Copyright: 1996 - 2024
BSEE - KB3UON
RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling
2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed
formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit
design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at
the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps
while tying up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got
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Answers to RF Cafe Quiz #16
All RF Cafe Quizzes make great fodder for
employment interviews for technicians or engineers - particularly those who are
fresh out of school or are relatively new to the work world. Come to think of it,
they would make equally excellent study material for the same persons who are going
to be interviewed for a job. Bonne chance, Viel Glück, がんばろう,
buena suerte, удачи, in bocca al lupo, 행운을 빕니다,
ádh mór, בהצלחה, lykke til, 祝你好運.
Well, you know what I mean: Good luck!
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RF Cafe Quizzes.
Note: Some material based on books have
Return to RF Cafe Quiz #16
1. What does dBi, the most often used unit for antenna gain (or directivity), stand for?
Decibels of gain relative to an isotropic radiator
An isotropic radiator is theoretically a point source
(dimensionless), and therefore distributes the input power uniformly across the entire spherical volume
surrounding it. Directivity concentrates the input power in a preferred direction, leaving less power to be
radiated in the not-preferred directions.
2. For which region of space does antenna gain normally apply?
b) Far field
without exception, specified antenna gain refers to the far field. The common sense proof is that if you had two
antennas with a gain of, say, 10 dBi, and placed them face-to-face, you would not realize a gain of 20 dB in
signal power while the path loss would be negligible.
One exception would be NFC (near field communications)
antennas which are designed to use combinations of inductive and/or magnetic coupling to transfer the signal.
3. For which type of antenna does the pattern to the right describe?
Elevation Pattern Azimuth Pattern
c) 1/2-wave dipole
Patterns page for more patterns.
4. What is the free space impedance that an antenna
d) 120p Ω (≈377 Ω)
= 120p Ω (μ0
= 4p 10-7 Henries/m, ε0 = 8.854 x 10-12 Farads/m)
5. What is the
name given to the point where the RF input signal interfaces to the antenna?
where the signal conductors physically attach to the antenna's radiating element structure.
Where is the approximate transition point between near field and far field?
a) λ / (2p)
explanation is a bit complex, so please see this link on the
Conformity site for details.
7. What is an isotropic radiator?
a) An antenna that radiates equally in all directions
8. Which type of antenna would typically have the highest directivity?
Depending on the size, degree of curvature, and the edge properties of the parabolic dish, gain (directivity,
which is generally interchangeable with gain for high efficiencies) can be very high.
Patterns page for gain ranges of various antenna types.
On a center-fed 1/2-wave dipole, where is the voltage potential the highest?
b) At the tips (see diagram to
Intuitively, at the tips of the antenna the current has nowhere to flow, so I = 0 there. The
1/2-wave dipole acts like a capacitor where the voltage lags the current by 90°. As a result, the voltage is at
maximum magnitude at the tips.
Yagi antennas are constructed of which three types of elements?
c) Reflector, driven, and director
The Yagi, or Yagi-Uda, is constructed similar to the one shown to the right. One or more reflector elements are
behind the driven element, and one or more director elements are in front of the driven element.
own at the