the nominal. §Power{dBm} <= ±OIP3 <= §Power{dBm} §=Defined in the "Min/Max Component Definition Limits" area. A negative value causes the OIP3 variation to add in the opposite direction. 
IIP3 {dBm}  The component's nominal input 3rdorder intercept point (IIP3) value. IIP3 = OIP3  Gain {dBm} Note: This is a calculated value and cannot be edited. 
OP1dB {dBm}  The component's nominal output 1 dB compression point (OP1dB) value. §Power{dBm} <= ±OP1dB <= §Power{dBm} §=Defined in the "Min/Max Component Definition Limits" area. OP1dB is sometimes referred to as the "Blocking Power." The formula used to calculate cascaded OP1dB is 'approximate' (same format as the OIP3 calculation), so be aware that the answer is not as exact as with NF, OIP2 and OIP3. The reason is that transition from linear to nonlinear regions is highly devicedependent. Note: Using a large value (e.g., 200) for unspecified components helps prevent them from affecting the cascade calculation; however, the yaxis scale (set to Auto by default) will squash to where smaller values cannot be distinguished. Set the yaxis scale to a Maximum of whatever your highest expected OP1dB value is to prevent squashing. 
±OP1dB {dB}  The component's maximum OP1dB variation (±OP1dB) relative to nominal. §Power{dBm} <= ±P1dB <= §Power{dBm} §=Defined in the "Min/Max Component Definition Limits" area. A negative value causes the gain variation to add to cumulative OP1dBMax and OP1dBMin values in the opposite direction. 
IP1dB {dBm}  The component's nominal input 1 dB compression point (IP1dB) value. IP1dB = OP1dB  (Gain  1) {dBm} Note: This is a calculated value and cannot be edited. 
OPmax {dBm}  A conditional flag for the allowable maximum output power (OPmax) of the component. It is used to alert you to an excess power condition. OPmax is typically greater than OP1dB, but it does not have to be. §Power{dBm} <= OPmax <= §Power{dBm} §=Defined in the "Min/Max Component Definition Limits" area. The OPmaxLimited[N] cascaded output power of each component is limited to OPmax[n]. If OPmaxLimited[N1] + Gain[n] + ±Gain[n] would result in output power >= OPmax[n], then the new cascaded OPmaxLimited[N] is set equal to OPmax[n]. Otherwise, the new OPmaxLimited[N] is equal to OPmaxLimited[N1] + Gain[n] + ±Gain[n]. ** OPmax does not affect the linear cascaded calculations  it is only a flag for an overpower condition. It sets a system output power limit to what it would be if any component(s) is(are) saturated at the output. A red "Pwr" flag will appear in the Status cell for the component to alert you to the condition. Note: Using a large value (e.g., 200) for unspecified components helps prevent them from affecting the cascade calculation; however, the yaxis scale (set to Auto by default) will squash to where smaller values cannot be distinguished. Set the yaxis scale to a Maximum of whatever your highest expected Pmax value is to prevent squashing. 
Status  Tests for invalid parameter specifications. "Pwr" indicates the component's output power >= the OPmax value. "NF" indicates that when Gain is negative, NF is not equal to ABS Gain and/or ±NF is not equal to ABS ±Gain. 
Input RL {dB}  The component's Input Return Loss (Input RL). 0.001 <= InputRL <= 100 {dB} RL = 20 * log [(1VSWR) / (1+VSWR)] VSWR mismatch error values are handled according to the "Use VSWR" cell. 
Output RL {dB}  The component's output Return Loss (output RL). 0.001 <= OutputRL <= 100 {dB} RL = 20 * log [(1VSWR) / (1+VSWR)] VSWR mismatch error values are handled according to the "Use VSWR" cell. 
User Parameters 1 & 2  Enter a custom parameter of any type (numerical, text, etc.). It can be used in the "Calculated Cascaded System Parameters (non frequencydependent)" section and/or the "Calculated Cascaded System Parameters (frequencydependent)" section with your custom equations. Separate charts are provided for User Parameters 1 & 2. 1E16 <= User1User2 <= 1E16 {units} It is up to you to properly input all data and equations to obtain valid results since there is no way "Wireless Systems Designer" can decide what is valid. 

