May 1966 Electronics World
Table
of Contents
Wax nostalgic about and learn from the history of early electronics. See articles
from
Electronics World, published May 1959
 December 1971. All copyrights hereby acknowledged.

Wirewound inductors
(as most are) can be mysterious entities even when
you are familiar with their many interdependent physical and electrical properties.
Because of interwinding capacitance and a sometimes (when
a large number of turns are involved) rather significant series resistance,
the equivalent circuit model gets quite complex  literally in a mathematical sense.
If you have the luxury of staying far away from the selfresonant frequency (SRF)
of the coil, your component will behave very much like an ideal inductor, that is,
X_{L} = 2πfL.
This 1966 Electronics World magazine article delves into what causes inductors
to act like parallel and/or series resonant tank circuits, how to avoid the inconvenience
of unwanted resonances, and how to exploit resonances in your favor. You'll also
learn (if you don't already know) the distinction between a "choke" and an inductor.
How to Select R.F. Chokes
Fig. 1  Besides inductance, on RFC, like any other coil
has some distributed capacitance between turns and to chassis.
Fig. 2  (A) How an RFC looks electrically. (B) and (C)
show "Q" and reactance, respectively, for different values of "Q."
By Joseph Tartas
There is more to an r.f. choke than some wire wound about a form. When all its
characteristics are known, it can prove useful as a tuned circuit, transformer,
lowor highpass filter, as well as an r.f. isolator.
Not so many years ago, the selection of an r.f. choke was not a difficult problem.
You simply asked for a Z50, if you were working in the 50MHz area, or a Z14 if
your circuitry was in the 10 to 15MHz range. Chances were, you didn't know anything
about the choke itself, other than taking the manufacturer's word that it was designed
to work in that range.
For verylowfrequency work, the selection of a choke usually depended more on
the inductive reactance and hence was usually some arbitrarily selected value of
high inductance. If you were really designing, you might make a lot of calculations
and measurements, throw in a few rules of thumb, and come up with the right value.
Today, the picture has changed considerably and instead of two or three makes
of chokes and a dozen or so values to select from, there are hundreds of sizes and
shapes as well as specific characteristics to meet extreme temperature, moisture,
or other environmental requirements. In a single manufacturer's line, there are
several physical sizes designed to fit requirements of currentcarrying capabilities
and space limitations; and in cases of extremely small volume, there are noninsulated
chokes to reduce the physical size but retain the same electrical characteristics.
The most important improvement in the RFC field in the past few years is the
information made available to the user through manufacturers' literature. This information
includes inductance; minimum "Q" (although often misleadingthis will be discussed
farther on); approximate resonant frequency, perhaps the most important item; the
approximate distributed capacitance; the minimum parallel resistance at two widely
separated frequencies; the maximum d.c. resistance; the maximum current rating;
and in the case of one manufacturer, incremental current rating. Because of extreme
environmental requirements in military and industrial equipment these days, many
chokes are also rated for maximum temperatures ranging from 85° to 500°C
and power dissipations that depend upon body sizes, covering materials and core
materials.
In spite of all this information, it often requires a bit of reading between
the lines before you can make a sensible selection of the correct RFC to use in
your particular circuit. Before you can do this, however, you must have a thorough
understanding of the various characteristics and circuit requirements that go into
such a selection.
Why a Choke Is Used
Basically, an r.f. choke is nothing more than an inductance that, because of
its own distributed capacitance, forms a parallelresonant circuit. This distributed
capacitance (Fig. 1) is a multiplicity of small capacitances existing between
adjacent turns and from anyone turn to all the others, as well as to a shield if
one is used, and to a ground if one exists in the vicinity of the choke when it
is installed in the equipment. For the moment, consider the selfcapacitance, or
distributed capacitance itself (without the choketoground capacitance), as being
in parallel with the pure inductance of the coil and having a resistance equivalent
to the resistive component of the choke. A choke would then appear schematically
as in Fig. 2A, and its impedance and reactance as in Figs. 2B and 2C, respectively.
