Here is an interesting
article by Murray Slovick entitled, "Space Radiation and Its Effects on Electronic
Systems." With 10s or even 100s of 1000s of Internet-connectivity satellites
being launched by SpaceX's
Starlink constellation and others, collisions with space junk
could soon be a bigger concern than radiation. "Increased demand for connectivity
to high-speed data networks is leading to increased deployment of space platforms
for services ranging from GPS to military intelligence to commercial high-speed
data for home internet applications. Outside the Earth's atmosphere, though, the
solar system is filled with radiation that can damage electronic devices. The effects
range from degradation in performance to leakage currents, lowering the gain of
a device, upsetting timing characteristics ..."
Even if you have no use for building a "twin
wave indicator for a twin lead transmission line (solid or open ladder type),
this article makes an interesting read for its theoretical description of how the
device works based on current phases in the circuit. A pair of flashlight bulbs
and couple feet of wire is all that is needed. When operating properly, the "twin
lamp" indicator indicates by virtue of whether one or both bulbs are illuminated
whether there is a significant standing wave present on the line. Author Charles
Wright warns that the VSWR level cannot be reliably determined based on relative
brightnesses of the two bulbs; it is meant for use as a best case indication for
tuning and/or as a gross fault indicator ...
not certain as to the differences between
nanosats and cubesats, or how these
tiny satellites are launched and what they do, then read on. Tiny satellites have
made space accessible to a new generation of university students, private companies
and even helped cash-strapped government agencies like NASA. Generally known as
nano-satellites (nanosats) or cube-satellites (cubesats), this technology has been
made possible by the semiconductor driven miniaturization of electronic and electro-mechanical
systems. In recognition of the trend, the IEEE has even launched a new journal on,
'Miniaturization for Air and Space Systems (J-MASS).' Mass is a premium consideration
when placing anything into space. That's why the names of tiny satellites ..."
Windfreak Technologies designs, manufactures,
tests and sells high value USB powered and controlled radio frequency products such
as RF signal generators, RF synthesizers, RF power detectors, mixers, up / downconverters.
Since the conception of WFT, we have introduced products that have been purchased
by a wide range of customers, from hobbyists to education facilities to government
agencies. Worldwide customers include Europe, Australia, and Asia. Please contact
Windfreak today to learn how they might help you with your current project.
At the end of World War II, the U.S.
government demonstrated an appreciation for the extreme sacrifices made by its citizens
surplus materiel available for purchase at very low cost. Companies sprang up
as distributors after bidding on and buying large lots of items at auctions. Herschel
Radio Company was one of many. This 2-page advertisement on a 1948 issue of Radio-Craft
is typical of what was seen in all sorts of technology publications in the late
1940s. A complete Fairchild model SCR 269/F airborne radio compass was offered
at a mere $75 ($814 in today's money). A Hallicrafters model SX-28 communications
receiver could be picked up for $129. Miscellaneous components sold for pennies
- resistors, capacitors, inductors, transformers, vacuum tubes, indicator lamps,
wire, switches, hardware, tools, enclosures, motors ...
"Slightly bending semiconductors made of
organic materials can roughly double the speed of electricity flowing through them
and could benefit next-generation electronics such as sensors and solar cells, according
to Rutgers-led research. 'If implemented in electrical circuits, such an enhancement
- achieved by very slight bending - would mean a major leap toward realizing next-generation,
high-performance organic electronics,' said senior author Vitaly Podzorov, a professor
in the Department of Physics and Astronomy in the School of Arts and Sciences at
Rutgers University - New Brunswick. Semiconductors include materials that conduct
electricity and their conductivity can be tuned by different external stimuli, making
them essential for all electronics.
Organic semiconductors are made of organic
molecules (mainly consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms) ..."
Teledyne e2v HiRel, producer of the longtime
PeeWee high voltage cable assembly, this week unveiled a major new addition
to the high voltage product line called Ruggedized PeeWee, or "PWR." Built on decades
of experience developing subminiature, high voltage connectors, the PWR's new robust
design also benefits from Teledyne's extensive experience designing Space-level
products. The new Ruggedized PeeWee line is fully compatible and inter-matable with
all push-pull PeeWee assemblies. Download the Ruggedized PeeWee datasheet. With
this new product, Teledyne has surpassed all previous industry standards for testing ...
Triad RF Systems designs and manufactures
RF power amplifiers
and systems. Triad RF Systems comprises three partners
(hence 'Triad') with over 40 years of accumulated
knowledge of what is required to design, manufacture, market, sell and service RF/Microwave
amplifiers and amplifier systems. PA, LNA, bi-directional, and frequency translating
amplifiers are available, in formats including tower mount, benchtop, rack mount,
and chassis mount. "We view Triad more as a technology partner than a vendor for
our line-of-sight communications product line." Please check to see how they can
help your project.