Decibel {dB}  This is the largest value (positive or negative) gain value {dB} that can be used to specify a component parameter. Attempting to input a larger number will cause the data Validation tester to report a violation. 1000 <= GainLimit <= 1000 {dB} 
Power {dBm}  This is the largest value (positive or negative) power value {dBm} that can be used to specify a component parameter. Attempting to input a larger number will cause the data Validation tester to report a violation. 1000 <= PowerLimit <= 1000 {dBm} 

fUpper {Freq. Units}  This is the highest frequency to be used for calculating filter responses. fLower < fUpper <= 10e12 {Freq. Units} 
fLower {Freq. Units}  This is the lowest frequency to be used for calculating filter responses. 10E12 <= fLower < fUpper {Freq. Units} 
Step Size  176 frequency points between fLower and fUpper, inclusive, are used for calculating the frequency response. StepSize = (fUpper  fLower)/175 {Freq, Units} 
Frequency Units  Use the incell dropdown menu to select the frequency units used to calculate system noise values. The selected Frequency Units are displayed along with all frequency values. Frequency Units: THz (10E12 Hz) GHz (10E9 Hz) MHz (10E6 Hz) kHz (10E3 Hz) Hz (1 Hz) 
Min/Max Power/Stage  This value places a limit on the minimum and/or maximum power level output for each component stage during calculations, thereby preventing data points that cause chart autoscaling to compress the plot. For instance, a frequency many decades outside the passband of a bandpass filter could easily be 500 dBm, but that is an insane value to include on a chart. Specifying, say, 200 dBm, for Min/Max Power/Stage changes a calculated power from 500 dBm to 200 dBm. 0 <= Min/Max Power/Stage <= 1000 {dBm} 

Filter Pass Type  Standard ideal filter transfer functions are used. Incell dropdown box has the following choices:  (no filter)  Highpass  Bandpass  Bandstop (aka Notch)  Lowpass 
Filter Xfer Function  Standard ideal filter formulas are used. Incell dropdown box has the following choices:  (no filter)  Brickwall  Butterworth  Chebyshev Brickwall filters exhibit 0 dB attenuation within the passband and infinite attenuation outside the passband. Butterworth is called "maximally flat" because it has the greatest outofband attenuation while having no ripple in the passband. It has relatively low group delay at the band edges. Chebyshev is called "equiripple" because it has equal amplitude ripple in the passband with high outofband attenuation that depends on the amplitude of the inband ripple (higher ripple = higher attenuation). It has relatively high group delay at the band edges (higher ripple = higher group delay). 
Filter Order = N  Although integer values for Filter Order are typical since each inductor and capacitor in the lowpass prototype adds to the total for 'N,' you can enter noninteger values for the sake of modeling. 2 <= Order <= 25 
Filter Ripple {dB}  Used only with the Chebyshev filter transfer function. 0.001 <= Ripple <= 10 {dB} 
Upper Cutoff {Freq. Units}  Used with the lowpass, bandpass, and bandstop filters. 1E12 <= fHigh <= 1E12 {Freq. Units} AND fHigh > fLow 
Lower Cutoff {Freq. Units}  Used with the highpass, bandpass, and bandstop filters. 1E12 <= fLow <= 1E12 {Freq. Units} AND fLow < fHigh 
fCenter {Freq. Units}  Used with bandpass and bandstop filters. This is the calculated arithmetic center frequency (not editable), used to make it easy to relate it to the band edges. fCenter = (LowerCutoff + UpperCutoff) / 2 {Freq. Units} The geometric center frequency, which is where the mathematical center of the band lies, is: fCenter = Sqrt (LowerCutoff * UpperCutoff) 2 {Freq. Units} This is the frequency at which, for the Butterworth filter and oddorder Chebyshev filter the insertion loss of an ideal filter is zero. An ideal evenorder Chebyshev filter will have an insertion loss equal to the inband ripple value at the geometric center frequency. 
BW {Freq. Units}  Used with bandpass and bandstop filters. This is the calculated bandwidth (not editable). Bandwidth (BW) = UpperCutoff  LowerCutoff {Freq. Units} 
Q  This is the filter "Quality" metric (not editable) and applies only to bandpass and bandstop filters. FilterQ = ((UpperCutoff + LowerCutoff) / 2) / (UpperCutoff  LowerCutoff) 
Filter NBW {Freq. Units}  Noise bandwidth (NBW) is the bandwidth that an ideal (Brickwall) filter passing the same amount of noise power would have. It is calculated using standard textbook equations. 