As in all parallelresonant circuits, the maximum impedance at resonance will
depend upon the "Q" and this, in turn, will be the deciding factor as to how effective
the choke will be at its selfresonant frequency and over how wide a frequency range
it will still be effective. The impedance depends upon the amount of selfcapacitance
that exists in the choke and the equivalent parallel resistance. A good approximation
of the impedance of a parallelresonant circuit is Z_{r} = L/CR as long
as the circuit "Q" is at least 10. The value of R is normally the sum of the series
resistances of the inductance and capacitance, but in a choke the resistance involved
in the distributed capacitance is practically nonexistent. This, then, boils down
to the inductance, the distributed capacitance, and the resistance of the winding
(d.c. + r.f. resistance as frequency goes higher) as affecting the overall performance
of the choke; that is, the resonant impedance, the selfresonant frequency, the
"Q" and hence the bandwidth of the choke, and its effectiveness on the r.f. voltages
it is being used to suppress. Thus, it is obvious that the value of inductance of
a choke is not as important as the selfresonant frequency and impedance, although
the inductance does have some bearing on these factors.
Chokes come in many forms, the particular type depending upon the frequency involved,
the inductance necessary to achieve it, and the distributed capacitance that results
from the particular form factor and winding method. Many are simple singlelayer
solenoids with or without powderediron cores; others are multilayer coils of various
configurations; still others are single or multiple honeycomb windings with one
or more sections combined in series.
A singlelayer solenoid has the lowest distributed capacitance, and this capacitance
is proportional to the diameter of the winding and to a smaller degree is affected
by the length and number of turns and, where only a few turns are involved, the
spacing between turns. For a singlelayer, closewound choke, the distributed capacitance
is approximated by C_{d} =.75 diameter (in inches), with C in pF.
Fig. 3  Two different methods of winding multiturn coils.
Note winding arrangement difference between (A) and (B).
Fig. 4  Styles of coil construction. (A) Method of winding
a slotwound coil. (B) A winding form as used for slotwound coils. (C) Selfsupporting
coil.
In a multilayer coil (Fig. 3A), the capacitance is considerably greater,
not only because of the greater number of turns but also because of the relative
capacitances between layers and nearby turns. If the layers are wound so that the
difference of potential between any two adjacent turns is small, then the capacitance
is small; if the layers are wound in such a way as to have adjacent turns nonparallel
to each other, as in the honeycomb or universal winding, the capacitance is at a
minimum between those adjacent turns. The total distributed capacitance may be further
reduced by the use of powderediron or ferrite cores which reduce the number of
turns of wire necessary to obtain the desired inductance value. However, other problems
enter when cores are used, since the core losses, the capacitance effects due to
the dielectric material used in making the cores, and the useful temperature range
and effective permeability of the core which affect the "Q" must be considered,
as well as a factor that is often ignored in r.f. chokes, the temperature coefficient
of the core, which also affects the temperature coefficient of the choke.
In multisection chokes, the individual sections may be alike or may be designed
so that the overall choke appears as a broadband filter. In most cases, the choke
is not like a single resonant circuit but appears electrically as a multielement
bandpass filter.
When a large inductance is required and the use of a singlelayer coil is prohibitive
because of its size, the multilayer coil becomes necessary. This, in turn, means
a larger distributed capacitance which is no longer directly related to the diameter
or coil size. One method of reducing capacitance is to wind the coil in such a way
that the highnumbered turns do not lie next to lownumbered turns (the condition
for greatest capacitance). Early attempts to reduce capacitance by means of "bankwinding"
(Fig. 3B) resulted in expensive chokes, since this method required great skill
by the winder and it could not be done by machine. The coil could not be held to
the production tolerances then required (and completely unusable with today's closetolerance
requirements), and when large inductances were needed, the coil was so large physically
as to be almost impractical.
The development of the universal coil winder provided the designer with a new
and extremely useful tool that allowed him to repeatedly produce a mechanically
stable, relatively low capacitance coil with a fairly large inductance. This type
of winding, while not having the lowest attainable capacitance, was better than
a "happy medium" between the excessive capacitance of the layerwound and the great
expense of the bankwound coil.
The "universal" layerwound coil, more commonly known as "piewound" because
of its resemblance to a pie, is a compromise between the bankwound coil of Fig. 3B
and the slotwound coil of Fig. 4A.
