May 1966 Electronics World
Table
of Contents
Wax nostalgic about and learn from the history of early electronics. See articles
from
Electronics World, published May 1959
 December 1971. All copyrights hereby acknowledged.

Here
is a real cornucopia
of attenuator information from the May 1966 issue of Electronics World
magazine. If you need circuits diagram and equations for "T," BridgedT,
Ladder, Pi, BalancedH, Balanced Ladder, Potentiometer, and Balanced
(Dual) Potentiometer type attenuators, then
you've come to the right place. A discussion is included on attenuator selection
and specification for ordering rather than designing and building your own. The
distinction between a "pad" and an "attenuator" has always been vague to me and
I, like most people, use the terms interchangeably. Author Chester Scott seems to
believe a "pad" always has a fixed value whereas an attenuator can be either fixed
or variable.
Here is an article on resistive pads from a 1959 issue of Electronics World.
Resistive Attenuators and Pads
A typical unbalanced bridgedT variable resistive a.f. attenuator.
Circuitry, design, and selection of these devices which vary signal levels without
disturbing the impedance, frequency response, or other system characteristics.
By Chester F. Scott
Chief Engineer
Daven Division, McGrawEdison Co.
This article covers the circuitry and design of resistive attenuator networks.
These are used to vary signal levels without disturbing the impedance, frequency
response, or other characteristics of the system. They are referred to by many names
such as faders, pads, mixers, masters, pots, etc., but the basic function remains
the same.
Attenuator Classifications
Attenuators are divided into two main classifications: fixed and variable. Fixed
attenuators are used where the level of a signal must be reduced by a known number
of decibels which will not have to be changed. Variable attenuators are used where
rapid or frequent changes in signal level are required. They are also used when
the required amount of signal reduction must be determined at the time of system
installation. Where frequent variations in level are necessary, an attenuator which
is variable by a rotary or a straightline switch is used. When the level can be
adjusted and set with a minimum of future changes, a type that is variable by means
of soldered interconnections is normally used.
The basic circuits for both the variable and fixed types are the same and the
formulas for resistor values are equally applicable to both. In variable attenuators
which are controlled by a switch, the variation is generally accomplished by adding
or subtracting resistors in the series and shunt circuits. The exceptions are the
ladder and π
types. In the ladder type, all resistors are fixed and the series resistor tapped
at correct intervals. The
π
operation is covered later. (Inexpensive variable attenuators
are also available in which the various series and shunt elements consist of volumecontroltype
potentiometers that are ganged together to produce the proper resistance changes
as the control is operated  Ed.) Attenuators that are variable by means
of changing soldered interconnections consist of a group of fixed pads with different
attenuations. The attenuation variation is accomplished by connecting attenuators
with the correct losses in series to provide the required total attenuation.
Electrically, attenuators are divided into two main classifications: balanced
and unbalanced. A balanced attenuator control is one where equal resistance is inserted
in each side of the circuit and where the center point of any shunt resistance can
be grounded or left floating depending upon the other circuit characteristics. An
unbalanced control is one where the resistance is added in only one side of the
line and where the other side of the line is "common" or grounded.
Fig. 1  Various types of unbalanced and balanced attenuators.
Typical fixed attenuator T pad for 600ohm audio lines.
Fig. 2  Circuits and design formulas for various attenuators.
In designing the equipment where attenuators are to be used, there are two schools
of thought as to whether balanced or unbalanced controls are more satisfactory.
One group claims that balanced circuitry is better because hum and noise due to
ground loops and improper grounding is done away with. The other group contends
that unbalanced circuitry is better because, with proper grounding, stray capacities
are overcome and better control is obtained. This article will not attempt to deal
with the merits of overall system design. There are instances where economics will
be a determining factor in system design, and we will only indicate that balanced
controls are usually approximately twice as expensive as their unbalanced counterpart
since twice the number of resistors and twice the switch facility are required.
An unbalanced control cannot be used where other circuitry is balanced because,
to operate correctly throughout the required frequency range, an unbalanced control
must have one side of the line grounded. A balanced control cannot be used in an
unbalanced circuit since ground on one side of the unbalanced circuit would affect
the control operation. Onehalf of a balanced control, i.e., one input terminal,
one output terminal, and the centertap terminal, can be employed in an unbalanced
circuit but only if the particular circuit impedance is onehalf that of the balanced
control.
