In your final few minutes of the workweek,
try your hand at this "Electronics
Helix Puzzle," provided by Mr. James Kimsey in a 1971 issue of Radio-Electronics
magazine. It it not as much of a challenge as a classical crossword puzzle, but
is still worth attempting. In some ways, though, if you get stuck on a word there
is more help available with a standard crossword because there are more than just
two (the first and last letter in this case) intersecting letters available to help.
If after completing this Electronics Helix Puzzle you would like to try your hand
at one of those traditional type crossword puzzles, consider working one (or more)
of my weekly ...
Rohde & Schwarz has published a new whitepaper
Wi-Fi 6 Revolution Is a Wakeup Call for Your Test Strategy." The new IEEE 802.11ax
amendment (Wi-Fi 6) intends to improve the WLAN system efficiency, focusing on the
throughput per station in dense and outdoor environments. Wi-Fi 6 allows for the
first time the scheduled communication of several stations (STA) at the same time,
to and from the access point (AP) by introduction of OFDMA. It enables several stations
to serve simultaneously in order to improve overall capacity, latency and efficiency
in high-density environments. Resource units (RU) are introduced to split the available
RF Cafe typically receives
visits each weekday and about half that on weekends.
RF Cafe is a favorite of engineers, technicians, hobbyists, and students all
over the world. With more than 7,000 pages in the Google search index, RF Cafe
returns in favorable positions on many types of key searches, both for text and
images. New content is added on a daily basis, which keeps the major search engines
interested enough to spider it multiple times each day. Items added on the homepage
often can be found in a Google search within a few hours of being posted. I also
re-broadcast homepage items on LinkedIn, Facebook, and Twitter. If you need your
company news to be seen, RF Cafe is the place to be. Banner advertising begins
at $175/month ...
I know I keep saying this, but it keeps being
true so I say it again: The
basics of electricity and electronics have not changed in the last 50 or more
years, so these articles from vintage issues of electronics magazines are as applicable
today as they were back then. If you are just getting into the field of electronics,
valuable information can be found here to supplement your learning process. In fact,
I have seen examples in some of these articles where I re-learned something long-ago
forgotten, and some of the stuff is rarely, if ever, seen in contemporary writings.
Regardless, making yourself aware of the work done by pioneers in the industry is
always valuable because it gives you a sense of approaches taken that have led to
success, and sometimes ...
"There's been talk about a serious
shortage of cell tower installers and technicians
to roll out the necessary infrastructure for 5G. And now, Nokia is giving some credence
to the reality of that shortage. Nokia and its subsidiary SAC Wireless are actively
recruiting and training military veterans for tower climber jobs. SAC Wireless specializes
in site development, engineering design, construction and equipment installation,
and operations and maintenance. The Nokia subsidiary works with telecom carriers,
major tower owners, and original equipment manufacturers across the United States ...'"
ERZIA serves critical aerospace and defense
missions by designing and manufacturing RF, microwave,
and mm-wave amplifiers, integrated assemblies operating from low frequencies
up to 100 GHz, and by providing high reliable satellite communications. The
company was founded in 2002 to become a worldwide reference of advanced engineering,
performance, reliability and ruggedness. Their catalogue of standard amplifier modules
comprises more than 100 different models, having also a high capacity of customization
for amplifiers and integrated assemblies. Some of products have space heritage and
are used in aerospace, commercial, military and scientific systems, having a wide
range of final applications.
log periodic antenna is a piece of cake. Just punch in your computer program
or smartphone app a few parameters for frequency range, power handling, directivity,
impedance, etc., and out pops boom and element lengths, diameters, and spacings
- and probably radiation gain profiles for elevation and azimuth. That is the way
it's done today. However, when Dwight Isbell and Raymond DuHamel of the University
of Illinois came up with the log periodic concept in 1958, they did not have the
convenience of a computer or even a hand-held calculator. Slide rules and logarithm
tables were the order of the day. After trudging through the equations for building
the antenna ...
Skyworks Solutions, an innovator of high performance
analog semiconductors connecting people, is pleased to introduce the SKY85330-21,
a 2.4 GHz
module (FEM) and the SKY85748-11, a 5 GHz FEM for enterprise 802.11ax (Wi-Fi
6) applications including access points, routers and gateways. SKY85748-11, 5 GHz
FEM Features: Integrated 802.11ax 1024 QAM, 5 GHz PA, LNA with bypass, and T/R switch
Fully-matched input and output Integrated logarithmic power detector Transmit gain:
32 dB Receive gain: 13 dB Small QFN (16-pin, 2.5 x 2.5 mm) package ...