NBW to Use {Freq. Units}  This NBW value is the one actually used to calculate noise power in the system cascade. You may use the calculated FilterNBW value or enter your own. 1E12 <= NBW <= 1E12 {Freq. Units} 
Status  Tests userentered values necessary for proper calculations based on FilterPassType and FilterXferFunction. "fU" displayed if FilterPassType = Lowpass and UpperCutoff is not specified. "fL" displayed if FilterPassType = Highpass and LowerCutoff is not specified. "fL&fU" displayed if FilterPassType = Bandpass or Bandstop and LowerCutoff and/or UpperCufoff is not specified. "fL>fU" displayed if FilterPassType = Bandpass or Bandstop and LowerCutoff >= UpperCufoff. "PassType" if FilterPassType is not specified. "XferType" if FilterXferType is not specified. "N" if FilterXferType is Butterworth or Chebyshev and Order is not specified. "R" if FilterXferType is Chebyshev and Ripple is not specified. 

LO Frequency {Freq. Units}  Local oscillator frequency for the up or down conversion.Only enter for stages where you plan a frequency conversion. 0 <= fLO <= 1E12 {Freq. Units} Only enter for stages where you plan a frequency conversion. 
Sideband (L,U)  Use the incell dropdown box for the following choices:  (no conversion)  Upper (LO + Input)  Lower (LO  Input) Only enter for stages where you plan a frequency conversion. 
Trial Input {Freq. Units}  This value is used with the LO Frequency and Sideband entries to calculate the upper and lower sideband frequencies, Trial USB and Trial LSB, respectively, to provide an indication of where the sidebands will be. 0 <= Trial Input <= 1E12 {Freq. Units} 
Trial USB {Freq. Units}  Calculated frequency of the upper sideband (USB) based on LO Frequency and Trial Input. Trial USB = LO Frequency + Trial Input {Freq. Units} 
Trial LSB {Freq. Units}  Calculated frequency of the lower sideband (LSB) based on LO Frequency and Trial Input. Trial LSB =  LO Frequency  Trial Input  {Freq. Units} 
Inversion test  Indicates whether the specified inputs for LO Frequency, Sideband, and Trial Input will result in a frequency inversion (aka spectrum inversion). If inversion occurs, "Inversion" will be displayed in the stage's cell. See the RFCafe.com website for more information on spectral inversion. 
Output Inverted?  No frequency inversion in any stage of the system, or an even number of stages with a frequency inversion results in no frequency inversion at the output. Conversely, an odd number of stages with a frequency inversion results in a frequency inversion at the system output. "Yes" indicates a net frequency inversion at the output. "No" indicates no net frequency inversion at the output. 
Status  Checks to make sure that if an LO Frequency is specified, a Sideband is also specified, and vice versa. A red "SB" or "LO" is placed in the cell, respectively, as required. 

Gain Nom {dB}  Cumulative calculated nominal gain (GainNom) using each component's nominal Gain value. GainNom[N] = GainNom[N1] + Gain[N] 
Gain Max {dB}  Cumulative calculated maximum gain (GainMax) using each component's Gain and ±Gain values. GainMax[N] = GainMax[N1] + Gain[n] + ±Gain[n]
Also adds gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Include VSWR Error" is set to "Y." 
Gain Min {dB}  Cumulative calculated minimum gain (GainMin) using each component's Gain and ±Gain values. GainMin[N] = GainMin[N1] + Gain[n]  ±Gain[n] Also subtracts gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Include VSWR Error" is set to "Y." 
Use Gain MaxMin for NF, OIP2, OIP3, and OP1dB MaxMin calcs?  Calculated Max and Min values for NF, OIP2, OIP3, and OP1dB in RF Cascade Workbook 2018 (WSD) may by your choice use either just the GainNom values, OR the GainMax and GainMin values as was done in RF Cascade Workbook 2018 (RFCW). Using the GainMax and GainMin values calculates the absolute worst case values for NF, OIP2, OIP3, and P1dB, but some people only want the results of the component itself being at a Max or Min value rather than when every component in the system is at the extreme edge of a tolerance. Select "Yes" from the incell dropdown menu to use the GainMax and GainMin values. Select "No" from the incell dropdown menu to use GainNom value. 
