Science & Engineering Instruments

Rather than always linking to Wikipedia entries for common topics, I have been using ChatGPT to research and post brief summaries on many technical topics. The results are not always perfect, but I edit them as needed to be accurate. Courts have ruled that AI-generated content is not subject to copyright restrictions, but since I modify them, everything here is protected by RF Cafe copyright. Here are the major categories.

Electronics & High Technology Company History | Electronics & Technical Magazines | Electronics & Technology Pioneers History | Electronics & Technology Principles | Technology Standards Groups & Industry Associations | Vintage Vacuum Tube Radio Company History | Electronics & High Technology Components | Societal Influences on Technology | Science & Engineering Instruments

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Radiosondes and Rawinsondes - RF CafeRadiosondes and Rawinsondes

Radiosondes and rawinsondes are types of instruments used to measure atmospheric parameters such as temperature, humidity, pressure, and wind speed/direction at various altitudes. While they are similar in function, there are some differences in how they operate.

A radiosonde is a small, battery-powered device that is carried aloft by a helium-filled balloon. As the balloon rises, the radiosonde transmits data back to a ground station, typically using radio waves. The data includes measurements of temperature, humidity, pressure, and wind speed/direction. Radiosondes are often used in weather forecasting and research, as they provide a vertical profile of the atmosphere.

A rawinsonde is similar to a radiosonde, but it also has a radar system that allows it to measure wind speed and direction in addition to the other atmospheric parameters. The radar system sends out a signal that is reflected back by particles in the air, and the Doppler shift of the signal is used to calculate wind speed and direction. Rawinsondes are typically launched from the ground using a balloon, and they transmit data back to a ground station in real-time.

A wind-sonde is a type of instrument that is used to measure wind speed and direction aloft using radio waves. Like radiosondes and rawinsondes, wind-sondes are typically carried aloft by a balloon. As the wind-sonde rises, it transmits a signal back to a ground station, which is used to calculate wind speed and direction. Wind-sondes are often used in research and atmospheric monitoring. 

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Pyrheliometer (Hukseflux) - RF CafePyrheliometer

A pyrheliometer is a scientific instrument used to measure the direct solar irradiance, or the amount of solar radiation received at the Earth's surface from the sun's direct beam. It is designed to measure the total amount of solar radiation within a specific wavelength range, typically from 0.3 to 3 micrometers.

The instrument consists of a thermopile detector that is enclosed in a glass dome. The thermopile measures the temperature difference between two surfaces, one of which is exposed to the sun's radiation, while the other is kept at a constant temperature. The temperature difference is proportional to the amount of solar radiation received by the exposed surface.

Pyrheliometers are widely used in meteorology, climatology, solar energy research, and other fields where precise measurements of solar radiation are required. They are typically calibrated against a reference instrument and require regular maintenance to ensure accurate measurements.

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Yardney Silvercel Battery HR1 - RF CafeYardney Silvercel Battery HR1

The Yardney Silvercel Battery HR1 is a high-reliability, high-temperature, rechargeable silver-zinc battery. It is often used in aerospace, defense, and medical applications where high performance and reliability are critical.

The HR1 battery is designed to operate at temperatures of up to 70°C (158°F) and can deliver high power over a wide temperature range. It has a high energy density and can be charged and discharged repeatedly without losing performance.

Yardney is a company that specializes in the development and production of batteries for demanding applications. Their Silvercel batteries are known for their high energy density, long cycle life, and high reliability. The HR1 is one of their most advanced batteries and is widely used in critical applications where failure is not an option.