Amplifiers cover a very broad range of types (Class A, B, C, D, AB, logarithmic,
etc.), form factors, connectorized or non-connectorized, discrete or fully biased
and impedance matched, low or high power, low or high frequency, low or high voltage
supplied, narrow or wide bandwidth. Fortunately, within this page you are practically
guaranteed to find a manufacturer that already makes or will custom design a solution
for you. Please consider contacting RF Cafe advertisers first.
| Packaged & MMIC |
Aeroflex | www.973-887-5700
| Whippany, NJ
Attenuators, phase shifters, digital time delay units, LNA's,
switches, modulators, dividers combiners & couplers, ferrites, levelers, duplexers,
amplifiers, resistors, terminations.
Aeroflex | Metelics |
www.408-737-8181 | Sunnyvale, CA
InGaP HBT amplifiers, Schottky PIN tunnel, varactor,
step recovery diodes (SRD), sampling phase detectors, surface mount products, MIS
AetherComm | www.760-598-4340
| San Marcos, CA
High power RF amplifiers (DC-40 GHz), low noise RF amplifiers
(DC-40 GHz), medium power amplifiers (DC-40 GHz), receivers & transmitters (DC-40
Agile Microwave Technology
| 516-931-1760 | Hicksville, NY
RF amplifiers, limiters, switches, and multipliers.
Our goal is to cut product cost by more than 50% by keeping our overhead low, by
staying small and focusing on innovative designs which are inspired by the commercial
wireless market. Our goal is to provide same or better performance, size and quality
at a much lower cost through better engineering and outsourcing to U.S. based contract
AKON | 408-432-8039 | San
Microwave amplifiers 0.5 to 20.0 GHz, power dividers and gain (slope)
equalizers 1.0 to 18.0 GHz, converter assemblies 2.0-20.0 GHz, filter banks and
switch filter banks 2.0-18.0 GHz, discriminators.
Alliance Test Equipment
| 508-671-9970 | Dudley, MA
Products from many manufacturers available at
prices discounted up to 80% off manufacturer list price. We specialize in Agilent
/ HP / Keysight, Tektronix, Anritsu, Fluke and Rhode & Schwartz and others.
We are a global organization and have the ability to source hard to find equipment
through our network of suppliers.
Ampelon | +31 24
3552666 | The Netherlands
Discrete transistor amplifiers for mobile broadband
infrastructure, radio & TV broadcasting, CO2 lasers & plasma, MRI, particle
accelerators, radar & air-traffic control, non-cellular communications, RF cooking &
defrosting, RF heating and plasma lighting.
Amplifier Technology Ltd
| +44 (0) 8700 869 941 | Bristol, England
Designs and manufactures leading edge
RF power amplifiers primarily for the defence and aerospace sectors.
ar rf/microwave instrumentation
(formerly Amplifier Research) | 800-933-8181 | Souderton, PA
RF power amplifiers,
solid state microwave amplifiers, TWT amplifiers, antennas, transient generators,
EMC test systems and software, field probes and monitors, test accessories, and
RF test system controllers.
AmpliTech | 631-521-7831
| Holbrook, NY
Designs, develops, and manufactures custom and standard state-of-the-art
low noise amplifiers (LNAs) , medium power amplifiers, and amplifier-related sub-assemblies
for commercial, SATCOM, space, and military markets. These designs cover the frequency
range from 50 kHz to 40 GHz.
Anadigics | 908-668-5000
| Warren, NJ
Base station PAs, switches, handset PAs, gain block amplifiers,
upconverters, downconverters, line amplifiers, drop amplifiers for cable systems,
and transimpedance amplifiers for fiber optic applications, Cascade Calculator.
Analog Devices | 800-262-5643
| Norwood, MA
Op amps, switches, A/D, D/A, S&H, AD8347 direct conversion
RFIC (800 MHz to 2.7 GHz), ADIsimPLL synthesizer circuit simulation software.
(ARKalmus) | 425-485-9000 | Bothell, WA
300 kHz to 65 MHz modules for NMR, 10
MHz to 670 MHz for military, communications and EW, 20 to 1000 MHz amplifiers and
amplifier modules for high energy physics, 900 MHz to 3 GHz; single frequency amplifiers
for high energy physics. Power available in 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 W increments.
