March 1935 Short Wave Craft
Wax nostalgic about and learn from the history of early electronics. See articles
from Short Wave Craft,
published 1930 - 1936. All copyrights hereby acknowledged.
"Tokyo is now a next-door neighbor-thanks
to the magic of short-waves." That statement was made in a 1935 edition of Short
Wave Craft magazine after the American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) company completed its
wireless phone (voice) link between the U.S. and Japan;
which is the first 'T' in AT&T. Most people today would probably have a hard time
guessing that the second 'T' in AT&T stands for 'telegraph.' Its surprising that
the name has not been changed to reflect the outdated-ness.
Western Union sent its final telegraph in 2006. Another news headline a couple years
ago reported on
India sending its final official telegraph message.
Japan S-W Phone to America Open
The drawing above shows graphically the important links in the short-wave
and wire telephone system recently opened by the A.T. & T. Company between Japan
and America. The voices are "scrambled" to insure privacy.
By H. Winfred Secor
A few weeks ago the newest link in the combined wire and short-wave telephone service
to foreign countries was officially opened by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company.
This service involves a short-wave transmission link across the Pacific Ocean from San
Francisco to Tokyo, a distance of 5,130 miles, or about 9,000 miles, by wire and short
wave from Tokyo to New York. One of the S.W. transmitting units at Nazaki, Japan, is
used for regular S.W. broadcasting daily.
Tokyo is now a next-door neighbor-thanks to the magic of short-waves. A few weeks
ago the new Japanese short-wave telephone service with America was officially opened,
officials in both Japan and the United States participating in the inaugural ceremonies.
This newest link in the widespread short-wave-wire telephone connections of the A.T.&T.
Company to foreign countries, bridges a distance of 5,130 miles across the Pacific. The
subscriber's telephone conversations travel on wavelengths varying between 18 and 45
meters, the frequency depending upon the transmission conditions and the season of the
year, the extent of daylight over the Pacific, etc.
Japanese engineers, many of them educated in American universities, are in charge of
the 20 K.W. Japanese transmitter located near Tokyo, at Nazaki. An engineer of the Bell
Telephone Laboratories, George W. Gilman, has spent considerable time in Japan with their
engineers and his wife helped .the twenty-two Japanese operators to perfect the English
they are now using in dealing with their American sisters in San Francisco. The San Francisco
girl operators have only to speak English therefore in setting up subscribers' calls.
Fig. 1 shows elaborate short-wave receivers at the Japanese station
located at Komuro. Here the short-wave telephone signals from the San Francisco transmitter
are tuned in. Japanese technical operators are in charge and one American engineer cooperated
with them in establishing the new short-wave telephone transpacific stations.
Fig. 2 shows the 280-foot steel towers supporting the antenna array
at the short-wave transmitting station located at Nazaki, Japan. Building, at right,
houses 20 kw. transmitter.
Fig. 3 Here we have an interesting view of the building housing the
receivers and auxiliary equipment for the short-wave phone service to America and located
at Komuro, Japan. The antenna arrangement is supported by the masts shown, which are
somewhat lower than those used for supporting the transmitting aerials.
Fig. 4 shows Japanese engineer tuning one of the 20 kw. short-wave
phone transmitters at Nazaki.
Fig. 5 shows rear view of one of the transmitters at Dixon, California.
Beginning at right, we have R.F. input apparatus; first amplifier stage; inter-stage
unit showing tuned circuit and water flow alarms; water cooled vacuum tubes for second
stage of amplification.
Dixon, California, (transmitting station) line terminal equipment
in copper-shielded room.
The Japanese trans-Pacific receiving station is located at Komuro, a short distance
from Tokyo, both the transmitting and the receiving stations being connected, of course,
by telephone lines with Tokyo. By means of this new short-wave radio telephone service,
Bell and Bell-connecting telephone subscribers in the United States, Canada, Cuba, and
Mexico, can now be interconnected with telephone subscribers in Honshu, the principal
Island of the Japanese Archipelago and in places on other islands of the group. This
is the fourth radio telephone circuit to be set up connecting Bell System subscribers
with countries on the other side of the Pacific, the other short-wave phone channels
spreading out over the broad Pacific connecting with Honolulu, in the Hawaiian Islands;
Java and Manila in the Philippine Islands.
