RF Cafe Software
About RF Cafe
1996 - 2016
BSEE - KB3UON
RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The Internet was still largely an unknown entity at the time and not much was available in the form of WYSIWYG ...
All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.
My Hobby Website:
Try Using SEARCH
to Find What You Need.
There are 1,000s of Pages Indexed on RF Cafe !
These archive pages are provided in order to make it easier for you to find items that you remember seeing on the RF Cafe homepage. Of course probably the easiest way to find anything on the website is to use the "Search RF Cafe" box at the top of every page.
Homepage Archive Pages
2017: Jan |
Jun | Jul |
2016: Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
2015: Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
2014: Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
2013: Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
What Wives Think About Ham Radio
When I first as the title of this article, I thought it was going to be a comical parody on how wives (YLs) of Ham radio operators (OMs) viewed their husbands' hobby. It turned out to be a report on a nationwide survey. Many of wives of Hams were themselves licensed operators which, at the time, required Morse code proficiency in addition to radio theory and regulations. In 1966 the average cost of a Ham shack layout was about $1,000, which is equivalent to $7,518 in 2017. As with most electronics ...
Craftsman Tools Sold to Stanley Black & Decker
Another chapter in American tradition has come to an end. Sears Roebuck is likely going into bankruptcy and then disappear - thanks to poor management. Fortunately, the Craftsman tool line has been sold to Stanley Black & Decker, so at least part of the legacy will live on. Most of my tools are Craftsman - motivated mostly by tradition and a desire to support American companies. Plans call for establishing new Craftsman manufacturing facilities stateside. BTW, the Sears store here in Erie closed last November. Boscov's, a Reading, PA-based department store chain ...
VidaRF Announces RF Power Dividers
VidaRF offers a wide selection of 2-way through 64-way power divider/combiners, designed to cover 100 MHz to 20 GHz with average power handling of 30 watts for narrow, octave, dual and multi-octave band applications. Standard connector type: SMA female, other connectors available upon request. VidaRF is a North Carolina based company that is focused on being a solutions provider by building to customer specs and offering zero days lead time for custom parts through ...
Electrocrystallization: Breakthrough in Gold Nanoparticle Research
"A research team as published a research study that demonstrates how it is possible to obtain very high quality crystals formed of gold nanoparticles. The research on gold nanoparticles is a field of both fundamental and applied importance" explains Academy Professor Kari Rissanen of the Department of Chemistry at the University of Jyväskylä. X-ray crystallography is the most powerful method for molecular-structure determination of these nanosystems, but obtaining good quality single crystals suitable for accurate X-ray ..."
IMS2017 Student Design Competition Winners to Be Gifted NI AWR Software
NI (formerly AWR Corporation) continues to proudly sponsor this year's 2017 IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) thirteenth annual High-Efficiency Power Amplifier Student Design Competition (HEPA-SDC). The competition encourages student teams from around the world to design and construct a power amplifier (PA) and bring it to IMS in Honolulu, Hawaii, where industry experts will evaluate the performance of all entered PAs ...
Millimeter Wave Wireless Communications
In Millimeter Wave Wireless Communications, four of the field's pioneers, including Theodore S. Rappaport, Robert W. Heath, Robert C. Daniels, and James N. Murdock, draw on their vast experience to empower engineers at all levels to succeed with mmWave. They deliver fundamental, end-to-end coverage of all aspects of future mmWave wireless communications systems. The authors explain new multi-Gigabit per second products and applications, mmWave signal propagation, analog and digital circuit design, mmWave antenna designs ...
Chip Fabrication for Top Military Electronics
"U.S. military microelectronics experts are looking to GlobalFoundries U.S. 2 LLC in Hopewell Junction, N.Y., to continue providing foundry and electronic chip fabrication services for crucial U.S. military electronics systems. Officials of the Defense Microelectronics Activity (DMEA) in McClellan, Calif., announced a $99.8 million contract modification to GlobalFoundries on Friday for option year one for access to leading edge, current, and legacy microelectronics and trusted processes for the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) ..."
Anokiwave Needs a Senior Test Engineer
Anokiwave is a fast growing fabless semiconductor company looking for an ambitious, conscientious, and thorough Senior Test Engineer to join the Anokiwave team in Billerica, MA. The ideal candidate should possess a strong working knowledge of mmW measurements, calibration methodologies, semiconductor probing, and python script language. You will play an instrumental role in the growth and excellence of Anokiwave and our commitment to satisfying our customers. The successful candidate should demonstrate proven ...
Triad RF Systems Intros 2.3 to 2.5 GHz, 25 W, Bidirectional Amplifier
The TTRM1004-D01 LDMOS amplifier operates at a frequency range of 2300 MHz to 2500 MHz and has a power output of 25 watts, while still maintaining a compact form factor of 3.33 x 2.69 x 0.65 inches. This unit also features internal protection against over/under voltage and excessive temperature conditions, which coupled with its rugged construction, ensure fault-free operation in even the most extreme environments. This class AB LDMOS module is designed for both military ...