NF Nom {dB}  Cumulative calculated nominal noise figure (NFNom) using each component's nominal NF value. nfNom[N] = nfNom[N1] + ( nf[n] / gain[N1] ) NF[N] = 10 * log ( nf[N] ) {dB} 
NF Max {dB}  Cumulative calculated maximum noise figure (NFMax) using each component's NF and ±NF values. Note that the nominal value of gain is used, not the min or max value. nfMax[N] = nfMax[N1] + { (nf[n] + ±nf[n] ) / gain[N1] ) } NFMax[N] = 10 * log ( nfMax[N] ) {dB} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
NF Min {dB}  Cumulative calculated minimum noise figure (NFMin) using each component's NF and ±NF values. Note that the nominal value of gain is used, not the min or max value. nfMin[N] = nfMin[N1] + { (nf[n]  ±nf[n] ) / gain[N1] ) } NFMin[N] = 10 * log ( nfMin[N] ) {dB} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
OIP2 Nom {dBm}  Cumulative calculated nominal output 2ndorder intercept point (OIP2Nom) using each component's nominal OIP2 value. OIP2Nom[N] = 1 / OIP2[n] + 1 / ( OIP2Nom[N1] * gain[n] ) OIP2Nom[N] = 20 * log ( OIP2Nom[N] ) {dB} 
OIP2 Max {dBm}  Cumulative calculated maximum output 2ndorder intercept point (OIP2Max) using each component's OIP2 and ±OIP2 values. Note that the nominal value of gain is used, not the min or max value. OIP2Max[N] = 1 / ( OIP2[n] + ±OIP2[n] ) + 1 / { OIP2Max[N1] * gain[n]} OIP2Max[N] = 20 * log ( OIP2Max[N] ) {dB} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
OIP2 Min {dBm}  Cumulative calculated minimum output 2ndorder intercept point (OIP2Min) using each component's OIP2 and ±OIP2 values. Note that the nominal value of gain is used, not the min or max value. OIP2Min[N] = 1 / ( OIP2[n]  ±OIP2[n] ) + 1 / { OIP2Min[N1] * gain[n] } OIP2Min[N] = 20 * log ( OIP2Min[N] ) {dB} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
OIP3 Nom {dBm}  Cumulative calculated nominal output 3rdorder intercept point (OIP3Nom) using each component's nominal OIP3 value. OIP3Nom[N] = 1 / OIP3[n] + 1 / ( OIP3Nom[N1] * gain[n] ) OIP3Nom[N] = 10 * log ( OIP3Nom[N] ) {dB} 
OIP3 Max {dBm}  Cumulative calculated maximum output 3rdorder intercept point (OIP3Max) using each component's OIP3 and ±OIP3 values. Note that the nominal value of gain is used, not the min or max value. OIP3Max[N] = 1 / ( OIP3[n] + ±OIP3[n] ) + 1 / { OIP3Max[N1] * gain[n] } OIP3Max[N] = 10 * log ( OIP3Max[N] ) {dB} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
OIP3 Min {dBm}  Cumulative calculated minimum output 3rdorder intercept point (OIP3Min) using each component's OIP3 and ±OIP3 values. OIP3Min[N] = 1 / ( OIP3[n]  ±OIP3[n] ) + 1 / { OIP3Min[N1] * gain[n] } OIP3Min[N] = 10 * log ( OIP3Min[N] ) {dB} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
OP1dB Nom {dBm}  Cumulative calculated nominal output 1 dB compression point (OP1dBNom) using each component's nominal OP1dB value. Note that the nominal value of gain is used, not the min or max value. OP1dBNom[N] = 1 / OP1dB[n] + 1 / ( OP1dBNom[N1] * gain[n] ) OP1dBNom[N] = 10 * log ( OP1dBNom[N] ) {dB} Note: This formula is similar to the cascaded IP3 formula and has been adopted by the RF world as a good approximation to the cascaded P1dB value. A more accurate result requires precise modeling of the nonlinear transition region of each device, which is beyond the scope of RF Cascade Workbook 2018. 
