Application Notes & White Papers - #1
Absorbers to Interference / Intermodulation

RF Microwave Wireless High Frequency Application Note & Technical Paper Websites - RF CafeThese application notes on vendor sites are some of the fastest moving targets on the web. If you try to hit one of the links and it is gone, please make an attempt to determine the new URL and notify me. Thank you. Due to how large the original page has grown, multiple pages are now used.

Page 1: Absorbers - Interference      Page 2: Lasers - ZigBee

Application Notes & Technical Papers by Company / Source Name


Absorbers & Shielding - EMI, RF, RFI

Absorbent Materials Chart
Emerson & Cuming has a really nice chart available for determining the dielectric constant and loss tangent. It includes materials that they supply as well as for some other common materials. JP-4 fuel, various types of rubber, silica, beryllium oxide, pure water are amongst those included on the chart.

Absorbers Manage Military Electronics Microwave RFI
RF Design, August 2004

Microwave Absorbers: Reducing Cavity Resonances
by MAST Technologies

The Use [RF] of Absorbers in Electronics
by MAST Technologies

Practical information regarding the performance of the XBee and XBee-PRO RF Modules., from MaxStream (now Digi).

A/D & D/A Converters

DACs - Double Rate With Mixers
Double DAC rate by using mixers as switches, by Randall Carver, Analog Devices.

DACs - Radio Frequency
By Michael Hopkins, CurrentRF.

Clock Requirements for Data Converters
Equations for calculating jitter and phase noise in data converters.

A/D, D/A & Sampling
By Maxim Integrated Products.

Data Converters
By Texas Instruments.

Sampling & Aliasing
Mathematical basics of band-limited sampling and aliasing, by Vladimir Vitchev.  Jan 2005 RF Design

ADC Interleaving
"Interleaving ADCs for Higher Sample Rates," by National Semiconductor


Amplifier Design (Microwave)
Very informative presentation from the National Taiwan University (in English)

Amplifier Design
Design of Microwave Transistor Amplifiers Using S Parameters by D.B. Leeson.

Amplifier Design, Class-E
By Nathan O. Sokal, WA1HQC.

Amplifier Load Mismatch Design Using MMICAD
Application note from Optotek, by D. Fitzpatrick.

Ampifier Operating Temperature Definitions
From Spectrum Microwave.

Designing High Efficiency Amplifiers using HFETs
From TriQuint Semiconductor.

First-Time-Right Design Of RF/Microwave Class A Power Amplifiers Using Only S-Parameters
A procedure of how to design RF/Microwave Class A power amplifiers in a very efficient and highly accurate manner when the only initial data available are the S-parameters of the transistors. By Ivan Boshnakov, Aerial Facilities Limited.

Instrumentation Amplifiers, A Design Guide
This 108-page, highly detailed handbook is provided by Analog Devices - download it for free while it is available!

Opamp RF Parameters
A Tutorial on Applying Op Amps to RF Applications, by National Semiconductor.

RF Amplifier Design Using HFA3046, HFA3096, HFA3127, HFA3128 Transistor Arrays
Application note from Intersil.

RF & Microwave Power Amplifier Design
By Andrei Grebennikov, M/A-COM Eurotec
Lecture 1: Nonlinear Active Device Modeling
Lecture 2: Impedance Matching
Lecture 3: PA Design Fundamentals
Lecture 4: High Efficiency Power Amplifier Design

RF Power Amplifier Design
Design and Implementation of a Common Collector Class B RF Power Amplifier in InGaP HBT Technology, Oliver Isler

Robust Bias Option for 0.15-mm pHEMT MMIC Low-Noise Amplifiers
From TriQuint Semiconductor.

Selection and Operation of RF Power Amplifiers for EMC Testing Applications
From Instruments For Industry.


Near-Field Antenna Measurements Using Nonideal Measurement Locations
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Ronald C. Wittmann, Bradley K. Alpert, and Michael H. Francis

Improvements in Polarization Measurements of Circularly Polarized Probes
A. C. Newell, D. P. Kremer, J. R. Guerrieri, Proceedings of the Antenna Measurement Techniques Association, pp. 1-30 through 1-35 (October 1989).