4G and 5G to Change the RF Front-End Industry Landscape
"According to a recent report by Yole Group of Companies, the RF front end modules and components market for cellphones is expected to grow from $10.1B in 2016 to approximately US $ 22.7B by 2022. The investigative report based on the front-end of the RF industry not only reports of a complex market that will more than double in six years but also states the growth to be un-evenly distributed and with something or the other for every market player. The group proposed two reports ..."
Therapeutic Radio, by Marek Klemes
Proud Canadian and RF Cafe contributor Dr. Marek Klemes wrote to me a couple weeks ago regarding a quotation I had posted a while back. At the end of our communications, he casually made a comment about needing to engage in an electronics project that would be free of the rigors of his professional pursuits. Being a trained notable quote recognizer myself, I instantly realized that his statement was itself worthy of being quoted widely. He granted permission to post it here (with adornment of ...
Unexpected, Star-Spangled Find May Lead to Advanced Electronics
"This tiny US flag - just a few nanometers wide and invisible to the naked eye - is arguably the world's smallest image of Old Glory, according to its creators at the University of Texas at Dallas. In an experiment, the nanoflag pattern emerged unexpectedly as sheets of the 'stripe' material - molybdenum ditelluride - were heated to about 450 degrees Celsius, at which point its atoms began to rearrange and form new structures - the 'stars' in this false-color image. Each star consists of six central ..."
everything RF Has Largest Database of Bias Tees on the Internet
everything RF has created the largest database of Bias Tees on the internet. We have listed products from 28 of the leading manufacturers at the moment. We are currently working on adding more manufacturers. Product data from each company has been standardized and listed in a single database which can be searched by parameter. You can enter the frequency range of the Bias Tee you need, the voltage it must withstand, the insertion loss, impedance and connector type. Once you enter the required specification, everything RF scans the database ...
Startup Funding Gets Scarce As Investors Grow Cautious
"Has the tech bubble peaked? Signs that the startup boom may be fizzling. Startups are beginning to run out of money and investors are becoming more discerning. How does this compare to the time leading up to the dotcom crash? If you were looking for an apartment in the Bay Area 18 months ago, realtors recommended you took your checkbook to viewings and were prepared to fork out for the deposit and first month's rent – that's $8,000 to $10,000 for a two-bedroom place in San Francisco – on the spot ..."
3D Insider - Resources for the 3D Printing Industry
3D Insider is all about giving you the tools and information to create whatever your heart desires with a 3D printer. If you are looking to make a full time career out of 3D printing or you are just looking for a new hobby, 3D Insider has it all for you. 3D printing has been growing at a tremendous pace and we love working in such a fast-paced industry. 3D Insider has been added to RF Cafe's 3D Printers and Fabrication resources page.
How Do We Hear?
A story in an electronics magazine on the physics and biology of the human ear is as relevant today as it was in 1936 when this appeared in Radio-Craft. Back then, creating sound in an efficient and effective manner for consumer, commercial, and military purposes was a relatively new science. Thomas Edison introduced his phonograph in 1877. While it did not feature an electrically driven speaker, research determined the shape, size, and material composition of the mechanism that converted minute vibrations ...
Facebook Seeking Top EE to Help It Cross into Consumer Electronics
"Who's the next Jon Rubinstein? For millennials that name might not ring a bell. Rubinstein was the 'podfather': as head of hardware engineering at Apple he launched and ran the project that became the iPod, the product credited from turning Apple from a computer company into a consumer electronics company. Facebook, it seems, would very much like to make a similar leap into consumer hardware. So they need lots of good engineers - including an EE 'podfather.' Right ..."
Disruption of Satellite Navigation Systems Due to Northern Lights
"Researchers at the University of Bath have gained new insights into the mechanisms of the Northern Lights, providing an opportunity to develop better satellite technology that can nullify outages caused by the natural phenomenon. The research team from the University of Bath's Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering in collaboration with the European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association (EISCAT) observed the Northern Lights in Tromsø ..."
Bonding SMT Components via Inkjet Printing
"Noting that today's additive manufacturing and roll-to-roll processes for flexible electronics still lack the adequate materials and level of precision to do without discrete surface mount devices (SMD), researchers from the University of Barcelona have investigated the possibility to replace the screen-printing of reflow solder pastes, epoxies or other conductive adhesives with direct inkjet printing of a silver-based ink. They describe their ..."
PMI Intros 10-Bit Programmable PIN Attenuator and a Bandpass Filter
Planar Monolithic Industries (PMI) recently introduced two new products in their extensive line of RF and microwave components. One is a 10-bit programmable, 30 dB PIN diode attenuator covering 26.5 to 40 GHz. The other is a suspended substrate bandpass filter that offers a wide passband of 8 to 18 GHz. Contact PMI today for more information ...