OP1dB Max {dBm}  Cumulative calculated maximum output 1 dB compression point (OP1dBMax) using each component's OP1dB and ±OP1dB values. Note that the nominal value of gain is used, not the min or max value. OP1dBMax[N] = 1 / ( OP1dB[n] + ±OP1dB[n] ) + 1 / { OP1dBMax[N1] * gain[n] } OP1dBMax[N] = 10 * log ( OP1dBMax[N] ) {dB} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
OP1dB Min {dBm}  Cumulative calculated minimum output 1 dB compression point (OP1dBMin) using each component's OP1dB and ±OP1dB values. Note that the nominal value of gain is used, not the min or max value. OP1dBMin[N] = 1 / ( OP1dB[n]  ±OP1dB[n] ) + 1 / { OP1dBMin[N1] * gain[n] } OP1dBMin[N] = 10 * log ( OP1dBMin[N] ) {dB} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
Pmax Limited {dBm}  A conditional flag for the allowable Maximum output Power (Pmax) of the component. It is used to alert you to an excess power condition. The PmaxLimited[N] cascaded output power of each component is limited to Pmax[N]. If PmaxLimited[N1] + GainNom[N] would result in output power >= Pmax[N], then the new cascaded PmaxLimited[N] is set equal to Pmax[N]. Otherwise, the new PmaxLimited[N] is equal to PmaxLimited[N1] + GainNom[N]. It does NOT affect the linear Psig cascaded calculations (Nom, Max, Min). This sets a system output power limit to what it would be if any component(s) is(are) saturated at the output. If the power output of a component using the GainNom[N] value would be >= Pmax[N], a red "Pwr" will appear in the Status cell for the component to alert you to the condition. Note: Using a large value (e.g., 200) for unspecified components helps prevent them from affecting the cascade calculation; however, the yaxis scale (set to Auto by default) will squash to where smaller values cannot be distinguished. Set the yaxis scale to a Maximum of whatever your highest expected Pmax value is to prevent squashing. Note: Nonlinearities are not modeled  this assumes linear operation right up to the hard output power limit of each component. 
Psig Nom {dBm}  Cumulative calculated nominal signal power (PsigNom) using GainNom value. PsigNom[N] = Pin + GainNom[N] {dBm} Note: Assumes only linear operation; i.e., does not account for compression or saturation in any component. 
Psig Max {dBm}  Cumulative calculated maximum signal power (PsigMax) using GainMax value. PsigMax[N] = Pin + GainMax[N] {dBm} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." Note: Assumes only linear operation; i.e., does not account for compression or saturation in any component. 
Psig Min {dBm}  Cumulative calculated minimum signal power (PsigMin) using GainMax value. PsigMin[N] = Pin + GainMin[N] {dBm} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." Note: Assumes only linear operation; i.e., does not account for compression or saturation in any component. 
NBW (freq. units)  Narrowest bandwidth from system input up through output of each component  no fancy math. If NBW[n] < NBW[N1], then NBW[N] = NBW[n]; otherwise, NBW[N] = NBW[N1]. 
Pnoise Nom {dBm}  Cumulative calculated nominal noise power (PnoiseNom) in the noise bandwidth (NBW) of each component. PnoiseNom[N] = 10 * log (kTB) + GainNom[N] + NFNom[N] {dBm}, where kTB = 1.380662E23 * [273.15 + SystemTemp] * NBW[N] * 1E3 {dBm} 
Pnoise Max {dBm}  Cumulative calculated maximum noise power (PnoiseMax) in the noise bandwidth (NBW) of each component. PnoiseMax[N] = 10 * log (kTB) + GainMax[N] + NFMax[N] {dBm}, where kTB = 1.380662E23 * [273.15 + SystemTemp] * NBW[N] * 1E3 {dBm} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
Pnoise Min {dBm}  Cumulative calculated minimum noise power (PnoiseMin) in the noise bandwidth (NBW) of each component. PnoiseMin[N] = 10 * log (kTB) + GainMin[N] + NFMin[N] {dBm}, where kTB = 1.380662E23 * [273.15 + SystemTemp] * NBW[N] * 1E3 {dBm} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
SNR Nom {dB}  Cumulative calculated nominal signaltonoise ratio (SNRNom) in the noise bandwidth (NBW) of each component. SNRNom[N] = PsigNom[N]  PnoiseNom[N] {dB} 
SNR Max {dB}  Cumulative calculated maximum signaltonoise ratio (SNRMax) in the noise bandwidth (NBW) of each component. SNRMax[N] = PsigMax[N]  PnoiseMin[N] {dB} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
