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Apothecary, Avoirdupois & Unusual Conversions

Apothecary is a historical name for a medical professional who formulates and dispenses materia medica to physicians, surgeons and patients — a role now served by a pharmacist (or, especially in British English, a chemist or dispensing chemist).

The avoirdupois system is a system of weights (or, properly, mass) based on a pound of sixteen ounces. It is the everyday system of weight used in the United States, and is still widely used to varying degrees by many people in Ireland, Canada, the United Kingdom, and some other former English colonies despite the official adoption of the metric system. - Wikipedia

These apothecary, avoirdupois, and other unusual units and conversion factors are not typically found in engineering work, but are still fairly common in some fields like medicine. Now, finding a contemporary application for the scruple or the chain is highly unlikely, but if you ever need them or any other of these strange measures, well, you know where to go now. Dry measures, liquid measures, solid measures and others are mixed in.

1 pound (Av)453.592 g
1 pound (Ap)373.242 g
1 ounce (Av)28.35 g
1 ounce (Ap)31.10 g, 480 grains
15 grains1 g
10 grains600 mg
7 1/2 grains500 mg
5 grains300 mg
1 1/2 grains100 mg
1 grain64.79891 mg
1 pound0.45 kg
1000 mcg 300 to 7000 iu (see right)
1 scruple1.2 g, 20 grains
1 gal3785 ml, 4 qts, 0.833 Imp gal
1 pt473.18 ml
1 fl oz29.57 ml
1 cc1 gm, 1 ml
1 minim1 drop, 0.0616 ml
1 tsp5 ml
1 tsp15 ml
1 stone6.35 kg
1 dram3 scruples
1 hundredweight100 lbs
1 ton2000 lbs
1 long ton2240 lbs
1 pt4 gills
1 hogshead63 gallons
1 pipe or butt2 hogsheads
1 tun2 pipes
1 mile320 rods
1 peck2 gallons
1 bushel4 pecks
1 fathom6 ft, 2 yds
1 furlong1/8 mile, 660 ft, 220 yds
1 league3 mi, 24 furlongs
1 chain100 links, 22 yds
1 acre43560 sq ft, 0.40 hectare, 10 sq chains
1 sq rod625 sq links
1 square100 sq ft
1 board ft144 cu in
 
Ap = Apothecarymg = milligram
Av = Avoirdupoisg = gram
mcg = microgramkg = kilogram
gal = gallonml = milliliter
fl oz = fluid ounceqt = quart
gr = graingtts = drops
 sc = scruplest = stone
l or L = literoz = ounce
ft = footpt = pint
in = inchlb = pound
yd = yardcc = cubic centimeters
mi = mileImp gal = Imperial gallon
m = meterdr = drachm = drachma = dram
 
Vitamin A, 1 i.u. = 0.3µg retinol, 3.6µg b-carotene, or 7.2µg other vitamin A carotenoids
Vitamin D, 1 i.u. = 0.025µg cholecalciferol
Vitamin E, 1 i.u. = 0.67µg natural a-tocopherol (other conversion factors used for other forms of vitamin E)

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