Axiom Test Equipment
| 1-760-806-6600 | Vista, CA
Whether you need to rent, buy, sell, repair,
sell or trade test equipment, we are committed to providing superior customer service
and high quality electronic test equipment. In-house repair lab. For anyone seeking
to offload surplus or obsolete equipment, we offer a trade-in program or we can
buy the equipment from you.
| 305-887-8400 | Medley, FL
Design, develop, test and manufacture RF amplifier
products for FM, TV and Military applications. The business operates from a commercial
manufacturing facility in Miami Florida.
Burr-Brown (now Texas Instruments)
IC solutions - Op amps, switches, A/D, D/A, S&H.
Celwave (now RFS) | 877-737
9675 | Meriden, CT
Base station antennas, microwave antennas, filters and combiners,
repeaters, transmission line systems, waveguides, amplifiers, air and foam dielectric
coaxial cables, factory-made jumper assemblies, connectors and a large variety of
Ciao Wireless | 805-389-3224
| Camarillo, CA
Amplifiers for multi-octave, octave & Â½-octave, broadband,
LNAs, and RF limiting. Replacement amplifiers for anything previously or currently
made by JCA Technology, Cougar (connectorized versions), Avantek, WJ, CTT, Celeritek,
Amplica, among others. Also manufacture radial combiners and space qualified filters.
Environmental screening services available.
Comtech PST | 631-777-8900
| Melville, NY
RF & microwave amplifiers, control devices, limiters, switches.
CTT | 408-541-0596 | Sunnyvale,
GaAs FET, low-noise & power amplifiers 100MHz thru 50GHz, 0.5-40 GHz subassemblies.
Qorvo / Custom MMIC
| 978-467-4290 | Westford, MA
Fabless RF and microwave MMIC designer trusted
by government and defense industry OEMs with their biggest microwave circuit challenges
to solve various size, weight, performance, and cost (SWaP-C) challenges throughout
the microwave signal chain. We also have a line of off-the-shelf MMICs including
amplifiers, mixers, attenuators, phase shifters, and switches. Over 25 years of
combined experience in designing state-of-the-art MMIC chips for millimeter wave,
point-to-point radio, VSAT, WLAN, and cellular systems as well as general microwave
Daico Industries | 310-507-3242
| Carson, CA
Attenuators & amplifiers, programmable, DC to 18 GHz, up to
500 W CW, IP2 > +100 dBm, IP3 > +50 dBm, matched sets, phased matched, &
amplitude matched, diode, GaAs, connectorized, through-hole, surface mount, commercial,
military & space.
| 805-240-1044 | Oxnard, CA
Filters, diplexers, multiplexers, filter/amplifiers,
variable attenuators, integrated assemblies, power combiners, waveguides. Product
frequencies from 1 kHz to 50 GHz with RF power handling up to 25 kW.
| +49 6031 6975 100 | Cologne, Germany
RF transmission and switching equipment
including distributing and combining matrices, redundancy switching systems, RF-over-fiber
and routing products, multiplexers, distribution amplifiers, splitters, and combiners,
broadband active and passive products.
Elisra | + 972-3- 6175 111
Designs, develops, manufactures, integrates and supports advanced system
solutions for air, sea and land deployment.
Empower RF Systems |
310-412-8100 | Inglewood, CA
Founded in 1999, Empower RF Systems is a U.S.-based
company and global leader in power amplifier solutions that are critical to defense,
commercial, and industrial market applications. Investments in both hardware and
software engineering are yielding next generation products with significant size,
weight, and interface functionality advantages over legacy products in the market.
Erzia Technologies S.L. |
1-202-899-9709 | Washington, DC | 0034 942 29 13 45 | Santander, Spain
communications and RF equipment supplier for space and satellite communications,
specializing in developing and manufacturing custom equipment for specific requirements,
systems design & integration.
everything RF | 312-436-0084
Find RF & microwave components, equipment and services - 216,401 products
from over 1143 manufacturers listed in 275 categories. Download hundreds of vendor
white papers. Test equipment amplifiers, antennas, attenuators, bias-Ts, & terminations,
RF connectors & adapters, RF filters, power combiners, couplers, & dividers,
RF switches, waveguide, Bluetooth & RFID.
Exodus Advanced Communications
| 702-534-6564 | Las Vegas, NV
Manufacturer of RF power amplifiers ranging from
500 kHz to 51 GHz with various output power levels and noise figure ranges.
