Oscillator, Frequency Source & Synthesizer Design

Designing low-power, low-phase-noise, compact frequency synthesizers is not an easy task. Even with the plethora of synthesizer ICs available these days, it still takes an experienced designer to successfully produce a high performance tunable synthesizer or fixed frequency oscillator source. Here are a few good resources to help you along, and just in case you decide to let a pro do it for you, a couple advertisements from companies who know how to get the job done.

Oscillators, Frequency Sources & Synthesizers Manufacturers & Service


A Brief Introduction to Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillator (VCXO) Design | sss-mag.com/cvcxo.html
From Spread Spectrum Scene.

Agilent EEsof EDA Applications: Oscillators | eesof.tm.agilent.com/applications/oscillators-b.html
Applications information.

A History of the Quartz Crystal Industry in the USA | ieee-uffc.org/fc_history/bottom.html
By Virgil E. Bottom.

Analysis and Design of Negative Impedance LC Oscillators Using Bipolar Transistors | ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore/login.jsp?url=/iel5/81/27851/01242843.pdf?arnumber=1242843
Abstract by Jing-Hong Conan Zhan, Kyle Maurice, Jon Duster, and Kevin T. Kornegay.

A Negative Differential Resistance Oscillator with a Negistor | jlnlabs.online.fr/cnr/negosc.htm
From JLN Labs.

A Novel Model on Phase Noise of Ring Oscillator Based on Last Passage Time | heim.ifi.uio.no/~bassen/FM-adc/refs/leung.pdf
Abstract by Bosco H. Leung.

Basic Crystal Oscillator Design Considerations | caliberelectronics.com/oscillator-design.htm
From Caliber Electronics, Inc.

Basic PIC16/17 Oscillator Design | microchip.com/downloads/en/AppNotes/FACT001.PDF
Application note by Dan Matthews, Microchip.

Basic PICmicro® Oscillator Design | microchip.com/downloads/en/AppNotes/00849a.pdf
Application note from Microchip.
The Blocking Oscillator | du.edu/~etuttle/electron/elect37.htm
Composed by J. B. Calvert.

Crystal Oscillator | chrontel.com/pdf/an06.pdf
Application note from Chrontel.

Crystal Oscillator Basics and Crystal Selection for rfPICTM and PICmicro® Devices | microchip.com/downloads/en/AppNotes/00826a.pdf
Application note Steven Bible, Microchip Technology Inc.

Crystal Oscillator Circuit Design | eetkorea.com/ARTICLES/2001SEP/2001SEP06_AMD_AN.PDF
Application note from MX·COM, Inc.

Design Guidelines for Quartz Crystal Oscillators | egholmes.com/technote/stkappnote30A.pdf
Technical note from Statek.

Early Communication Between Systems Designers and Crystal Oscillator Manufacturers Yields Optimum Price/Performance/Time-To-Market Benefit | mpdigest.com/Articles/2002/March2002/fox/Default.htm
From MPD, by Roger Burns, Fox Electronics.

Fast Start-Up Oscillator (FOX) Boosts Superhet Performance | maxim-ic.com/appnotes.cfm/an_pk/1955
Abstract by Maxim Integrated Products, Dallas Semiconductor.

FlashFlex51 Microcontroller Oscillator Circuit Design Considerations | sst.com/downloads/app_note/S72037.pdf
Application note from Silicon Storage Technology, Inc.

General Oscillator Information | epanorama.net/links/oscillator.html
From epanorama.net.

Hartley Oscillators | electronics-tutorials.com/oscillators/hartley-oscillator.htm
By Ian C. Purdie, VK2TIP of electronics-tutorials.com.

"How to Design RF Circuits" - Oscillators | plextek.co.uk/papers/awdpaper.pdf
By Andrew Dearn.

Internal RC Oscillator Calibration | microchip.com/downloads/en/AppNotes/00244A.pdf
Application note by Chris Valenti, Microchip Technology Inc.

Low Distortion Crystal Oscillator | wenzel.com/pdffiles1/pdfs/xtalosc.pdf
Data from Wenzel Associates, Inc.

Low-Noise Local Oscillator Design Techniques using a DLL-based Frequency Multiplier for Wireless Applications | scribd.com/doc/6461750/LowNoise-Local-Oscillator-Design-Techniques-Using-a-DLLBased-Frequency-Multiplier-for-Wireless-Applications
Dissertation by by George Chien.

Making Your Oscillator Work | microchip.com/downloads/en/AppNotes/00949a.pdf
Application note by Brett Duane, Microchip Technology Inc.

MC145151-2 and MC145152-2 PLL Frequency Synthesizers (CMOS) | freescale.com/files/rf_if/doc/data_sheet/MC145151-2.pdf
Technical data from Freescale Semiconductor.

Negative Resistance Oscillator with Homemade Tunnel Diode | home.earthlink.net/~lenyr/ntype-nr.htm
By Nyle Steiner, K7NS.

OCXOs - Oven-Controlled Crystal Oscillators | wenzel.com/documents/ocxo.html
Data from Wenzel Associates, Inc.