Calibrating Antenna Standards Using CW and Pulsed-CW Measurements and the Planar Near-Field Method
D. P. Kremer and A. G. Repjar, Proceedings, Antenna Meas. and Techniques Assoc., pp. 13-21 through 13-29 (September 1988).

Effect of Random Errors in Planar Near-Field Measurement
A. C. Newell and C. F. Stubenrauch, IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, Special Issue on Near-Field Scanning, 769-773 (June 1988).

Improved Polarization Measurements Using a Modified Three-Antenna Technique
IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, Special Issue on Near-Field Scanning, 852-854 (June 1988).

Gain and Power Parameter Measurements Using Planar Near-Field Techniques
A. C. Newell, R. Ward, and E. McFarlane, IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, Special Issue on Near-Field Scanning, 792-803 (June 1988).

Error Analysis Techniques for Planar Near-Field Measurements
A. C. Newell, IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, 754-768 (June 1988).

The Determination of Near-Field Correction Parameters for Circularly Polarized Probes
A. C. Newell, M. H. Francis, D. P. Kremer, Proceedings Antenna Measurement Techniques Assoc. , pp. 3A3-1 through 3A3-29 (October 1984).

Helical Antennas for High Power RF
Applied Physical Electronics

Antenna Basics
Introduction & Basics from Granite Island Group.

EMC Antenna Fundamentals
By Zhong Chen, ETS Lindgren (I worked with Zhong at Agilent).

Antenna Application Notes
From N6CA,

Antenna Basics
A very extensive treatise of many antenna types, including definitions, photos, and examples, by David Jefferies of University of Surrey.

Antenna Design Considerations Design Considerations.pdf
Application note from Telecontrolli.

Antenna Design - Fractal Patterns
Fractals™ new era in military antenna design, by Nathan Cohen. Wideband and size reduction.

Systematic Errors in Normalized Site Attenuation Testing
Computing a correction factor for biconical antennas reduces the systematic errors for calculating normalized site attenuation and improves the accuracy of the theoretical model. By Zhong Chen and Mike Windler.

Compact Integrated Antennas
Compact integrated (into PCB) antenna design. Starts with basic antenna theory and builds through dipole, inverted-F, helix, loops, meandering, and other types. Ends with layouts & radiation patterns. AN2731, by Freescale Semiconductor.

Antenna Design Tutorial
Application note from Micrel, by Tom Yestrebsky.

Antenna Efficiency Measurement (Cellular Handset)  Using the Wheeler Cap
By Skyworks.
Antennas, Transmission Lines, Wave Propagation

Navy Electricity and Electronics Training Series Module 10
Introduction to Wave Propagation, Transmission Lines, and Antennas.

Antennas: Design, Application, and Performance
Application note from Linx Technologies.

Understanding Antenna Specifications and Operation
Application note from Linx Technologies.

Understanding the Measurement Uncertainties of the Biconical / Log Hybrid Antenna
Measurement uncertainty associated with the bicon/log hybrid antenna for radiated emissions and site validation tests relate to many factors, including height dependency, polarization and loading.

Antenna Pattern Measurements:
(1) Concepts & Techniques
(2) Theory & Equations
The first article of this two-part series explores the basic concepts and techniques of antenna pattern measurement and evaluates the benefits and drawbacks of various measurement methods. The concepts relating to near-field and far-field pattern testing are discussed as well. The second article presents the theory and equations governing antenna properties and includes a complete description of a site calibration for pattern-measurement testing. By Dr. Michael D. Foegelle.

Antenna Terms & Formulas
By Antenna Research Associates.

Antennas - WLAN Design & Optimization
Antenna Performance and Design Considerations for Optimum Coverage in Wireless Communication Systems, by Cushcraft Corporation.

Fractal Antennas
Fractal antenna theory is built, as is the case with conventional antenna theory, on classic electromagnetic theory. Fractal antenna theory uses a modern (fractal) geometry that is a natural extension of Euclidian geometry. In this report, attention is called to this developing, but already quite large, field of study. By Philip Felber.