Custom designs and manufacturing requirements for both small and large volume levels.
Experience in military jamming, communications, radar, EMI/EMC and various commercial
projects with all designing and manufacturing of our HPA, MPA, and LNA products
Herley | 717-735-8117 |
Amplifiers, attenuators, modulators, power dividers, oscillators,
synthesizers, phase shifters, switches.
Herotek | 408-941-8399
| San Jose, CA
GaAs FET amplifiers, low-noise, small signal & power 0.01
to 50 GHz, limiters, detectors, switches, harmonic generators.
High Sierra Microwave
| 530-644-3393 | Camino, CA
Designs and builds PLL signal sources, up/down converters,
low noise amplifiers, and comb marker generators (weak signal sources). Also provides
RF/microwave test/measurement services, such as phase noise measurements to 40 GHz
Hittite Microwave Corp
| 978-250-3343 | Chelmsford, MA
Amplifiers, attenuators, frequency multipliers,
mixers, modulators, prescalers, switches, VCO's.
HXI | 978-772-7774 | Harvard,
A subsidiary of Renaissance Electronics, is a leading supplier of millimeter-wave
products including LNAs, power amplifiers, mixers, detectors, oscillators, switches,
transmitters, receivers and transceivers for radars, communications systems and
sensors. Digital radios, mm-wave, E-band, and isolators. Standard components and
custom-engineered products at the sub system level in the 18 to 110 GHz range. Also
manufacture complete 60 GHz, E-band products, digital radios and mm-wave products
for enterprise and back-haul applications.
Integrated Device Technology (IDT)
| 800-223-1366 | San Jose, CA
System-level solutions that optimize applications
with products in RF, timing, wireless power transfer, serial switching, interfaces
and sensing solutions are among the company's broad array of complete mixed-signal
solutions for the communications, computing, consumer, automotive and industrial
segments. These products are used for development in areas such as 4G infrastructure,
network communications, cloud datacenters and power management for computing and
Instruments for Industry (IFI)
| 631-467-8400 | Ronkonkoma, NY
Amplifier configurations such as tetrode tubes,
TWTs, klystrons, and solid state devices. Standard horn antennas and TEM cells.
Isotec | 516-780-2766,
USA | 82-2-2040-6176, Korea
Designs, develops and manufactures extensive line
of RF/microwave connectors, cable assemblies, attenuators, terminations, couplers,
filters, surge protectors, and LNAs. Low PIM designs available.
KMW | 800-832-0569 | Cerritos,
AMBA (Active Multi Beam Antenna System), amplifiers, arrestors, attenuators,
combiner | dividers, connectors, couplers, duplexers, filters, isolators/circulators,
L-com | 800-341-5266 | North
Products include cable assemblies, adapters, connectors, lightning
protectors, patch panels/racks, bulk cable, RF filters & splitters, media converters,
switches, power supplies, RF amplifiers, enclosures.
Linear Technology | 800-454-6327
| Milpitas, CA
Designs, manufactures and markets a broad line of standard high
performance integrated circuits; principal product categories include amplifiers,
battery management, data converters, high frequency, interface, voltage regulators
and voltage references.
Linwave Technology Ltd
| +44 1522 681811 | Lincoln, UK
RF and microwave design and manufacturing company
with specialist knowledge in module and sub-system design. Our experience encompasses
the consumer, industrial, automotive and defense market sectors. SATCOM BUC, SSPA,
Military microwave sub modules.
Locus Microwave (now CPI)
| 814-466-6275 | Boalsburg, PA
Amplifiers, SSPAs, LNAs, feed-forward, ultra low
Noise amplifiers, high dynamic range amplifiers, design & manufacture, serving
commercial and military markets.
Lotus Communication Systems
| 888-236-8588 | Weston, MA
RF modular system components up to 20 GHz - amplifiers,
filters, attenuators, limiters, oscillators, bias-Ts. COTS shielded enclosures w/SMA
connectors for RF / electronics prototyping. Customization to your specification
from prototype to production.
M/A-COM (now Cobham) | 800-366-2266
| Lowell, MA
Developer and high-volume manufacturer of RF, microwave and millimeter
wave semiconductors, components and technologies including diodes, semiconductors,
transistors, passives, blocks, substrates.
| 408-778-4200 | Morgan Hill, CA
Amplifiers, converters, couplers, DC blocks,
dividers, doublers, fiber-optic devices, mixers, waveguide.
