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    Kirt Blattenberger,


RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while typing up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

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Three Anecdotes of the Audion's Early Days
January 1947 Radio-Craft

January 1947 Radio-Craft

January 1947 Radio Craft Cover - RF Cafe[Table of Contents]

Wax nostalgic about and learn from the history of early electronics. See articles from Radio-Craft, published 1929 - 1953. All copyrights are hereby acknowledged.

What better subject is there to post on the birthday of Dr. Lee de Forest than an article entitled, "Three Anecdotes of the Audion's Early Days," which appeared in the January 1947 issue of Radio-Craft magazine whose theme was the 40th anniversary of the Audio's invention? That was a rhetorical question, of course, sort-of, because any of the multiple Audion article from that issue would be a great subject (see TOC). Find out from the man who coined the term how the vacuum tube's grid was named. Did you know that thanks to lawsuits and unscrupulous actions by competitors, that de Forest went through multiple cycles of plenty and near poverty? In a related note, as chronicled in "Lee de Forest and the Navy," faced powerful skeptics when attempting to facilitate adoption of wireless communications aboard U.S. Navy ships - not unlike the Wright Brothers' struggles with convincing the U.S. Army of their aeroplane's usefulness in armed conflict.

Three Anecdotes of the Audion's Early Days

Three Anecdotes of the Audion's Early Days, January 1947 Radio-Craft - RF CafeDe Forest Audion 1907 - 1947

How the Grid Was Named

During the early experiments with the first crude handmade radio tubes it was the custom of Dr. de Forest to give directions to his assistants somewhat in the following manner:

"Here ... hook this to that - and "that to this. Bring this wire over to that post and move 'this over there."

In the rapidly shifting tests it was at times, difficult to differentiate between what was "this, that or the other thing," so one day, in a state of exasperation, an assistant impulsively asked:

"Doc, why don't you name some of these parts so we'll know what you're talking about and what we are doing?"

"All right," snapped de Forest in reply. "You know what the filament is and which is the 'wing' (now known as 'plate') so we'll call this other jigger - the grid, - because that's what it looks like - a roaster grid." Then, quickly adding, as if it were equally important:

"... and remember this ... in fact make a sign and paste it on the wall: Remember, Green To Grid and Red to Wing."

To this day that order has never been countermanded and we find that in every country in the World where electronic circuits are planned or used the "lead to grid" is always specified in the color code as - Green!

De Forest's Nickel

One day as Frank Butler was entering the open door of Dr. de Forest's laboratory in the Parker Building he hesitated at the entrance and saw no one inside. Just as he was about to step forward across the threshold a slight sound came from behind the door and he heard the voice of de Forest unconsciously muttering to himself these words:

"Humph! I don't know whether to get a sandwich with this nickel or to buy a pad of writing paper ..."

In an instant the two were facing each other and the sudden, unexpected meeting took de Forest so by surprise that he dropped the precious coin so it rolled underneath the nearby empty shipping boxes which constituted the workbench. This placed the inventor in the predicament of not knowing which to do first - retrieve the coin or greet Butler who was then returning from an out-of-town visit.

This is but a sidelight upon the impoverished conditions under which Dr. de Forest was often compelled to exist in those early days.

Navy and the Audion

A short time after the first few audions were made, Dr. de Forest took his original mahogany receiver cabinet with the "peep window" in front, together with a seven-plate Witherbee storage battery to the Navy Department in Washington hoping to interest them in his new discovery. The story of how "they entirely missed the boat" is a classic example of many similar incidents ascribed to dumb officialdom.

 The several officers rendered an unfavorable decision based upon six counts:

1. The device can in no way be of service to the department either on land or sea.

2. The device is found impractical.

3. It is undesirable on shipboard because the motion of the ship at sea would permit the battery fluid to escape from the vent holes of the battery, splashing the acid on and ruining the deck of the wireless room.

4. The price of $30.00 is excessively high in comparison with a good crystal detector.

5. The device is short lived and bulbs would have to be replenished too often.

6. It is regarded as unreliable and unwanted because it is too new. It is untried. It is not standard equipment.



Posted August 26, 2020

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