The Basics of Patch Antennas
Antenna application notes from Orban Microwave Products.

The W1GHZ Online Microwave Antenna Book
Excellent - a good reference for all microwaves.

Antennas: Design, Application, and Performance
From Linx Technologies.

Understanding Antenna Specifications and Operation
Application note from Linx Technologies.

V / UHF Antenna Design
Application note from INGECOM.

Yagi-Uda Antennas
Tutorial with photographs of actual antennas, by David Jefferies, of University of Surrey.

ASICs for RF

Application Notes and Technical Articles
By Maxim Integrated Products, Dallas Semiconductor.

ASIC Design Guidelines
Application note from Atmel Corporation.


Attenuators (Step, Fixed, Variable)
From Narda Microwave East.

Attenuators (variable)
Application notes by American Microwave.

Application notes by Herley.

Attenuators, PIN
A Wideband General Purpose PIN Diode Attenuator by Skyworks.

Minimum loss design by Ernie Kim, University of San Diego, CA.


Balun (chip) Measurement
Chip Balun: Definitions & Measurement Methodology  technical note, by Johanson Technology.


Lifex Lithium Coin Cells & FB Encapsulated Lithium Coin Cells - Part 1
Application notes & product data sheet from Rayovac.

Battery Application Manuals

Carbon Zinc
Manganese Dioxide App Note
Silver Oxide
Zinc Air
By Energizer.

Battery Handling - Li-Ion
By Matt Schindler, Maxim Integrated Products.

Battery Management
Application notes and technical articles by Maxim Integrated Products, Dallas Semiconductor.

Battery Selection Guide Battery Guide.pdf
Lots of good information on battery chemistries and charge/discharge characteristics.

Battery Tutorial
PowerStream Battery Chemistry - Custom design and manufacture of state-of-the-art battery chargers, UPS, and power supplies for OEMs.


BluetoothTM Manufacturing Test - A Guide to Getting Started by Agilent Technologies.

Bluetooth Remote Control from Your Mobile Phone Remote Control... From Your Mobile Phone.pdf
FlexiPanel makes a lot of turnkey modules for ZigBee and Bluetooth applications. Admittedly, this concept does scare me a bit from a terrorist perspective!!!

Cable / Coaxial Cable

Weight Reduction and Space Savings in Wire and Cable Design and Their Contribution to Aerospace Design and Efficiency
by Thermax Connections

Common Mode Signals
Understanding Common-Mode Signals, by Maxim.

How Cables and Connectors Impact Measurement Uncertainty
by Fluke


Capacitor Basics
Definitions and configurations, with some equations and illustrations.

Capacitors - Benefits of Thin-Film Dielectric Chip Capacitors at VHF, UHF and Higher Frequencies
By virtue of these characteristics and excellent mechanical features, this thin film capacitor is the ideal surface mount chip for high frequency applications.

Capacitors, Ceramic Capacitors
Technical information by AVX.

Capacitors, Energy Handling
Energy and power handling capabilities of thin film and ceramic capacitors, by AVX.

Capacitor Primer
A very nice introduction to capacitors including history back to Leyden Jar, by Tony vanRoon.

Capacitor Q & ESR Explained.
A Johanson Technology Primer.

Capacitor RF Current & Power
By Johnson Technology.

Cascade Analysis
Gain, NF, IP3, IP2, P1dB, Intermods

Half-IF (2x2 product)
By Maxim.

Intercept Points & Receiver Sensitivity
By Maxim.

Clocks & Jitter

Adjust mismatched delay lines in Cypress Semiconductor Application Note on Jitter in Transmission Systems
Describes the basics of jitter in transmission systems.

DDS-Based Clock Jitter Performance vs. DAC Reconstruction Filter Performance
Describes the results obtained from a filter layout experiment and discusses how layout and component selection impact stop-band rejection.

Fine tuning clock source for Agilent Pattern Generator 70841B
Provides design guidance, test techniques, performance data and suggested layout recommendations for a 622 MBd ATM/SONET/SDH physical layer interface reference circuit.