The slotwound coil has a distributed capacitance equal to a twoplate capacitor,
each plate consisting of rings the width of the slot with one plate having the inner
coil diameter A (see Fig. 4B) and the other plate the outer diameter B. Since
a twoplate capacitor of two greatly different areas depends to a large extent on
the area of the smaller plate, the smaller the diameter of the inside ring (or the
winding form in this case) the smaller the distributed capacitance, and conversely,
the greater the inductance the pie will have for a given width and outer diameter.
The universalwound pie of Fig. 4C is simply a freestanding, selfsupporting,
slotwound coil with a winding similar to the bankwound coil, although restricted
because of the narrow crosssection of the slot.
As the art progressed, powderediron cores were developed, and their use as forms
or cores for universalwound r.f. chokes allowed a great reduction in overall size.
Like all new materials, powdered iron had its own limitations. If the permeability
(μ, the ratio of inductance with the core, to the inductance without the core)
was low, and the losses resulting from the insertion of the core in the coil (eddy
losses) were kept to a minimum (resulting in a reasonably high "Q"), the size of
the coil was not reduced greatly. Increasing the μ of the core material reduced
the choke size, but often it was found that the "Q" suffered greatly due to core
losses so that the series impedance (QX) was inadequate to warrant the use of a
costly and bulky component.
Eventually, new ferrite materials (ceramic materials with magnetic qualities)
were developed which allowed for great reduction in the size of an r.f. choke, but
as environmental temperature specifications for equipment were raised above the
usual 85°C, the temperature capabilities of the ferrites fell apart. Either
the temperature coefficient was poor, causing excessive change in effective inductance
with change in environmental temperature, or the permeability decreased so rapidly
above 85°C that the resulting inductance became too low to be effective long
before the maximum temperature requirements were met.
This led to further improvements in the capabilities of ferrite core materials,
and we now have extremely large inductances in very tiny packages with excellent
temperature and mechanical stability, and because of the extremely high permeability
of the cores, the distributed capacitance or "selfcapacitance" of the choke remains
quite low.
Examples of this size reduction are a miniature 1000μH choke with a molded
phenolic form having a distributed capacitance of 5 to 10 pF for several makes,
and a ferritebodied choke with the same effective inductance yet having less than
IpF capacitance.
Chokes having an iron core, for the same inductance, run somewhere in between,
with a maximum capacitance of 7 pF.
In large chokes using nonminiature techniques, the capacitance is usually not
given, and often the selfresonant frequency is ignored as well. Because these chokes
are usually wound with larger wire to accommodate high currents, the capacitance
of these chokes would be even higher than that of the miniature types.
Fig. 5  Derating curve for one type of miniature r.f.
choke.
The current rating of a choke will often depend upon the ambient temperature
and will have to be derated. Fig. 5 shows a curve for derating one type of
miniature choke. If the current rating is given at the maximum temperature to be
encountered, then only the incremental current is of interest. This is the current
necessary to reduce the effective choke inductance by 5% due to the magnetization
of the iron core that effectively lowers the permeability and hence the inductance.
Chokes are normally used to prevent coupling of r.f. power (microwatts or megawatts)
from one circuit to another in a piece of equipment. Any wires that lead from stage
to stage, circuit to circuit, or from one subunit to another are potential conductors
of undesired r.f.
In r.f. circuitry in particular, there is usually a series of cascaded amplifier
or multiplier stages, and more often than not, an oscillator or two. Furthermore,
mixers, detectors, and other associated circuits are commonly involved in such circuitry,
and each is a source or terminus for leads that might conduct unwanted r.f. These
leads can be any or all of the following: "B+," "B," a.g.c., filament leads, fixed
bias leads, leads to panel controls, and video or audio input and output.
Carefully selected, the proper choke can be an r.f, isolator; a shunt trap; a
tuned circuit either at its selfresonant frequency or, by means of additional shunt
capacitance, at some lower frequency; or can be combined with other components to
make a lowpass, highpass, or bandpass filter.