This article by science fiction writer
Arthur C. Clarke, of 2001: A Space Odyssey fame, suggested the use of surplus
German V−2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2; i.e., Retribution Weapon 2) rockets for launching
scientific payloads into space rather than for launching terrorizing attacks on
European cities. The October 1945 publishing date was after Germany had surrendered
in the spring of that year and Allied forces were rounding up war criminals and
confiscating documents and equipment. Clarke describes how an "artificial satellite"
could be caused to circle the earth "perpetually" and was published in the October
1945 edition of Wireless World magazine. The pilot-less V−2, along with the V−1
"Buzz Bomb," were launched from within Germany and caused massive structural damage
and human death and suffering. For war progenitor and aggressor, Germany, to call
it a retribution weapon was a gross misnomer ...
Modelithics is pleased to announce the release
of version 19.4.2 of the
Modelithics Qorvo GaN library for use with Keysight Technologies’ Advanced Design
System and National Instruments AWR Design Environment. The Modelithics Qorvo GaN
Library is a set of non-linear models for Qorvo package and die GaN devices, designed
for excellent accuracy, and validated with broadband S-parameters and load pull
data at multiple frequencies. Each model has a detailed datasheet summarizing model
features, development details, and model performance plots. Some devices are also
represented with small-signal and noise models in addition to non-linear models.
Version 19.4.2 of the Modelithics Qorvo GaN Library includes a total of 80 models
containing 57 packaged power models, 17 GaN die power transistor products and 6
small-signal models ...
SF Circuits' specialty is in the complex,
advanced technology of
PCB fabrication and assembly, producing high quality multi-layered
PCBs from elaborate layouts. With them, you receive unparalleled technical expertise
at competitive prices as well as the most progressive solutions available. Their
customers request PCB production that is outside the capabilities of normal circuit
board providers. Please take a moment to visit San Francisco Circuits today. "Printed
Circuit Fabrication & Assembly with No Limit on Technology or Quantity."
In the middle of the last century, progress
in television and radio technology was the focus of public attention, similar to
news of the latest advances in smartphones and Wi-Fi-connected gadgets are today.
Then, it was the installation of
microwave relay networks for long distance telephone and television interconnections
as reported in this 1948 issue of Radio-Craft magazine. Now, media headlines
tell of new 5G cellular network equipment and small cell stations being installed
around the world. New portable pocket radios using a single low voltage "peanut"
vacuum tube or a germanium transistor are today's iPhones, smartwatches, and IoT-connected
appliances. The item that caught my attention was mention of General electric
(GE) issuing warnings that radar-equipped cargo airplanes should not be used to
transport photo-flash camera bulbs because experiments showed exposure to certain
frequencies and power ...
Andre Muller and colleagues just published
a major paper in Nature magazine demonstrating the unique aptness of his
3D Smith Chart in the design of applications where complex frequency
dependencies must be assessed, as with Metal-Insulator-Transition (MIT) materials.
You'll need to have your thinking cap on for this one ;-) "In this work, we
develop and use 3D Smith charts for devices and circuits having complex frequency
dependences, like the ones resulting using MIT materials. The novel foundation of
a 3D Smith chart involves here the geometrical fundamental notions of oriented curvature
and variable homothety in order to clarify first theoretical inconsistencies in
Foster and Non Foster circuits, where the driving point impedances exhibit mixed
clockwise and counter-clockwise frequency dependent (oriented) paths on the Smith
chart as frequency increases. We show here the unique visualization capability of
a 3D Smith chart, which allows to quantify orientation over variable frequency ..."
"The first satellite built by students in
Mexico for launch from the International Space Station is smaller than a shoebox
but represents a big step for its builders. The project is part of NASA's CubeSat
Launch Initiative, which offers universities, high schools and non-profit organizations
the opportunity to fly small satellites. Innovative technology partnerships keep
down the cost, providing students a way to obtain hands-on experience developing
flight hardware. A multidisciplinary team of students at Universidad Popular Autonoma
del Estado de Puebla (UPAEP), in Puebla, Mexico, built the
CubeSat for AzTechSat-1. The investigation
demonstrates communication within a satellite network in low-Earth orbit ..."
Before the Internet, cellphone apps, and
personal computers, many calculations began with a lookup table, chart, or nomograph.
In the case of long distance radio operators [Ham, Short Wave Listener (SWL), and
professional types] seeking distance and direction information for pointing antennas,
it took a map like this one published by Radio News & Short-Wave magazine
in 1934 to estimate an optimal configuration. Such tools were essential in order
to determine the best direction to point the antenna, which over a long distance
is usually much different than what might be assumed by looking at a
flattened projection map of the earth (see "Distance Lends Enchantment" below).
Distances in Chart No. 1 are all relative to New York, so operators in other
locales need to compensate. Here is one example of many online great circle calculators ...