Jitter in Clock Sources
Application note by Vectron International.

Junction Temperatures and MTTF in MMIC Devices
Article by Radha P.N. Setty, in August 2005  RF Design magazine.

Measuring Jitter in Digital Systems
For engineers who design data transfer systems and components operating at over a gigabit per second, and so must be concerned with the effects of jitter on their system's bit error ratio (BER).

Phase Noise Measurements & Jitter Analysis
The Agilent JS-1000 Performance Jitter Solution is a Phase Noise System that measures clock jitter characteristics.

Synchronizing differential clock sources for Bit Error Ratio Test (BERT)
Interfacing the OmniBER 725 communications performance analyzer to optical transceivers.


Basic Circulator Facts, by UTE Microwave.

Isolator/Circulator Basics
Isolator/Circulator basic theory and definitions, common applications, power ratings, special handling and storage considerations, from MECA Electronics.


"The Best Defense is a Good Offense"
Authorized Component Distributors Help Military/Aerospace OEMs Plan for Obsolescence, by Avnet.


Tutorials on Digital Communications Engineering - Complex 2 Real
This is the mother lode of communications tutorials, compliments of Charan Langton. These hyperlinks go to pages with comments and a link to each PDF file.

Control &  Monitoring

Control & Monitoring
By Texas Instruments.

Couplers - Directional, Bidirectional

Hybrid Coupler Basics
App note by MECA Electronics

From Narda Microwave East.

Directional Coupler Basics
How to specify the best directional coupler solution for your critical application, from MECA Electronics.

Directional Couplers Notes/pdf/m560.pdf
RF Directional Couplers and 3dB Hybrids Overview, by M/A-COM.

Directional Couplers & Power Dividers
Very informative presentation from the National Taiwan University (in English)

Hybrid Coupler Basics
Basic theory and common applications for 90° and 180° hybrid couplers, from MECA Electronics.

From Narda Microwave East.

Why Directional Couplers Are Better for High Power Measurements vs. Attenuators
From MECA Electronics.

Microwave Coupler Feeds Outdoor Antenna Through Walls
May 2006 HFS, by Gunther Knapp

Current / Energy / Voltage / Power

Power Management
Power Management application notes by Texas Instruments.

Power Meters & Sensors
Choosing the Right Power Meter and Sensor product note, by Agilent Technologies.


Decibel Tutorial: dB and dBm vs. Gain and Milliwatts
By RF Cafe - The concept of a decibel (dB) is understandably difficult and confusing for someone just being introduced to it. Combining specifications for gain, power, and voltage (and current, but not so often) that mix dB, dBm, dBW, watts, milliwatts, voltage, millivolts, etc., often requires converting back and forth between linear values and decibel values.


Decoupling: A Standard Methodology
To deal with the side effects of increased clock speeds and frequencies, engineers must bypass di/dt transitions and reduce noise. By Barry Caldwell, Vitesse -- EDN

Decoupling Capacitors
By Carl Lodstrom.

Designing Filters Using the Digital Filter Design Toolkit
From National Instruments, by Rahman Jamal, Mike Cerna, John

De-Embedding & Embedding

De-Embedding and Embedding S-Parameter Networks Using a Vector Network Analyzer
Application Note 1364-1 from Agilent contains the procedure that a lot of people are looking for to embed or de-embed the 12-term SOLT error terms.

Delay Lines

Adjust mis-matched delay lines in Cypress Semiconductor Application Note
Describes the basics of jitter in transmission systems.

CPDL Operating and Programming Manual
Custom Programmable Delay Line (CPDL) Operating and Programming Manual.

PDL-30A Operating and Programming Manual
Programmable Delay Line Operating and Programming Manual.


Level Detector
A Level Detector Design for Dual-Band GSM-PCS Handsets, by Skyworks.

Square Law and Linear Detection by Agilent Technologies.


Dielectric Aging
By ATC Ceramics.

Dielectric Properties of Portland Cement in the Low Microwave Frequency Range'dielectric constant portland concrete'
Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University - covers mainly up through 700 MHz.