SNR Min {dB}  Cumulative calculated minimum signaltonoise ratio (SNRMin) in the noise bandwidth (NBW) of each component. SNRMin[N] = PsigMin[N]  PnoiseMax[N] {dB} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
CDR Nom {dB}  Cumulative calculated nominal compression dynamic range (CDRNom) in the noise bandwidth (NBW) of each component. CDRNom[N] = P1dBNom[N]  PnoiseNom[N]  MinimumSNR {dB} 
CDR Max {dB}  Cumulative calculated maximum compression dynamic range (CDRMax) in the noise bandwidth (NBW) of each component. CDRMax[N] = P1dBMax[N]  PnoiseMin[N]  MinimumSNR {dB} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
CDR Min {dB}  Cumulative calculated minimum compression dynamic range (CDRMin) in the noise bandwidth (NBW) of each component. CDRMin[N] = P1dBMin[N]  PnoiseMax[N]  MinimumSNR {dB} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
SFDR2 Nom {dB}  Cumulative calculated nominal 2ndorder spuriousfree dynamic range (SFDR2Nom). SFDR2Nom[N] = 1/2 * ( OIP2Nom[N]  PnoiseNom[N] ) {dB} 
SFDR2 Max {dB}  Cumulative calculated maximum 2ndorder spuriousfree dynamic range (SFDR2Max). SFDR2Max[N] = 1/2 * ( OIP2Max[N]  PnoiseMin[N] ) {dB} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
SFDR2 Min {dB}  Cumulative calculated minimum 2ndorder spuriousfree dynamic range (SFDR2Min). SFDR2Min[N] = 1/2 * ( OIP2Min[N]  PnoiseMax[N] ) {dB} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
IMD2 Nom {dBm}  Cumulative calculated nominal 2ndorder intermodulation distortion product power (IMD2Nom). IMD2Nom[N] = PsigNom[N]  ( OIP2Nom[N]  PsigNom[N]) {dBm} 
IMD2 Max {dBm}  Cumulative calculated maximum 2ndorder intermodulation distortion product power (IMD2Max). IMD2Max[N] = PsigMax[N]  ( OIP2Min[N]  PsigMax[N] ) {dBm} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
IMD2 Min {dBm}  Cumulative calculated minimum 2ndorder intermodulation distortion product power (IMD2Min). IMD2Min[N] = PsigMin[N]  ( OIP2Max[N]  PsigMin[N] ) {dBm} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
ΔIMD2 Nom {dB}  Cumulative calculated nominal difference (ΔIMD2Nom) in power between IMD2Nom and PsigNom. ΔIMD2Nom[N] = PsigNom[N]  IMD2Nom[N] {dB} 
ΔIMD2 Max {dB}  Cumulative calculated maximum difference (ΔIMD2Max) in power between IMD2Min and PsigMax. ΔIMD2Max[N] = PsigMax[N]  IMD2Min[N] {dB} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
ΔIMD2 Min {dB}  Cumulative calculated minimum difference (ΔIMD2Min) in power between IMD2Max and PsigMin. ΔIMD2Min[N] = PsigMin[N]  IMD2Max[N] {dB} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
SFDR3 Nom {dB}  Cumulative calculated nominal 3rdorder spuriousfree dynamic range (SFDR3Nom). SFDR3Nom[N] = 2/3 * ( OIP3Nom[N]  PnoiseNom[N] ) {dB} 
SFDR3 Max {dB}  Cumulative calculated maximum 3rdorder spuriousfree dynamic range (SFDR3Max). SFDR3Max[N] = 2/3 * ( OIP3Max[N]  PnoiseMin[N] ) {dB} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
SFDR3 Min {dB}  Cumulative calculated minimum 3rdorder spuriousfree dynamic range (SFDR3Min). SFDR3Min[N] = 2/3 * ( OIP3Min[N]  PnoiseMax[N] ) {dB} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
IMD3 Nom {dBm}  Cumulative calculated nominal 3rdorder intermodulation distortion product power (IMD3Nom). IMD3Nom[N] = PsigNom[N]  ( OIP3Nom[N]  PsigNom[N]) {dBm} 
IMD3 Max {dBm}  Cumulative calculated maximum 3rdorder intermodulation distortion product power (IMD3Max). IMD3Max[N] = PsigMax[N]  ( OIP3Min[N]  PsigMax[N] ) {dBm} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
IMD3 Min {dBm}  Cumulative calculated minimum 3rdorder intermodulation distortion product power (IMD3Min). IMD3Min[N] = PsigMin[N]  ( OIP3Max[N]  PsigMin[N] ) {dBm} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
ΔIMD3 Nom{dB}  Cumulative calculated nominal difference (ΔIMD3Nom) in power between IMD3Nom and PsigNom. ΔIMD3Nom[N] = PsigNom[N]  IMD3Nom[N] {dB} 
ΔIMD3 Max {dB}  Cumulative calculated maximum difference (ΔIMD3Max) in power between IMD3Min and PsigMax. ΔIMD3Max[N] = PsigMax[N]  IMD3Min[N] {dB} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
ΔIMD3 Min {dB}  Cumulative calculated minimum difference (ΔIMD3Min) in power between IMD3Min and PsigMax. ΔIMD3Min[N] = PsigMin[N]  IMD3Max[N] {dB} Also includes gain variation due to VSWR mismatch if "Use VSWR" is set to "Y." 