Maxim Integrated Products
| 800-998-9872 | Sunnyvale, CA
Amplifiers, comparators, analog switches, multiplexers,
analog filters, linear and mixed-signal integrated circuits, power supplies, battery
management, RTCs, clocks, oscillators, delays, counters, fiber optic ICs.
MCLI | 800-333-6254 | St.
Power dividers, couplers, isolators, circulators, waveguide components,
oscillators, filters, hybrids, attenuators, switches, terminations, amplifiers.
Microwave Amplifiers | +44
(0) 1275 853196 | England
GaAs FET microwave amplifiers & subsystems for
research, industrial, military and commercial applications. Amplifier frequency
range from 0.8 - 20 GHz with power outputs of up to 200 W (+53 dBm).
Microwave Products and Technology
(MPT) | 714-316-7300 | Fullerton CA
Core capabilities include phased
array components and subsystem for communication and radar. SiGe, GaN, and GaAs
RF circuit design and packaging. Also information security products and managed
information security services.
| 909-627-4125 | Chino, CA
Amplifiers, attenuators, circulators, isolators, frequency
multipliers, waveguide couplers, mixers, detectors, filters, pin switches, adapters.
| 800-967-4267 | National City, CA
Microwave amplifiers 10 MHz to 26 GHz for
military and commercial industries.
MicroWave Technology | 510-651-6700
| Fremont, CA
Gain, temperature compensation and voltage regulation modules,
GaAs FETs, GaAs MESFET chips, amplifiers - high linearity driver, low noise receiver,
broad band general purpose.
Mid-Atlantic RF Systems
| 410-893-2430 | Forest Hill, MD
Hybrid, directional couplers, switches, RF power
dividers, RF amplifiers, synthesizers, distribution assembly, contract RF assembly.
MilliTech | 413-582-9620
| Northampton, MA
Antennas, quasioptical products, mixers, detectors, oscillators,
amplifiers, multipliers, control components, filters, isolators, passive waveguide
products, test & measurement products.
Milmega | +44(0) 1983
618004 | UK
Mini-Circuits | 718-934-4500 |
Providers of microwave power amplifiers for RF immunity testing above
1 GHz. Octave bands, full load mismatch tolerance, low noise and harmonic levels.
Attenuators, baluns, bias tee, cables (test quality), chokes, DC
blocks, mixers, amplifiers, filters, line stretchers, modulators, oscillators,
power combiners / couplers / splitters, switches, terminations, transformers. Surface
mount, connectorized. Application (app) notes.
Miteq | 631-436-7400 | Hauppauge, NY
Amplifiers, mixers, frequency multipliers, passive power components, solid-state
switches, attenuators, power dividers, RF and IF signal processing components, oscillators,
frequency synthesizers, integrated multifunction assemblies, fiber optic products,
up/downconverters, test translators, IF/video equalizers, redundancy switchover
units, video modulators and modems.
| 416-252-5602 | Canada
Thin film substrates, RF and electro-optic components
(capacitors, resistors, attenuator pads) and subsystems (amplifiers, transceivers,
National Semiconductor (now
Texas Instruments) |
800-272-9959 | Santa Clara, CA
A/D converters, amplifiers,
CRT, flat panel displays, IC solutions, DC/DC converters, regulators.
Nextec Microwave & RF
| 408-727-1189 | Santa Clara, CA
Broadband power, low noise amplifiers, frequency
multipliers and OC-192 modulator driver amplifiers for RF, microwave, mm-wave, commercial,
military & fiber optic applications.
Norden Millimeter |
530-642-9123 | Placerville, CA
Microwave & Millimeter wave components from
500 MHz to 110 GHz, amplifiers, frequency multipliers, up/down converters, filters,
oscillators, integrated assemblies.
| 513-360-0800 | Middletown, OH
Broad range of design and engineering services
related to the development and sustainment of key communications, telemetry and
electronic warfare systems, as well as a complete line of commercially available
RF products, including wideband frequency converters, high-efficiency and miniature
solid state power amplifiers and bidirectional amplifiers, high intercept low noise
amplifiers and miniature RF filters.