Quantum Movement of Electrons in Atomic Layers
"Common sense might dictate that for an object to move from one point to another, it must go through all the points on the path. Not so for electrons in the quantum world, which don't follow such common-sense rules for the most part. 'Electrons can show up on the first floor, then the third floor, without ever having been on the second floor,' Zhao said. 'In a sample made of three atomic layers, electrons in the top layer move ..."
$5.00 For Best Short-Wave Kink, June 1935 Short Wave Craft
Here for radio hobbyists are eleven handy-dandy 'kinks,' otherwise known as tricks, shortcuts, or clever ideas, that could prove useful while working in the lab at work or in your shop at home. Admittedly, most of these ideas would not have much application with today's ready-made radios, antennas, power supplies, etc., but there are still people who build custom equipment and/or repair circuits. The most useful kink offered here that could come in handy for anybody is to clip off part of ...
Pasternack mm-Wave Tx Module for 60 GHz Global Unlicensed Spectrum
Pasternack has released the PEM010, a complete millimeter wave transmitter module that is ideal for use in the development of multi-gigabit, high-speed, point-to-point wireless communication links. These communication links provide low-cost, gigabit wireless throughput for a variety of applications involving telecommunications 'last kilometer' distribution, telecommunications cellular backhaul, millimeter wave wireless gigabit Ethernet data communications, building-to ...
Job Search Advice Articles for March
The vast majority of advice columns on job searches recommend strategies to job seekers while participating in an interview; however, "Choosing an Interview Style and Format," by Will Zimmerman of CareerCast, covers the other side of the interview. His article discusses ways you as an interviewer might consider to most effective tactic ...
Texas Symposium on Wireless and Microwave Circuits and Systems
"The Texas Symposium on Wireless and Microwave Circuits and Systems conference committee invites paper submissions for the 2017 conference, to be held on the beautiful campus of Baylor University in Waco, Texas, on March 30-31, 2017. Authors from the industry and academia worldwide are invited to submit four-page papers of their original and previously unpublished work. Paper submissions in all areas of wireless and microwave circuits and systems are welcome. Topics of interest include: • RF and microwave circuits and systems ..."
Thanks to Antenna Test Lab Co for Continued Support!
Since 2001, Antenna Test Lab Co has evaluated countless antennas and RF transmitter products. With a fully anechoic chamber, antennas can be quickly developed and RF products refined and deployed. Mounting surfaces like drywall, glass, wood, and even curved metal simulated automobile available. The price for a standard resolution 2D or 3D field pattern plot is only $450 - for a passive or radiating antenna. That is an incredible deal!
Fractus Antennas Pitches New “Antenna-less” Smartphone Technology
"A tiny company based in Barcelona is promoting a new technology that it hopes can revolutionize smartphone antennas - by removing them altogether. The job of any smartphone antenna is to radiate a radiofrequency signal generated by the phone's transmitter out to the nearest cellular base station or Wi-Fi router. Now, Fractus Antennas wants to replace that antenna with a much smaller component called an antenna booster—a tiny lightweight cube ..."
Less Radiation in Inner Van Allen Belt Than Previously Believed
"The inner Van Allen belt has less radiation than previously believed, according to a recent study. Observations from NASA's Van Allen probes show the fastest, most energetic electrons in the inner radiation belt are actually much rarer and harder to find than scientists expected. This is good news for spacecraft that are orbiting in the region and can be damaged by high levels of radiation. The inner Van Allen belt has less radiation than previously believed, according to a recent study in the Journal of Geophysical Research. Observations from NASA's ..."
Anatech Electronics' March Newsletter Now Available
Anatech Electronics, a manufacturer of RF and microwave filters, has published its February newsletter. As always, it includes both company news and some tidbits about relevant industry happenings. In it, Sam Benzacar discusses, among other topics, spectrum sharing, including the ISM bands and a DARPA program called Shared Spectrum Access for Radar and Communications (SSPARC) that has the goal of developing more advanced sharing technology so that radars and military and commercial communications systems can cooperate in near real time ...
Notable Quote: "I link the abbreviation LTE to the term Long Term Employment"
RF Cafe visitor Bob Davis in a recent e-mail alluded the quote, "LTE stands for Long Term Employment," which I have heard before. Based on a not-too-extensive Internet research, earliest published instance I can find is a December 2010 ECN piece by Mr. Andreas Roessler, of Rohde & Schwarz, where he states, "That's the reason why I link the abbreviation LTE to the term Long Term Employment."