Alliance Test sells
refurbished test equipment and offers short- and long-term rentals. They also
offer repair, maintenance and calibration. Prices discounted up to 80% off list
price. Agilent/HP, Tektronix, Anritsu, Fluke, R&S and other major brands. A
global organization with ability to source hard to find equipment through our network
of suppliers. Please visit Allied Test Equipment today to see how they can help
December 11 marks the 98th anniversary of
the success of
ARRL's Transatlantic Tests in 1921,
organized to see if low-power amateur radio stations could be heard across the Atlantic
using shortwave frequencies (i.e., above 200 meters). On that day, a message transmitted
by a group of Radio Club of America members at 1BCG in Greenwich, Connecticut, was
copied by Paul Godley, 2ZE, in Scotland. While the first two-way contact would not
take place until 1923, the 1921 transatlantic success marked the beginning of what
would become routine communication between US radio amateurs and those in other
parts of the world - literally the birth of DX ...
At VidaRF, the phrase 'Providing Simple
Solutions for Complex Connections' is more than just a slogan – it's a mindset,
a mission, and a driving force behind everything we do. Their pledge is to design
and distribute high performance, cost effective
RF Microwave products to fit each customer's unique applications.
Please visit VidaRF today to see how their lines of attenuators & terminations,
directional couplers, power dividers, coaxial connectors, and circulator & isolators
can be of use to your project. "When the standard just will not do, VidaRF has the
solution for you!"
Were strings of miniature Christmas tree lights not available for purchase in
1955? This adventure of "Carl &
Jerry" seems to imply that was the case since it concerns the design and constructions
of such a circuit using low voltage panel lamps (light bulbs). Although usually
the two techno-teenager are co-conspiring on various tasks of high tech sleuthing
or radio-related pursuits, but in this case if it Jerry who has been doing the hard
work. Author John Frye might not know how prescient he was when describing the two
inventions he conjured up for Carl and Jerry. The first is the aforementioned miniature
Christmas light string and the second is a voice recording device that can capture
a short message and then quickly play it back. The playback scheme involves kids
reciting their Christmas wish list to a fake Santa Claus and then having him read
it back to them in a different voice ...
I didn't see this one coming, but it seems
like a great move - Cadence Design Systems and National Instruments Corporation
today announced that they have entered into a definitive agreement pursuant to which
Cadence expects to acquire AWR Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of National
Instruments (NI). AWR is an industry leader in high-frequency RF EDA software technology
and will bring a highly talented RF team to Cadence. Concurrently, Cadence and NI
also entered into a strategic alliance agreement to expand their relationship to
enhance electronic system innovation with a focus on communications. AWR software
is used by microwave and RF engineers to design wireless products for complex, high-frequency
RF applications. The technology helps customers accelerate the design and product
development cycle of systems used in communications, aerospace and defense, semiconductor,
computer, and consumer electronics ...
Transient Specialists specializes in
equipment rentals and carries a complete line of ESD guns, surge immunity test
equipment, and EFT generators. Rentals available for military (Mil-Std 461), automotive
(ISO 7637), and commercial (IEC 61000-4) EMC testing. Flexible terms, accredited
calibrations and technical support on EMC testing equipment offered. Equipment consists
of top EMC Test System manufacturers, including Teseq, Thermo Keytek, EM Test and
EMC Partner. Contact Transient Specialists today for your ESD / EMC / RFI testing
Electronics technicians trained by the U.S.
Navy (and, ahem, the U.S. Air Force) have always been highly regarded in private
industry because of the excellent classroom instruction, rigorous on-the-job training
(OJT), and hands-on experience maintaining both legacy and state-of-the-art equipment.
Electronics tech schools begin with teaching the
fundamentals of electricity and electronics, and then branches off into areas
of specialty, depending on the type of equipment the enlistee will be assigned to
maintain. The military works under the assumption that you have no significant former
knowledge of the topic - although being admitted into certain programs requires
passing an aptitude exam prior to enlistment. In my case, it was six weeks of BET
(Basic Electronics Training). followed by 26 weeks of Specialty Electronics Training
School (SETS). Yes, the government has an acronym for everything. Six more months
of self-study course material (with testing) was required during the initial OJT
When designing a rigid flex PCB, it is important
to consider all of the relevant factors that will go into producing the right board
for your application. Rigid flex printed circuit boards (PCBs) are hybrid circuit
boards that combine the characteristics of hardboards and flexible circuitry, with
areas that are rigid for component assembly providing the same density as hard boards,
and flexible areas connecting the rigid boards to one another. The design and construction
of these circuits include multiple layers of rigid boards and flexible circuits.
In our "Rigid Flex PCB Application & Design Guide," we outline what
you need to know about: The applications and environments in which rigid flex PCBs
excel, How to successfully assemble and install your rigid flex PCB.