A recently introduced innovation is a seriesresonant trap that is in appearance
an r.f. choke. Utilizing the capacitance between turns as a seriescoupling element,
it can be made in a wide range of series selfresonant frequencies. Like the parallelresonant
choke, the series trap will probably find applications that formerly required an
external capacitor in conjunction with an RFC to make a seriesresonant trap.
How to Use Chokes
Because a choke is composed largely of distributed inductance and capacitance
rather than lumped inductance and capacitance, it appears electrically as a transmission
line rather than as a tuned circuit. Depending upon the values of these constants
and the terminating impedance of this transmission line, a choke can act as an impedance
varying from extremely high to almost a perfect short.
At the fundamental (selfresonant) frequency and at all odd multiples of this
frequency, a choke appears as a parallelresonant circuit. At even multiples, the
same choke acts as a seriesresonant circuit with the lowest impedance limited only
by the seriesresonant resistance, or essentially the resistance of the coil itself.
This phenomenon occurs because a choke does act as a transmission line and is not
terminated in its characteristic impedance. If it were so terminated, a choke would
be little more than a straight conductor or loss less transmission line for the
r.f. currents.
Because of the distributed elements, a choke may be thought of as a series circuit
composed of a number of elements, each element consisting of several small inductances
and capacitances in parallel; as two parallel branches, with one leg a series of
small coils and the other leg a series of small capacitors; or even as a combination
of the two, which would make it the equivalent of multielement filter circuits.
Hence, at any given frequency, a choke can appear as almost anything from a high
parallelresonant impedance to a very low seriesresonant impedance.
It is customary, however, to select a choke having its highest parallelresonant
impedance when it is to be used as an r.f. suppression element in a supply line
(in series with a "B+" line, for example), as shown in Fig. 6A. If a choke
is selected having the same selfresonant frequency (SRF) as the frequency it is
desired to suppress, then the choke must have the highest series impedance at that
frequency. And because a choke is a completely selfcontained highimpedance element,
its SRF is not affected by external elements connected from either end to ground,
and further attenuation is achieved by bypassing either or both ends of the choke.
It is, however, affected by any parallel elements, and hence its SRF, "Q," or parallelresonant
impedance can be lowered.
Fig. 6  Various uses for r.f. chokes. (A) R.f. suppressor.
(B), (C), (D)Used as a tank coil. (E) Tuned circuit with tap. As a transformer,
an RFC can be used with (F) mutual, (G) top C, (H) top L, (I) bottom C, (J) bottom
L coupling.
Fig. 7  (A) & (B) Coupling through a capacitor may
reduce effective coupling as one RFC may tune out other. (C) Coil separation produces
controllable coupling. (D) How RFC's are used in a typical highpass filter unit.
Because it can be altered, such a choke may be utilized as a tank coil and tuned
by a fixed or variable capacitor connected across the choke (Figs. 6B, 6C, and 6D)
and have its loaded "Q" adjusted by adding a parallel resistor (or tube or transistor
circuit). Two chokes in series, with the combination shunted by a capacitor, provides
a tuned circuit with a tap (or an autotransformer), as shown in Fig. 6E. The
tap can be adjusted by the proper selection of the inductance ratio or impedance
ratio desired. Because of the extremely wide range of available chokes (0.10 μH
to many millihenrys) in small increments, almost any ratio is obtainable.
It is also possible to use two chokes as primary and secondary of a transformer
(Fig. 6F). Again, the wide range of values can be utilized for almost any transformation
ratio. Depending upon the size and type selected (magnetically shielded types would
not be suitable), the degree of coupling can be varied over a considerable range
by adjusting the relative separation between the two choke bodies. If greater coupling
is desired than can be obtained by mutual coupling, the usual methods of top C,
top L, bottom C, or bottom L, as shown in Figs. 6F through 6J, can be utilized.
However, because of the mutual inductance that exists between two chokes in close
proximity to each other, additional coupling through a physical capacitance may
actually reduce the effective coupling because one effectively tunes out the other
(Figs. 7A and 7B). To prevent this from occurring, sufficient separation to minimize
mutual coupling will give better control through the coupling elements, as indicated
by Fig. 7C.