The most frequently used attenuator circuits are the T, bridgedT, ladder, and
potentiometer types or their balanced counterparts, the balancedH, balanced bridgedH,
balanced ladder, and dual or balanced potentiometers. In highfrequency applications,
the unbalanced π
type is most generally used. The schematic diagrams for these types are shown in
Fig. 1.
The following information covering the design and use of the various styles is
given for the unbalanced types only. The formulas for determining the resistance
values in a balanced control are the same as those indicated for the unbalanced
control except that, in inserting the value for Z in the formula, the full value
is used for an unbalanced control but only onehalf the value is used for the balanced
control. Thus, in determining the values for a 600ohm attenuator, the value for
Z in the formulas for an unbalanced control is 600 ohms, but that for a balanced
control is 300 ohms.
The T attenuator is generally the most stable and, within reasonable limits of
terminal impedance and range of attenuation, can be made the most accurate through
fairly wide frequency ranges. Since it requires three variable resistors and their
associated switching, it is generally the most expensive of the unbalanced types
used at frequencies up to 1 MHz. Both the input and output impedances remain constant,
within the specified resistor accuracy, throughout the attenuation range. The insertion
loss of this type control is zero dB when the input and output impedances are equal.
These characteristics make the T attenuator especially useful as controls in
instruments and other applications where accuracy and constant impedance are required.
The formulas for determining the resistance values required are shown in Fig. 2A.
Where equal input and output impedances are involved, Z_{in} and Z_{out}
are equal and the resulting values for R1 and R2 are also equal. For a fixedloss
attenuator with either equal or unequal input and output impedance, and for a variable
loss attenuator with equal input and output impedance, the formulas are used without
further consideration. For a variable loss attenuator with unequal input and output
impedance, the resistor values are normally determined for one impedance, and an
impedancematching network is used to match the impedance at the other end. The
resistance values for this impedancematching network are determined as indicated
later in this article.
The bridgedT network is a variation of the T network which requires the use
of only two variable resistors. It is thus somewhat less expensive than the T but
has practically equal characteristics up to somewhat lower attenuation values. The
bridgedT has a constant input and output impedance throughout the attenuation range
and has a zero dB insertion loss when the input and output impedances are equal.
In the higher losses above 30 to 40 dB, the value for R1 (see Fig. 2B) becomes
so high that it is more susceptible to the effect of any stray capacitance across
it.
The bridgedT attenuator is normally used only for attenuators which are variable
by means of rotary or linear switching. They are normally used between equal input
and output impedances but, with the use of an impedancematching network at one
end, they can be used between unequal impedances with the necessary insertion loss
due to the impedance match. They are used mainly in instruments or in communications
equipment where constant impedance and zero insertion loss is important and where
the attenuation range is not too great. The formulas for determining resistance
values are shown in Fig. 2B.
Ladder Attenuators
The ladder type attenuator is actually a variation of the
π type and
is used only in the variable loss styles. It requires the use of only one variable
resistor and is the least expensive of all the types except the potentiometer. Ladder
attenuators are most generally used as mixer controls in public address systems
and broadcast consoles, and also as controls in audiometers.
The circuitry is such that the output impedance falls to about twothirds of
the nominal value at the low loss end and the input impedance falls to approximately
the same amount at the high attenuation end. The curves for a 30step, 1 1/2 dB/step
ladder with a 600ohm input and output impedance are shown in Fig. 3. Throughout
the midattenuation range, where the control is normally operated in mixing applications,
both the input and output impedance are fairly constant and practically nominal.
Fig. 3  Characteristics of a 30step ladder attenuator.
The resistor values in a ladder attenuator are such that they remain within practical
limits throughout the attenuation range. Thus, the high attenuation values required
for audiometer applications are obtainable in a single control. With an equal input
and output impedance, the ladder attenuator has an insertion loss of 6 dB. This
is partially due to the fact that, unlike a T or bridgedT attenuator, all the resistors
of the ladder attenuator are in the circuit at all times and control is obtained
by connecting to various taps on the series resistor by means of the switch. The
remainder of the insertion loss is due to the fact that a resistor, equal in value
to onehalf of the input impedance, is connected in series with the input to provide
a more constant impedance. When the input impedance of a ladder attenuator is onehalf
of the output impedance, the resistor in series with the input is omitted and the
insertion loss is approximately 2dB.