Dielectric Constants of Wall Materials'dielectric constant building walls concrete'
"Ultra-wideband Propagation Measurements and Channel Modeling DARPA NETEX Program Report on Through-the-Wall Propagation and Material Characterization"

Digital Modulation

Digital Modulation in Communications Systems
This application note covers the reasons for the move to digital modulation, how information is modulated onto in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signals, different types of digital modulation, filtering techniques, ways of looking at digitally modulated signals, multiplexing techniques, how a digital transmitter and receiver work, measurements on digital RF communications systems, an overview table with key specifications for the major digital communications systems, a glossary of terms used in digital RF communications.


Harmonic Measurement for IEC 61000-4-3 and other Radiated Immunity Standards
by AR Worldwide

System-Level ESD Protection Guide
by Texas Instruments

Selection and Operation of RF Power Amplifiers for EMC Testing Applications
by Instruments for Industry (IFI)

Electromagnetic Radiation and Human Health
High Frequency Electronics

A Review of Sources and Effects
A very good synopsis from the July 2005 edition of High Frequency Electronics

EMC Antenna Fundamentals
by Zhong Chen, ETS Lindgren (I worked with Zhong at Agilent)

Electrostatic Discharge Association website.

EMI/RFI Shielding
By Tech-Etch.


Equalizer Key Specifications
"A Review of Key Equalizer Specifications and What They Mean," by Richard Kurzrok, Oct 2005 High Frequency Electronics magazine.

Fiber Optics

Fiber Optics Amplifier Tutorial
This tutorial should be useful both as an introduction to fiber amplifiers and for learning more details on them. We believe that even people already having a substantial experience with fiber amplifiers will find it helpful for deepening the understanding. The focus is on the underlying physics and the resulting technical consequences; we do not simply treat a fiber amplifier as a “black box”, but rather look inside.
By RP Photonics Consulting GmbH

Passive Fiber Optics Tutorial
Comprehensive physics-based tutorial on fiber optics which clarifies the foundations of this field. As an example, it discusses how coupling losses at fiber joints arise, and explains how to estimate their strength.
By RP Photonics Consulting GmbH


Near Field, The World of the
Here's a good article in the October 2005 edition of Evaluation Engineering, by Tom Lecklider.

Network Analysis
Very informative presentation from the National Taiwan University (in English)

Filters - SAW, BAW, Lumped

Analog Filter Design Demystified
Application note by Maxim Integrated Products.

Filter Design, Distributed Element
Periodic structures and equivalent lumped element models.

Filter Design - Transmission Line
Very informative presentation from the National Taiwan University (in English)

Fiber Optic Products
From Narda Microwave East.
Devoted to RF & microwave filter theory and design.
Microwave Lowpass Filters with a Constricted Equi-Ripple Passband
Dieter Pelz.
Revision of Cascade Synthesis Theory Covering Cross-Coupled Filters
Dieter Pelz

GPS Systems

Application of UART in GPS Navigation System
From Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.

Ground / Grounding

Power Plane & Ground Design for RF PCBs
Power supply and ground design for WiFi transceiver, by By Roger Bremer, Tracey Chavers, Zhongmin Yu, RF Design magazine.

Group Delay

Group Delay
By Applied Radio Labs.

Heat Transfer

What They Didn't Teach You in Engineering School About Heat Transfer

Inductors / Magnetics

RF inductor design, from Ernie Kim, University of San Diego, CA.

Intercept Points & Receiver Sensitivity
By Maxim.

Magnetic Core Design Rules
By Lodestone Pacific.


"New Release of Mil-Std-883 Visual Inspection Criteria"
TJ Green Associates LLC

Intercept Points (IP2 & IP3)

IP2 and IP3 Nonlinearity Specifications for 3G/WCDMA Receivers
By Broadcom

Interference / Intermodulation

Two-Tone vs. Single-Tone Measurement of 2nd-Order Non-linearity and IP2 Performance of Direct Conversion Receivers
By Skyworks

Interference Mitigation
"Detecting Interfering Signals and Mitigating Them" by Steve Thomas, Jan 2005 RF Design


Isolator & Circulator Basics
App note by MECA Electronics