It is just this capability of being coupled to a coil or another choke that often
requires that a choke be connected so that such coupling is at a minimum. Contrary
to the usual v.h.f. and u.h.f. wiring practices, it is often necessary to use maximum
lead lengths on chokes so that they may be placed away from tuned circuits or supply
lines containing similar or different chokes. And because of the peculiarities of
the distributed constants that make the choke what it is, the extra lead length
has little effect on its performance. Furthermore, placing a choke near the chassis,
although increasing the effective distributed capacitance somewhat, will provide
a certain degree of shielding.
If the choke is magnetically shielded, so much the better, for such a choke will
not only have little or no coupling to circuits but will also not radiate any r.f.
to surrounding circuits as is possible with unshielded chokes. However, a note of
caution is necessary. If a magnetically shielded coil is placed too close to a tuned
circuit, it can effectively load, or lower, the "Q" of that circuit considerably
because the closed ferrite body of the choke acts as if a shorted turn were coupled
to it.
As a series element, a choke may also be used as a trap, either at its SRF or
at some other frequency, by tuning it as a parallel circuit with additional capacitance.
As such, it may be coupled to a circuit either magnetically or capacitively. As
a seriestuned trap, the tuning capacitance should be large relative to the distributed
capacitance of the choke so that the effect of the distributed capacitance is minimized.
If the choke inductance is small, its effective inductance may be adjusted by the
length of its leads, as much as 10%.
Chokes may also be used, because of the small physical sizes and wide range of
inductances available, in the construction of miniature filters. A typical highpass
filter is shown in Fig. 7D. In a majority of cases, the capacitance required
is large, the inductance values small, and the mutual coupling must be at a minimum.
Magnetically shielded microminiature chokes, combined with miniature ceramic capacitors,
can produce a highpass, lowpass, or bandpass filter of incredibly small size yet
with extremely sharp bandpass characteristics and large offfrequency attenuations.
Reliability
R.f. chokes, like all other components, must be selected with a bit of wisdom
and a lot of understanding. In general, most standard makes of chokes will give
satisfactory results even beyond their rated capabilities, although this is not
a recommendation to use them in that way.
As long as chokes are operated within their intended ratings, and their specifications
and intended applications are considered wisely, there should be no problems either
in experimental use or in production.
Recent impartial tests indicate that potted, cementcoated, or otherwise encapsulated
coils tend to have a higher rate of failure as wire diameter is decreased.
Encapsulation tends to restrict the thermal expansion of the windings due to
the different expansion rate of the encapsulating material. These tests indicate
that such a restriction causes the wires to bite through the insulating coating
and short adjacent turns together. However, these tests also show that the failure
rate only increases rapidly above #34 AWG and at temperatures in excess of 150°C.
Furthermore, most encapsulated chokes use materials that do not hinder expansion
of the windings since the materials are, to a wide degree, either compatible in
expansion coefficients or are thermosetting and tend to soften slightly with elevated
heat.
How to Measure
Any of several instruments may be used to determine the various characteristics
of r.f. chokes. The necessity for doing so, however, will depend upon what kind
of information is made available by the manufacturer and just what interpretation
can be made of this information.
The approximate SRF (selfresonant frequency) may be found quite simply with
a griddip oscillator, provided the choke is not completely magnetically shielded.
If more than one dip is observed, the lowest frequency indicated will be the fundamental
SRF. With this setup, you can then alter this frequency with additional shunt capacitance,
meanwhile monitoring the change until the desired frequency has been reached.
Table 1  Selfresonant frequency is higher than test frequency.
Table 2  The relationship between choke and "Q" meter tuning.
For any type of choke, shielded or not, a "Q" meter can be used to determine
the SRF and, simultaneously, the distributed capacitance and the "Q" at the SRF.
This last point is often overlooked in the application of a choke and the use of
the available data. A careless reading will lead the user to believe that the "Q"
shown is at the SRF, when it is actually the "Q" that is obtained at the frequency
of measurement at which the inductance measurement is made on the "Q" meter. Only
at the given test frequency does the "Inductance" dial read correctly, but the test
frequencies for the various inductance ranges differ from the SRF by a factor of
2 to 20 in the normal range of miniature choke values. The differences for one make
of choke are shown in Table 1. It is obvious from this table and from the vast differences
in "Q" for the same coil at various frequencies that one measurement cannot substitute
for the other. Of course, the "Q" may not be important in many applications, but
where it plays a significant part, it must be determined for the SRF or the frequency
at which it is to be used.