RF Superstore launched in 2017, marking
the return of Murray Pasternack, founder of Pasternack Enterprises, to the RF and
microwave Industry. Pasternack fundamentally changed the way RF components were
sold. Partner Jason Wright manages day-to-day operations, while working closely
with Mr. Pasternack to develop RF Superstore into a world class RF and
microwave component supplier. RF coaxial connectors & adapters,
coaxial cable & cable assemblies, surge protectors, attenuators. Items added
daily. Free shipping on orders over $99. We're leading the way again!
RF technology has been a large part of new
and upgraded aircraft development not just for studies of radio and radar performance,
but also for
remote control (R/C) of small- and full-scale prototype models. R/C began life
as bulky vacuum tube systems with transmitters that needed to sit on the ground
with a hand-held command box. Airborne systems carried lead-acid batteries for power*.
Frequencies in the U.S. were in the 27 MHz Citizens Band, and then moved into
53 MHz (Ham band), 72 MHz (airborne only), and 75 MHz (ground only)
bands. All modern R/C systems operate in the 2.4 GHz ISM band using spread
spectrum modulation (FHSS and DSSS). Having been a builder and flyer of R/C models
since the 1970s, I have read many articles about the role played by modelers over
the years in modeling magazines and more general purpose magazines like this one
in a 1974 issue of Popular Mechanics. Prior to the availability of super-powerful
computers and sophisticated fluid dynamics simulation programs ...
"Egypt's Ministry of Interior (MOI) plans
to identify millions of vehicles as they travel on the country's roads, using an
RFID solution from Go+, with hardware and software provided in cooperation with
Wireless Dynamics. The system, which will be implemented across approximately 10
million of the country's vehicles throughout the next five years, consists of passive
UHF RFID stickers attached to each car's
windshield, as well as tags on headlamps that respond to interrogation from readers
installed above roadways, even at high speeds. The nation of Egypt faces a growing
challenge related to traffic and the management of all cars operating on its roadways ..."
PCB Directory is the largest directory of
Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Manufacturers, Assembly houses, and Design Services
on the Internet. We have listed the leading printed circuit board manufacturers
around the world and made them searchable by their capabilities - Number of laminates
used, Board thicknesses supported, Number of layers supported, Types of substrates
(FR-4, Rogers, flexible, rigid), Geographical location (U.S., China), kinds of services
(manufacturing, fabrication, assembly, prototype), and more. Fast turn-around on
quotations for PCB fabrication and assembly.
Leo Esaki invented the
tunnel diode (aka the Esaki diode) in 1957 while working at Sony (Tokyo Tsushin
Kogyo at the time). Tunnel diodes have a very narrow, heavily doped p−n junction
only around 10 nm (100 Å) wide that exhibits a broken bandgap, where conduction
band electrons on the n-side are approximately aligned with valence band holes on
the p-side and thereby facilitate the quantum mechanical tunneling process after
which the diode is named. A negative differential resistance in part of their operating
range makes them useful for high frequency oscillators. This article in a 1960 edition
of Popular Electronics introduces the device's characteristics and potential uses.
Interestingly, if you want to buy a tunnel diode today, you will likely have to
find old stock on on eBay or Amazon since I could not find anyone who sells new
stock (Digi-Key, Newark, Mouser ...
Teledyne e2v HiRel today announced the availability
of a new
RF power limiter, the 2.5 GHz, 100 W TDLM025100. The limiter is a monolithic
integrated circuit based on a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) technology that is ideal
for use in high reliability aerospace and defense applications. This new integrated
device provides customers with a more reliable and robust power protection solution
compared to the traditional industry alternative, discrete GaAs PIN diode circuits
with multiple external components. The power limiter delivers low insertion loss
and high linearity under non-limiting power levels and extremely fast response time
in a limiting event, ensuring protection of sensitive circuitry ...
Reactel has become one of the industry leaders in the design and manufacture
of RF and microwave
filters, diplexers, and sub-assemblies. They offer the generally known tubular,
LC, cavity, and waveguide designs, as well as state of the art high performance
suspended substrate models. Through a continuous process of research and development,
they have established a full line of filters of filters of all types - lowpass,
highpass, bandpass, bandstop, diplexer, and more. Established in 1979. Please contact
Reactel today to see how they might help your project.
As with my hundreds of previous
engineering and science-themed crossword puzzles, this one for December 8, 2019,
contains only clues and terms associated with engineering, science, physical, astronomy,
mathematics, chemistry, etc., which I have built up over nearly two decades. Many
new words and company names have been added that had not even been created when
I started in the year 2002. You will never find a word taxing your knowledge of
a numbnut soap opera star or the name of some obscure village in the Andes mountains.
You might, however, encounter the name of a movie star like Hedy Lamarr or a geographical
location like Tunguska, Russia, for reasons which, if you don't already know, might
surprise you ...