Electronics World articles Popular Electronics articles QST articles Radio & TV News articles Radio-Craft articles Radio-Electronics articles Short Wave Craft articles Wireless World articles Google Search of RF Cafe website Sitemap Electronics Equations Mathematics Equations Equations physics Manufacturers & distributors Engineer Jobs LinkedIn Crosswords Engineering Humor Kirt's Cogitations RF Engineering Quizzes Notable Quotes Calculators Education Engineering Magazine Articles Engineering software RF Cafe Archives RF Cascade Workbook 2018 RF Symbols for Visio - Word Advertising Magazine Sponsor RF Cafe RF Electronics Symbols for Visio RF Electronics Symbols for Office Word RF Electronics Stencils for Visio Sponsor Links Saturday Evening Post NEETS EW Radar Handbook Microwave Museum About RF Cafe Aegis Power Systems Anritsu Alliance Test Equipment Amplifier Solutions Anatech Electronics Axiom Test Equipment Berkeley Nucleonics Bittele Centric RF Conduct RF Copper Mountain Technologies Empower RF everything RF Exodus Advanced Communications Innovative Power Products ISOTEC KR Filters Lotus Systems PCB Directory Rigol RF Superstore San Francisco Circuits Reactel RFCT TotalTemp Technologies Triad RF Systems Windfreak Technologies Withwave LadyBug Technologies Wireless Telecom Group Sponsorship Rates RF Cafe Software Resources Vintage Magazines Thank you for visiting RF Cafe!
TotalTemp Technologies (Thermal Platforms) - RF Cafe

Atmospheric Refraction

Due to variations in the density of the atmosphere, electromagnetic radiation is refracted according to the varying refractive index with height. Variations decreases linearly with height under standard conditions (no localized disturbances). As a result, the wave gradually curves until, if the wavelength and angle are correct, the signal bends back toward the earth (see graphic below).

As with visible light waves, radio waves must equal a critical angle in order to be transmitted between regions of different refractive indices. When less than the critical angle is experienced, the waves are bent at the interface back into the medium from which they originate. In the case of an abrupt interface like air and water in a glass, the bending is equally abrupt. Layers of the atmosphere present a much more gradual interface so the reflection tends to exhibit a more curved shape.

Atmospheric refraction of electromagnetic waves vs. frequency - RF Cafe

Pencil refraction in glass of water - RF CafeThis image shows the familiar pencil in a glass of water.

 

 

 

 

RF Electronics Shapes, Stencils for Office, Visio by RF Cafe
Amplifier Solutions Corporation (ASC) - RF Cafe
everythingRF RF & Microwave Parts Database - RF Cafe
RF Superstore (RF Components) - RF Cafe

Please Support RF Cafe by purchasing my  ridiculously low−priced products, all of which I created.

These Are Available for Free

 

About RF Cafe

Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe Webmaster

Copyright: 1996 - 2024

Webmaster:

    Kirt Blattenberger,

    BSEE - KB3UON

RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while tying up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.

My Hobby Website:

AirplanesAndRockets.com