The SRF is measured on the "Q" meter by the following procedure. Connect the
test leads to the "Cap" terminals. With the choke disconnected and the leads in
place, connect to the "Coil" terminals a relatively high "Q" work coil that will
resonate in the region of the expected SRF of the choke. The choke is then connected
to the test leads on the "Cap" terminals and the "Capacitance" dial is tuned to
reresonate the combination. If no change is necessary, then that frequency is the
SRF of the choke. If the "Capacitance" dial must be shifted to reresonate, then
the entire procedure must be repeated, but at a higher or lower frequency until
the SRF is found. As a guide, Table 2 shows the relationships among the various
indications.
The effective parallel resistance R_{p} and effective parallel reactance
X_{p} at any frequency may be found by a similar method, except that the
process used to pinpoint the SRF is not necessary.
Adjust the "Q" meter for resonance at the test frequency F and record the indicated
"Q" as Q1 and capacitance as C1. Remove the test leads from the "Cap" terminals
and record the increase in capacitance needed to reresonate the "Q" meter as C2.
Reconnect the leads and the choke to be measured, and reresonate at F. Call the
new reading Q2.
The effective parallel resistance is found from R_{p} = [(1.59 x 10^{5})
(Q1Q2)] / [f (C1 + CL) (Q1  Q2)] and the effective parallel reactance is found
from X_{p} = (1.5 x 10^{5}) / f (C2  C1) where f is in MHz and
C is in pF. The impedance is at any frequency, and
Z = R_{p} at the SRF since X_{p} = 0 and .
Under some conditions (C2  C1) may be negative, indicating a capacitive reactance
for the choke at that frequency.
The "Q" is found from "Q" = [ (C2  C1) (Q1Q2)] / [C1 (Q1Q2)] and is the "Q"
of the unknown impedance, or in this case the choke being tested. This is obtained
from the relation "Q" = R_{p}/X_{p}.
The distributed capacitance may be measured with the "Q" meter by the twomeasurement
method when the distributed capacitance, C_{d}, is 10 pF or less, as follows.
Connect the choke to the "Coil" terminals and resonate the choke by varying the
"Frequency" dial, with the capacitance set at a low value (30 to 50 pF). Note the
frequency and call this capacitance C1. Change the frequency setting to onehalf
the previous frequency setting and reresonate the coil by varying the "Capacitance"
dial. The new value is called C2. The distributed capacitance, within 20%, is found
by C_{d} = (C24C1) /3.
A much simpler method of determining the approximate value of C_{d} is
from a resonance chart, where frequency, inductance, and capacitance are shown.
As long as C_{d} is small, it has a negligible effect on all but very small
values of inductance. For this reason, the apparent inductance will be close to
the true inductance, and the chart would probably show the required capacitance
to resonate the apparent inductance with as good an accuracy as the "Q" meter.
For example, a 10μH ±10% choke measured by the above method had an apparent
inductance of 10.7 μH and a distributed capacitance of 0.67 pF. The "Q" at SRF
was not measured because the SRF was above the range of the "Q" meter.
From a resonance chart, the apparent inductance given in the manufacturer's data
sheet gives a capacitance value slightly higher.
The actual inductance that would be measured if the choke had no distributed
capacitance at all is found from the value obtained in the C_{d} measurement.
The true inductance is L_{T} = L_{A} [1[C1 / (C1 + C_{d})].
In the case of the 10μH choke just mentioned, L_{T} = 10.7 [38/(38+.67)]
= 9.83 μH where C_{1} is the capacitance required to measure the apparent
inductance, 38 pF in this case; and L_{A} is the apparent inductance.
Thus, the SRF can be determined from the values of L_{T} and C_{d},
or the approximate C_{d} can be obtained from the approximate SRF and a
resonance chart. Because of the nature of r.f. chokes and their various circuit
requirements, these approximations will quite often be adequate.
Posted July 5, 2021(original
11/27/2014)