OPHIR RF | 310-306-5556 | Los
Amplifiers, RF & microwave, broadband high power, communication
band high power, solid state amplifiers.
Orban Microwave (OMP)
| 915-590-0825 | El Paso, TX
Frequency converters, power amplifiers, low noise
amplifiers, local oscillators, patch antennas, parabolic antennas and antenna arrays
for WLAN, GPS, cellular, point to point, satellite and other applications.
Parsec Technologies |
972-804-4600 | Plano, TX
Amplifier chips for various wireless and mobile antenna
markets. HDTV, M2M, LTE, GPS, WiFi, CATV / broadband, VHF / UHF, digital audio
broadcast (DAB), macro cell & small cell, cognitive radio, software defined
radio (SDR), & TV whitespace.
Pascall Electronics |
+44 (0) 1983 817300 | UK
Amplifiers, mixers, attenuators, switches, oscillators,
couplers, IQ networks.
Picosecond Pulse Labs (now Tektronix) | 303-443-1249 | Boulder,
Amplifiers, drivers, attenuators, baluns, transformers, bias tees, comb generators,
custom pulse generators, DC blocks, driver/controller modules, ECL/PECL terminators,
edge compressors, impulse forming networks, low-pass filters, power dividers, pulse
generators, sampler modules TDR/TDT instruments.
Planar Monolithics Industries
| 301-662-5019 | Frederick, MD
PMI designs, develops, manufactures, tests, and
markets hybrid RF/microwave and monolithic integrated circuits (MIC/MMIC) and components
hybrid MIC/MMIC supercomponents and subsystems.
Princeton Microwave Technology
| 609-586-8140 | Mercerville, NJ
Manufacturer of high quality DRO, PLDRO oscillators,
coaxial resonator oscillators, Military & SATCOM amplifiers, power dividers,
phase noise measurement systems, phase shifters and transmit receive modules, phase
locked YIG frequency synthesizers.
Pro-Comm | 732-206-0660
| Brick, NJ
RF amplifiers, triode cavity oscillators, sources, transmitters,
test equipment for cellular, military, medical, sterilization, for university and
private labs. 600-3000 MHz, 500 W peak to 50 kW peak nominal. Design,
manufacture and service RF drivers. Repair/refurbish medical RF drivers manufactured
by SPC, MPD, Titan Beta, Micon, Siemens, SGS Thomson, Varian, Comtech, Pro-Comm.
Q-Bit (now API Technologies)
| 888-553-7531 | Palm Bay, FL
Amplifiers, mixers and VCOs. 750 datasheets to
choose from with customizations requested. Industry standard packages, aggressive
lead times and great customer service.
QORVO (formerly RFMD)| 336-664-1233
| Greensboro, NC
Supplier of low-cost, high-performance integrated circuits and
solutions — enabling wireless connectivity inlc including radio components and solutions
for cellular, WLAN, Bluetooth® wireless technology, GPS and infrastructure.
QuinStar Technology |
310-320-1111 | Torrance, CA
Designs and manufactures
millimeter-wave products for communication, scientific, and test applications including
millimeter-wave products, microelectronic assembly, rapid prototyping, and mass
800-839-3658 | Indiana, PA
Designs and manufactures state-of-the-art proprietary
hardware solutions (DC to 40 GHz) to facilitate RF signal management for Satellite
uplink and downlink applications in satellite teleports, cable HFC headends, broadcast,
wireless and military telecommunications networks.
RFHIC Corp USA | 919-342-7099
| Cary, NC
CATV hybrid line amplifiers, broadcasting amplifiers, FTTH amplifiers,
digital TV application, MMIC (GaN, GaAs), high power transistors (GaN), low noise,
wideband, & radar pallet amplifiers, PLLs, mixers, directional couplers
RF HiTec | 82-2-999-4601
| Seoul, Korea
Super linear and high power single/multi-carrier power amplifiers
for use in PCS | DCS | GSM | CDMA | IMT2000 | WLL applications for frequency bands
from 450M to 2.7G, LNAs, mini-LNA, U/D converter and other RF components.
RFMD (now QORVO) | 336-664-1233
| Greensboro, NC
Supplier of low-cost, high-performance integrated circuits and
solutions — enabling wireless connectivity inlc including radio components and solutions
for cellular, WLAN, Bluetooth® wireless technology, GPS and infrastructure.