The ladder attenuator is unique because its circuit is such that any possible
switching noise is attenuated along with the signal. This feature is helpful in
mixer applications where the signaltonoise ratio is especially important. The
formulas for the resistor values in the ladder attenuator are shown in Fig. 2C.
For optimum decibel and impedance accuracy, dB in the formula is normally selected
as 6 dB. For a 2 dB per step control, R2 is tapped for three equal sections and
for 1 1/2 dB per step it is tapped for four equal sections.
Potentiometers and
π
Networks
The potentiometer is a simple potential divider and is designed to operate into
a very high impedance such as the grid circuit of a vacuumtube amplifier. It is
used to control voltage in specific decibel steps or in special voltage ratio steps.
It has the simplest construction and is therefore the least expensive of any of
the attenuators. The formulas for determining the resistor values for this attenuator
are shown in Fig. 2D.
The formulas are for potentiometers calibrated in decibel steps. When voltage
ratios are required, the ratio of R2 to R1 is the same as the ratio of the required
output voltage to the input voltage. Again, R3 = R1  R2.
The π
network is comparable to the T network in stability and accuracy. It is also a network
which requires three variable resistors. It is not generally used in low and mediumfrequency
variable attenuator applications because the switching is somewhat more complicated
than that for the T network. It is more generally used in highfrequency attenuators
because it is easier to shield and the resistor values are in a range more readily
adaptable for the lower impedances used.
In the highfrequency variable attenuators, the variation in attenuation is accomplished
by switching π
attenuators of the correct loss in and out of the circuit. For this type of switching,
the resistors values in a
π network
remain within a range which is not overly affected by stray capacitance. The formulas
for the π
network are shown in Fig. 2E.
Attenuation Per Step & Matching
The selection of the dB per step of any attenuator depends upon the usage. For
controls used in instruments, the dB per step can be any value up to 10 dB, and
sometimes more, depending upon the instrument requirements. In broadcast and recording
operations, the normal maximum dB per step is 2.
In the higher quality recordings, no switching noise can be tolerated. If the
dB per step is too high, there will be a noticeable "pop" if the control is switched
between steps during a sustained note. The lower the dB per step, the more steps
are required to obtain a comparable total attenuation and more steps means higher
cost. Thus, economics enters into the choice, but in recording applications, steps
of 1.5 dB or less, if practical, are commonly used.
For optimum overall operation, the impedance of all portions of a system should
match. Thus, with the exception of the potentiometer, the input impedance of the
attenuator should equal the impedance of the source and the output impedance of
the attenuator should be equal to that of the load.
When the source and load impedances are unequal, a resistive network can be utilized
to match them. This impedancematching network is generally a T network or its counterpart,
the balancedH. Where a resistive network is used to match unequal impedances, some
loss is necessary. The amount of this loss is dependent upon the ratio of the higher
impedance to the lower impedance being matched.
Power & Impedance Available
The normal power dissipation of most attenuators is 0.5 or 0.6 watt continuous.
Such attenuators will handle up to approximately 2.5 watts peak in audio circuits
where the level fluctuates considerably. Attenuators with continuous power rating
up to 20 watts and, in special cases, higher are available. Attenuators which have
a low dB loss, such as decade T types with 10 steps of 0.1 dB per step, can be used
in circuits where the wattage is considerably above the normal rating of the control.
This is due to the fact that only a relatively small portion of the power is dissipated
in the attenuator whereas most of the power is dissipated in the load.
In general, balancedH, T, and ladder attenuators are available with impedances
up to about 1000 or 2000 ohms. For special applications, controls with higher impedances
are obtainable but attenuation and frequency ranges must be considered since internal
capacitance and capacitance in the external wiring will have greater effect on the
attenuator accuracy. The attenuators used in highfrequency applications generally
have an impedance of 50, 52, 73, or 75 ohms. Attenuators with 93 and 125ohm impedances
can be made but, for a specified accuracy, the frequency range is limited by capacitance
effects. Potentiometers normally are made with impedances in the range from 1000
ohms to 1 megohm. Lower impedances are available with a somewhat reduced attenuation
range due to resistance values becoming too low for practical manufacture. Capacitance
effect becomes a limiting factor for impedances over 1 megohm.