VSWR e {+dB}  Positive (+) amplitude uncertainty due to VSWR mismatch (VSWRe+) between components at the output of the current component, on a stagebystage basis. VSWRe+[N] = 20 * log ( 1 + gamma[n] * gamma[n+1] ) {dB} See cumulative VSWR mismatch error, which is the worstcase scenario where all errors add up in phase. 
VSWR e {dB}  Negative () amplitude uncertainty due to VSWR mismatch (VSWRe) between components at the output of the current component, on a stagebystage basis. VSWRe+[N] = 20 * log ( 1  gamma[n] * gamma[n+1] ) {dB} See cumulative VSWR mismatch error, which is the worstcase scenario where all errors add up in phase. 
VSWR e Cum {+dB}  Cumulative calculated positive (+) VSWR mismatch error (VSWReCum+). VSWReCum+[N] = VSWReCum+[N1] + VSWRe+[N] {dB} Note: System input and output assumed to be a perfect impedance match, therefore generating 0 dB amplitude error. 
VSWR e Cum {dB}  Cumulative calculated negative () VSWR mismatch error (VSWReCum). VSWReCum[N] = VSWReCum[N1] + VSWRe[N] {dB} Note: System input and output assumed to be a perfect impedance match, therefore generating 0 dB amplitude error. 
User Formulas 1 & 2  Enter a custom formula that references the "User Parameters" entered in the "Component Parameter Specification Inputs (non frequencydependent)" section ** and/or ** references ** any other cell(s) ** in the workbook  even the locked cells. Resulting data is presented in the "User Parameters (nonfrequencydependent)" chart. It is up to you to properly input all data and equations to obtain valid results since there is no way "Wireless Systems Designer" can decide what is valid. 

Note:  Values for both f1 through f176 and Psig1 through Psig176 are copied from the "MixerLO Frequency Calculations" and "Filter & MixerLO Signal Power Calculations" cells near the bottom of the worksheet. They are alternated here in order to facilitate visualizing the onetoone relationship between each frequency and its resulting power level. Frequency and power are calculated in separate groups near the bottom of the worksheet because it makes selecting the data for charts easier by being able to specify continuous ranges for the x and yaxis rather than needing to individually specify each cell as would ne necessary in the alternating frequency  power format. Trust me on this, or try it for yourself. 
f1 {FreqUnits} through f176 {FreqUnits}  176 evenly spaced frequencies are calculated based on the Upper and Lower frequencies specified in the "Analysis Frequencies" user input section. 175 intervals were chosen as a compromise in providing enough data points for a meaningful frequency response plot and keeping the calculation time of the spreadsheet fast. These values are copied from the "MixerLO Frequency Calculations" section of the worksheet. 
Psig1 {dBm} through Psig176 {dBm}  Rejection provided by the filter (if any) and Nominal gain (GainNom) are used to calculate a frequencydependent power level for each stage in the cascade. These values are copied from the "Filter & MixerLO Signal Power Calculations" section of the worksheet. 