On-Chip Oscillator Design | eetasia.com/ARTICLES/2000SEP/2000SEP07_AMD_AN.PDF?SOURCES=DOWNLOAD
Application note from Zilog Integrated Circuits.

Oscillator Basics | electronics-tutorials.com/oscillators/oscillator-basics.htm
By Ian C. Purdie, VK2TIP of electronics-tutorials.com.

Oscillators |
Electrical Engineering Training Series by Integrated Publishing.

Oscillators 101: What Every Engineer Should Know about Crystal Controlled Oscillators | foxonline.com/tech3141.htm
By Louis Bradshaw, Fox Electronics.

Oscillators for Communications Applications: Basic Operation and Available Types | foxonline.com/tech3142.htm
By Bruce Clark, Fox Electronics.

Oscillators for Microcontrollers | microchip.com/downloads/en/AppNotes/00588b.pdf
Application note from Intel Corporation.

PICmicro Microcontroller Oscillator Design Guide |
Application note from Microchip.

Pierce Crystal Oscillator Design | pr.erau.edu/~lyallj/ee412/pierce_exp.html
From Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, by Dr. James R. Lyall.

Practical PICmicro® Oscillator Analysis and Design | microchip.com/downloads/en/AppNotes/00943A.pdf
Application note by Ruan Lourens, Microchip Technology Inc.

Quartz Crystal Resonators and Oscillators | am1.us/Papers/U11625 VIG-TUTORIAL.PDF
For Frequency Control and Timing Applications - a tutorial by John R. Vig, U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command.

RC Phase Shift Oscillator | visionics.ee/curriculum/Experiments/RC Phase Shift Oscillator/RC Phase Shift Oscillator1.html
Experiment from Visionics.

Recent Developments in Standing-Wave Oscillator Design: Review | people.deas.harvard.edu/~donhee/rfic_j2004.pdf
Abstract by William Andress and Donhee Ham, Harvard University.

Relaxation Oscillators | du.edu/~etuttle/electron/elect10.htm
The 555 Timer, Op-Amp Oscillators, the UJT, the PUT, the NE-2 and TTL oscillator packages, composed by J. B. Calvert.

Resonant Frequency of a Colpitts Oscillator | mitedu.freeserve.co.uk/Analysis/colfr.htm
From Circuit Exchange International.

Selecting an Oscillator for Telecom | electronicproducts.com/ShowPage.asp?SECTION=3700&PRIMID=&FileName=octfox1.oct2003
By Roger Burns, Fox Electronics.

Simulation and Design of RF Oscillators | usl.chiba-u.ac.jp/~ken/Symp2004/PDF/1C4.PDF
Abstract by L. Eichinger, F. Sischka, G. Olbrich, and R. Weigel, Agilent Technologies, Germany.

Sine Wave Oscillators | du.edu/~etuttle/electron/elect16.htm
The Wien bridge oscillator, Pierce crystal oscillator, Hartley, Colpitts and tuned-gate oscillators, composed by J. B. Calvert.

Specifying Crystal Oscillators | isotemp.com/Information/Specifying Crystal Oscillators.pdf
Data from Isotemp Research Inc.

Specifying Quartz Crystals | maxim-ic.com/appnotes.cfm/an_pk/726
Application note from Dallas Semiconductor, Maxim Integrated Products.

TCXOs - Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillators | wenzel.com/documents/tcxo.html
Data from Wenzel Associates, Inc.

Timekeeping Accuracy, Automatic and Affordable | maxim-ic.com/appnotes.cfm/an_pk/3566
Abstract by Maxim Integrated Products, Dallas Semiconductor. 

Tuning VFOs With A PN-Junction | qrp.pops.net/PNJ.asp
From QRP Homebuilder.

Tutorial-4: Oscillator Design | ek.isy.liu.se/courses/tsek03/Tutorial4_Oscillator.PDF
From Electrical Engineering Department (ISY), Linköpings University.

UART Crystal Oscillator Design Guide | exar.com/Files/Documents/dan1081.pdf
Application note by Reinhardt Wagner, EXAR Corporation.

Understanding Basic Terms in Crystal Oscillator Specifications | foxonline.com/tech3091.htm
Article by Jim Northcutt, Fox Electronics.

Understanding VCO Concepts | minicircuits.com/pages/pdfs/vco15-4.pdf
From Mini-Circuits.

Using The 16 MHz Crystal Oscillator | freescale.com/files/32bit/doc/app_note/AN2500.pdf
Application note By Connie Cheung and Michael Kjar, Freescale Semiconductor.

VCXOs - Voltage-Controlled Crystal Oscillators | wenzel.com/documents/vcxo.html
Data from Wenzel Associates, Inc.

Wien Bridge Oscillator | ecircuitcenter.com/Circuits/opwien/opwien.htm
From eCircuit Center.

XOs - Non-Compensated Crystal Oscillators | wenzel.com/documents/xo.html
Data from Wenzel Associates, Inc.