Rohde & Schwarz
| 888-837-8772 | Columbia, MD
Test & measurement, radio communications, broadcasting,
antennas, IT security, signal intelligence, spectrum monitoring, trunked radio.
RF signal generators, spectrum , network, and communications analyzers, digital
and mixed signal o-scopes, power and field strength meters, amplifiers, frequency
counters, arbitrary waveform generators.
Roswin | 82-41-621-4450
| ChungNom, Korea
Products include phase locked loop modules, voltage controlled
oscillators, low noise amplifiers, high power amplifiers, dielectric filters, LC
filters & UDC modules.
SHF Communication Technologies
+49-30-772-051-23 | Germany
Adapters - 3.5mm, 2.4mm, 2.92mm, 1.85mm,
amplifiers (DC to > 50 GHz), connectors - 1.85mm, 2.92mm, optical transmitters,
receivers, phase shifters, test equipment pattern generators, error analyzer, multiplexer,
demultiplexer, clock recovery, bias tees, DC blocks, monitor tee, power dividers.
SIEL Srl | +39 02 45713300
Specializes in the design and production of professional FM broadcasting
equipment including FM exciters and solid-state FM amplifiers up to 20 KW, stereo
and RDS encoders, control systems, analogue and digital radio links.
Sirenza Microdevices (now
RFMD now QORVO)
336-664-1233 | Greensboro, NC
Designer & manufacturer
of RF components serving existing and emerging wireless and wireline markets, offering
a wide range of innovative RF solutions for transmitter, receiver and transceiver
designs including amplifiers, transistors, mixers, modulators, VCOs, PLLs, demodulators,
stripline couplers, transformers.
| 781-376-3000 | Woburn, MA
RF amplifiers, attenuators, circulators, demodulators,
detectors, diodes, directional couplers, FEMs, RF subsystems, isolators, mixers,
modulators, optoisolators, phase shifters, PLLs-synthesizers-VCOs, & more.
Spacek Labs | 805-564-4404
| Santa Barbara, CA
Amplifiers, filters, mixers, multipliers, oscillators, block
Teledyne Cougar | 408-522-3838
| Sunnyvale, CA
RF and microwave cascadable amplifiers and subsystems in 100
kHz to 12 GHz range. Detectors, limiters, limiting amplifiers, attenuators, AGC
amplifiers, oscillators w/MMIC amplifiers.
Texas Instruments | 800-477-8924
| Dallas, TX
Op amps, audio amplifiers, clocks & timers, data converters
, logic ICs, interface IC and connectivity solutions, power management, processors,
RFID systems, RF/IF & ZigBee® solutions, switches & multiplexers.
TMD Technologies Ltd | +44
(0)20 8573 5555 | UK
Suppliers of rugged amplifiers and transmitters for radar
and electronic Warfare (EW) applications, as well as microwave tubes, high voltage
power supplies, instrumentation microwave amplifiers and special processing services.
Toko | 847-297-0070 | Mt.
Filters, baluns, inductors, antennas, semiconductors, amplifiers,
Tomco Technologies | (618)
8364 2203 | Adelaide, Australia
Design and manufacture of solid-state RF power
amplifiers, pulsed and CW, 10kHz to 600MHz.
Triad RF Systems | 732-310-9918
| East Brunswick, NJ
Your source for RF front ends, transceivers and amplifier
systems that just plain work! Solutions for integrating high performance HPAs into
sophisticated RF subsystems and systems without sacrificing efficiency and linearity.
| 503-615-9000 | Hillsboro, OR
Wireless, telecom and millimeter amplifiers, GaAs
integrated circuits and transistors. SAW filters.
Tugicom | + 972 - 98615533
| Netanya, Israel
FM transmitters (up to 300 W), receivers, power amplifiers,
RF modules, stereo encoders, filters.
Wessex Electronics (now
Amplifier Technology Ltd, now Vislink) | 0117 957 1404 | UK
RF & Microwave
amplifiers, microcircuits, phase shifters, 26-40 GHz LNAs & downconverters,
microwave synthesizers, test & measurement.
| 727-490-8812 | Holiday, FL
Designs, manufactures, tests and sells high value
USB powered and controlled RF signal generators, synthesizers, power detectors,
mixers, Upconverters and downconverters.