Copyright
1996 
2016
Webmaster:
Kirt
Blattenberger,
BSEE  KB3UON
RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The Internet was still largely an unknown entity at the time and not much was available in the form of WYSIWYG ...
All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.
My Hobby Website:
AirplanesAndRockets.com
British mathematician George Boole developed a form of algebra that uses symbolic logic to define relationships in sets  unions and intersections to be precise. In electrical engineering, we do not usually bother ourselves with all the rigors and formalities of the pure mathematical application. Rather, since engineers actually build things that perform useful functions, most of us can get by with the basic operations presented below.
Venn Diagrams do not help much when designing a digital circuit where complex (or simple for that matter) conditional decisions must be made to determine the proper output of a multiplexer or an entire production line controller circuit. Instead, we use Truth Tables, State Machines and Karnaugh Maps.
There are three fundamental operators from which all other Boolean functions can be derived  the OR gate, the AND gate, and the NOT (negation) operator. The Exclusive OR gate is included even though it is not a fundamental function, but it is very commonly used. Venn Diagrams for each of the functions are give just for illustration. White regions are where the functions are True, and blue areas are False.



° 
Identities  
x + 0 = x  x · 1 = x  
x + x = 1  x · x = 0  
x + x = x  x · x = x  
x + 1 = 1  x · 0 = 0  
Theorems  
Involution  
Commutative  x + y = y + x  x · y = y · x 
Associative  x + (y + z) = (x + y) + z  
Distributive  x · (y + z) = x · y + x · z  x + y · z = (x + y) · (x + z) 
DeMorgan  (x + y) = x · y  (x · y) = x + y 
Absorption  x + x · y = x  x · (x + y) = x 