Behold The Big Bend - the 'Longest Building in the World'
How long will it be before someone flies an airplane through it? "The race to build the world’s most spectacular skyscraper has reached new heights - and taken a turn in direction. Designs for 'The Big Bend', a slender tower that would transform Manhattan's skyline, have been unveiled. Described as the 'longest building in the world,' the project's concept drawings reveal a skyscraper reaching an apex then curving back down. And featuring an elevator system that can travel in curves, horizontally and in loops ..."
U.S. Army to Take Delivery of 'World Record' Laser Weapon
"In testing earlier this month, the laser - which has been developed for the U.S. Army - produced a single beam of 58 kW, representing a world record for a laser of this type. Lockheed is now is preparing to ship the system the US Army Space and Missile Defense Command / Army Forces Strategic Command in Huntsville, Alabama. The system is based on combined fibre laser technology, meaning that it brings together individual lasers, generated through fibre optics, to generate a single, intense laser beam ..."
Nokia Tries to Get Ahead of the Game on 600 MHz
"Nokia has made a jump-start on the low-band 600 MHz spectrum, through completing the first pre-standard 600 MHz LTE call using commercially-available hardware. The 600 MHz is an attractive one to the FCC and operators primarily because of the range which it offers in terms of mobile broadband. When you look at the vast expanse of the US and the number of rural communities which are currently being underserved in an increasingly digital world, the band becomes even more attractive. The problem arises in the fact this band is already being used by traditional broadcasters ..."
Saelig Offers Vector Sigl Gen VSG6G1 Featured in YouTube Series
Triarchy's VSG6G1 is a very cost effective USB vector signal generator. Its capabilities are comparable to the basic functions of a regular full size RF vector signal generator. VSG6G1 is miniature and portable equipment, but it has more features and functions than full size analog RF signal generators, with frequency range up to 6.2 GHz, frequency sweep, and frequency hopping using I&Q modulation with arbitrary signal ...
ConductRF Announces Distribution Agreement with Premier Farnell
Premier Farnell today announces a new global distribution agreement with EAM, a leading manufacturer of Precision RF & Microwave Interconnect Products. Under their ConductRF Brand, the company offers, innovative & reliable performance interconnect products operating from DC to 110 GHz. ConductRF's products are recognized for their excellent performance and cost effectiveness by engineers & technicians in numerous demanding industries including; Defense, Aerospace, Industrial, Medical Infrastructure, Instrumentation ...
NVIS Research Paper Available
"A thorough and fully annotated discussion of Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) is available in the research paper, 'Radio Communication via Near Vertical Incidence Skywave Propagation: An Overview,' by Ben A. Witvliet, PE5B/5R8DS, and Rosa Ma Alsina-Pagès. First investigated in the 1920s, NVIS propagation was rediscovered during World War II as 'an essential means to establish communications in large war zones such as the D-Day invasion in Normandy,' the paper notes ..."
Fairview Microwave Releases 8-Bit, 360° Phase Shifters
Fairview Microwave, a supplier of on-demand microwave and RF components, has introduced a new series of 8-bit programmable phase shifters that are adjustable over a full 360° range. These three new models can produce a discrete set of phase states of up to 256 total steps in 1.4° increments with superior accuracy and minimal phase shift error. These digitally controlled analog phase shifters cover broadband microwave and millimeter wave frequencies. They are ideal ...
NASA Space LASER to Provide 100x Faster Internet in 2 Years
"A powerful laser shining up into space will soon transmit data between the Earth and the International Space Station. NASA is hoping to establish laser links at a rate of over one gigabit per second - a speed most home broadband users could only dream of. This would pave the way for 3D video from space and enable high definition remote robotic exploration of other moons and planets. The Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) will ..."
Efficient Wireless Signal Optimization Scheme for 5G Mobile Communications
"One of the defining characteristics of the next generation of mobile communications will be the use of a multitude of lower-power antennas to maintain ubiquitous high-performance signal coverage. A team of researchers at KAUST recently developed a signal optimization algorithm for future networks that, for the first time, can deliver the full performance promised by 5G communications. According to the researchers, MIMO systems ..."
Anokiwave Looking for a Staff RFIC Design Engineer
Anokiwave is a fast growing fabless semiconductor company looking for an ambitious, conscientious, and thorough Staff RFIC Design Engineer to join the Anokiwave team. You will be responsible for designing highly-integrated microwave and millimeter-wave RFICs in state of the art technologies. You will work with an incredible team of IC design and test professionals developing state of the art products for 5G, SATCOM, and A&D markets. You will learn circuit ...
Anokiwave Seeking a Senior Product Engineer
Anokiwave is a fast growing fabless semiconductor company looking for an ambitious, conscientious, and thorough Senior Product Engineer to join the Anokiwave team. You will be responsible for coordinating with Engineering and Operations to productize highly-integrated microwave and millimeter-wave RFICs in state of the art technologies. Must have ability to manage and assist in product qualifications, perform material management in relation to NPI, be able to liaison with Marketing to verify product design is well suited ...