The short-wave messages from Japan are picked up at the special American Telephone
and Telegraph Co.'s receiving station, located at Point Reyes, near San Francisco, the
outgoing phone messages passing through the twenty K.W. transmitter located at Dixon,
a short distance from San Francisco.
The subscribers' telephone voice currents in either direction are passed through speech
inverters, which "scramble" the words or rather syllables, turning them into unintelligible
jargon for their flight through the ether.
As the accompanying diagram shows, the route of the Japanese subscriber's voice, when
the connection with America is established, is as follows: The voice currents pass over
the subscriber's telephone to his local telephone exchange, and then to the international
operator in Tokyo. From there the voice passes through the technical operator's control
board, then through a volume control panel, a "time delay" network, then through a voice-operated
relay or "Vodas", and from this point the outgoing speech to America passes through "speech-inverter
apparatus." Next it passes to the transmitting station where it modulates the carrier,
continues to the antenna and is sent winging its way 5,130 miles across the vast Pacific
to the receiving station at Point Reyes, Calif.
Let us follow the path of the incoming phone talk from Japan; after it has been received
at Point Reyes, it is transmitted over a wire telephone circuit to the Telephone Building
in San Francisco. From this point the telephone currents pass out over regular telephone
circuits to the town or city of the United States, Canada, Cuba, or Mexico, to which
the connection is made. If the conversation is with a telephone subscriber in San Francisco,
he talks through his local switchboard, which in turn connects with the overseas operator's
switchboard and thence with the overseas technical control board, both of which are in
the Telephone Company building in San Francisco. If the American telephone subscriber
is at a point other than San Francisco, then the voice currents are suitably amplified
by the vacuum tube repeater stations located at regular intervals along the telephone
line to the cities concerned. These repeaters or amplifiers are usually located in telephone
exchange buildings in the various cities.
The route of the telephone conversation from a point in America to Japan is interesting:
It passes over the usual telephone circuit to Frisco, being suitably amplified at regular
intervals along the wire line as required. The voice passes through the technical operator's
control board in San Francisco and then passes on to the short-wave transmitter located
at Dixon, where it is radiated in the form of short waves, 18 to 45 meters in length,
depending on the season and the time of day, etc., on its way to Japan.
Of particular interest to our readers was the entertaining program recently broadcast
from Japan over the Columbia Broadcasting System. Those in this country who heard it
were undoubtedly astonished at the clearness of the voices and music from Japan. They
sounded just like those from a local station. Incidentally, one of the short-wave transmitters
located at Nazaki is used by the Japanese for broadcasting regular short-wave programs
at a certain time each day.
When WABC and about 60 other broadcast stations of the 90 stations in the CBS System
broadcast the program from Japan at 5 p.m. on Dec. 8 (it was then 7 a.m. in the morning
of the next day in Japan) the incoming music and voice currents from Japan came over
the Transcontinental telephone line through San Francisco, Denver to Chicago. Here it
was fed to station WBBM the CBS broadcast station located at Chicago, and thence to other
stations connected to the telephone lines constituting the Columbia network, which broadcast
the program to and from Japan. The program from America, comprising music and a talk,
originated in the Columbia Studios at 485 Madison Avenue, New York City. It is interesting
to note that the main control boards for the Columbia as well as the NBC network, are
located in the "Long Distance" building at 32 Sixth Avenue, these switch boards being
under the supervision of the experts of the "Long Lines Department" of the A.T.&T.
When the program from Japan was heard by American listeners on the date mentioned,
the incoming voice and music was received at the control board of the Telephone Company
at Chicago; thence it passed over a private telephone (leased) line to Station WBBM and
simultaneously over the telephone lines that form the Columbia network. It is interesting
to note that, at this point, two rebroadcasts concurred on short waves, one from W2XE,
the short-wave transmitter associated with WABC, and the short-wave transmitter W3AU,
associated with the Philadelphia CBS Station WCAU.
Posted April 2, 2015