PS1PS4 Voltage {V}  Power supply voltages (PS1PS4) to which a current requirement (in mA) may be assigned for each component. 10,000 <= PS1PS4Voltage <= 10,000 {V} 
PS1PS4 Current {mA}  Power supply currents (PS1PS4Current) required from PS1, in milliamps (mA). 0 <= PS1PS4Current <= 1,000,000 {mA} 
PS1PS4 Power {mW}  Calculated powers (PS1PS4Power) required from PS1, in milliwatts (mW). PS1PS4Power[N] = PS1PS4Voltage[N] * PS1PS4Current[N] {mW} 
Power Supply Totals  Calculated sum of current and power of each power supply (PS1  PS4). Total PS1 Current = Σ ( PS1Current[1] + … + PS1Current[4] ) {mA} Total PS2 Current = Σ ( PS2Current[1] + … + PS2Current[4] ) {mA} Total PS3 Current = Σ ( PS3Current[1] + … + PS3Current[4] ) {mA} Total PS4 Current = Σ ( PS4Current[1] + … + PS4Current[4] ) {mA} Total PS1 Power = Σ ( PS1Power[1] + … + PS1Power[4] ) {mW} Total PS2 Power = Σ ( PS2Power[1] + … + PS2Power[4] ) {mW} Total PS1 Power = Σ ( PS3Power[1] + … + PS3Power[4] ) {mW} Total PS1 Power = Σ ( PS4Power[1] + … + PS4Power[4] ) {mW} 
Σ PS1PS4 Power {mW}  Calculated sum of all power supplies (ΣPS1Power  ΣPS4Power) for each component. ΣPS1PS4Power[N] = PS1Power[N] + PS2Power[N] + PS3Power[N] + PS4Power[N] {mW} 
Bill of Materials  
Description  Verbose description of component. Text will wrap as needed. Use Alt+Enter (in MS Windows) to force a line break within the cell. 
Vendor  Manufacturer and/or supplier of component. Text will wrap as needed. Use Alt+Enter (on Windows) to force a line break within the cell. 
Part Number  Part number used to purchase the component. Text will wrap as needed. Use Alt+Enter (on Windows) to force a line break within the cell. 
Price  Enter numerical value for cost. The total cost of all components is displayed to the right of the last component stage. 0 <= Price[N] {monetary units} Enter monetary units in the rightmost cell. 
Currency Unit  Specify a currency unit. 
Total Cost  The sum of all component costs. 
Size  Manufacturer and/or supplier of component. Text will wrap as needed. Use Alt+Enter (in MS Windows) to force a line break within the cell. 
Weight  Enter numerical value for weight. The total weight of all components is displayed to the right of the last component stage. 0 <= Weight[N] {weight units} Enter weight units in the rightmost cell. 
Total Weight  The sum of all component weights. 
Weight Unit  Specify a unit of weight. 
Delivery Date  Expected date of availability. Text will wrap as needed. Use Alt+Enter (in MS Windows) to force a line break within the cell. 
Latest (Date)  The latest date entered in all the Delivery Date cells is displayed here. This gives an indication of the most critical component delivery date in the system. 
Status  Space for verbose notes. Text will wrap as needed. Use Alt+Enter (in MS Windows) to force a line break within the cell. 

f1 {FreqUnits} through f176 {FreqUnits}  176 evenly spaced frequencies are calculated based on the Upper and Lower frequencies specified in the "Analysis Frequencies" user input section. 175 intervals were chosen as a compromise in providing enough data points for a meaningful frequency response plot and keeping the calculation time of the spreadsheet fast. In order to conveniently present frequency  signal power pairs next to each other, these values and those calculated in the "Filter & MixerLO Signal Power Calculations" section are copied INTO the "Calculated Filter & Frequency Conversion Values (frequency dependent)" section of the worksheet. 

Psig1 {dBm} through Psig176 {dBm}  Rejection provided by the filter (if any) and Nominal gain (GainNom) are used to calculate a frequencydependent power level for each stage in the cascade. NOTE: A minimum power level of 250 dBm is used in the calculations, so if any stage would produce less than 250 dBm, its value is adjusted to 250 dBm. Doing so helps keep numbers realistic. This limit is coded into the VBA module and cannot be changed. In order to conveniently present frequency  signal power pairs next to each other, these values and those calculated in the "MixerLO Frequency Calculations" section are copied INTO the "Calculated Filter & Frequency Conversion Values (frequency dependent)" section of the worksheet. 