Attenuation & Frequency Range
The attenuation range available in an attenuator depends upon impedance, circuit
type, and frequency range. In bridgedT and bridged balancedH attenuators the variable
series resistor becomes exceedingly high at the higher losses and the variable shunt
resistor becomes too low for practical manufacture. Thus the highest loss normally
supplied in the bridgedT and bridged balancedH types is approximately 40 dB. This
is not a firm figure because impedance and dB per step must be taken into consideration.
In T and balancedH attenuators the limiting factor on the dB range is the resistor
value between steps in both the series and the shunt arms.
At the higher losses these become too low for practical manufacture. The approximate
maximum loss normally supplied in the T and balancedH attenuators is 60 dB but
here again the actual maximum depends upon impedance and dB per step.
In the above types the total attenuation range of a variable attenuator may be
increased by combining two or more attenuators on the same shaft and connecting
them in series. For example, a 100dB attenuator can be made by connecting two 50dB
attenuators in series. In operation, the first group of steps varies the first 50
dB and the second group of steps varies the second 50 dB. Up to 50 dB, the attenuation
is varied in one section while the second section remains at zero dB. Above 50 dB
the first section remains at 50 dB while the second section inserts the remainder
of the attenuation.
In ladder and balanced ladder attenuators the circuitry is such that the resistor
values do not get too high or too low as loss is increased and therefore they are
not a limiting factor in the dB range. Thus, in these types, attenuation ranges
of somewhat over 100 dB are obtainable.
Attenuators are available covering the frequency range from d.c. to 10 GHz. Socalled
audiofrequency attenuators will operate satisfactorily up to at least 100 kHz and
in some instances, depending upon the decibel range and impedance, much higher.
Videofrequency attenuators generally operate at frequencies up to 10 MHz and radiofrequency
attenuators cover the remainder of the range to 10 GHz.
Attenuator accuracy is dependent upon the accuracy of the resistors used in their
construction. At audio frequencies, the attenuation accuracy is the same as the
resistor accuracy. Thus, if resistors with a 5% accuracy are used, the attenuation
will be within 5% of nominal. Actually the attenuation accuracy will probably be
much closer than 5%.
Attenuators used in broadcasting and recording operations normally have a 5%
accuracy while those used in instruments and in measuring applications generally
have a 1% accuracy and frequently have tolerances as close as 0.1%. The higher frequency
attenuators normally have the accuracy specified in dB through a range of operating
frequencies. Since this accuracy depends upon the amount of loss, impedance, and
frequency range, a general statement of available accuracies is not feasible. For
these applications the manufacturer should be consulted before completing an equipment
design.
With the exception of a few covering fixed highfrequency types and two or three
covering attenuation networks (two or more attenuators connected in series and mounted
in a portable case or on a relay rack panel), there are no MILSpecs on attenuators.
However, attenuators are available which will meet most of the military environmental
requirements such as: temperature extremes, humidity, shock, vibration, and salt
spray. For detailed information, the manufacturer should be consulted.
Attenuator Ordering Information
Most attenuator manufacturers have catalogues which show the electrical and mechanical
specifications of their "standard" attenuators. When items are required which are
not included in the catalogue, the information supplied to the manufacturer should
be as complete as possible to avoid delay or misunderstanding. As much as possible
of the following information should be included.
1. Complete electrical specifications including whether the attenuator is to
be fixed or variable. If fixed, include type of circuit, decibel loss, impedance
(both input and output), required accuracy, frequency range, and operating level
(power).
If variable, include type of circuit, impedance (both input and output), required
accuracy, frequency range, operating level (power), number of steps and dB per step,
linear or tapered, are "off" or "cue" positions required? (both input and output
terminated but no signal goes through).
2. Mechanical specifications. If fixed, include maximum physical size (if space
is important), and type of terminals and connectors.
If variable, include physical size or manufacturer's basic type, with or without
detents (indexing device), any required shaft deviations from manufacturer's standard,
and type of terminals or connectors.
Finally, specify any military requirements which must be met.
Posted December 5, 2022 (updated from original
post on 11/20/2014)