It was only the first day at engineering
college and already their first familiar techno-caper was underway. Indiana's Parvoo
University was about to get an initiation into the world of
Carl Anderson and Jerry Bishop, who during their high school years together
solved many a mystery and pulled many a prank in their hometown somewhere in northern
Indiana. As with all of John Frye's tales this one mixes serious electronics topics
with a bit of fun and a life lesson. There were no 'bad guys' here as in many other
episodes, but the boys did get an unexpected introduction to Parvoo U.'s president!
Despite the story's title, the day ended well ...
Res-Net Microwave has a complete line of
precision RF & microwave components including attenuators, terminations,
resistors, and diode detectors for commercial, military, and space applications.
Products range from the small flange type to large 2,000 watt connectorized power
attenuators and/or terminations at frequencies up to 26.5 GHz. In-house photo
etch and laser trim capability. Please check out Res-Net Microwave's website to
see how they can help with your current project.
interesting place to be. I recommend it." –
Neil Armstrong re having visited the moon. That
remark came during a CBS 60 Minutes interview in November 2005. We
are approaching the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon mission, and yes,
America was great for having achieved it. You might also interested in knowing that
Neil Armstrong was an aeronautical engineering graduate of Purdue University, ostensibly
the alluded-to "Parvoo
University" that teenage electronics sleuths and Ham radio aficionados Carl &
Triad RF Systems designs and manufactures
RF power amplifiers
and systems. Triad RF Systems comprises three partners
(hence 'Triad') with over 40 years of accumulated
knowledge of what is required to design, manufacture, market, sell and service RF/Microwave
amplifiers and amplifier systems. PA, LNA, bi-directional, and frequency translating
amplifiers are available, in formats including tower mount, benchtop, rack mount,
and chassis mount. "We view Triad more as a technology partner than a vendor for
our line-of-sight communications product line." Please check to see how they can
help your project.
"At the 2019 IEEE IMS in June, JETCOOL Technologies
unveiled their new approach to cooling computer processors and other electronics
and won the title of Next Top Startup. Their technology could change the way the
world cools the electronics powering aerospace, electric vehicles, and AI data centers.
The technology, known as
microconvective cooling, uses small fluid jets
that can be built within the electronic device. The result is ten times better cooling
than today's state-of-the-art, which is welcome news to overclocking enthusiasts
and high-power ..."
Unlike even the vacuum tube type AM radio
in the dashboard of my parents' car in the early 1960s that were self-contained
units, even earlier radios designed for cars and trucks had their bulky electronics
mounted under the sea or in the trunk, with a remote volume and tuning control mounted
in the dashboard. That greatly complicated the installation as well as the design
of the radio. This circa 1940
Belmont Model 678 Auto-Radio is a prime example. Note the unique cylindrical
shape of the radio chassis, and that the remote control is a pushbutton assembly
with rotating knobs for tuning and volume. Operating from a 6 volt DC car battery
(12 volts came later), these radios required a "vibrator" circuit to convert DC
to AC (and back to a higher level DC) in order to transform to a couple hundred
volts for the plate voltage of the tubes ...
RF Cascade Workbook 2018 is the next phase in the evolution
of RF Cafe's long-running series, RF Cascade Workbook. It is a full-featured
RF system cascade parameter and frequency planner that includes filters and mixers
for a mere $45. Built in MS Excel, using RF Cascade Workbook 2018
is a cinch and the format is entirely customizable. It is significantly easier and
faster than using a multi-thousand dollar simulator when a high level system analysis
is all that is needed. An intro video takes you through the main features ...
Anatech Electronics, an RF and microwave
filter company, has introduced a new line of suspended stripline and waveguide type
RF filters. Sam Benzacar wrote as part of
Anatech's July newsletter about the need for and emergence of fully integrated
millimeter-wave transmitters and receivers for the 5G smartphone market. It is worth
noting that the phrase "5G smartphone market" is not redundant since 5G is intended
to go well beyond just phones. Vehicle-to-vehicle communications and factory automation
are just two of the many other applications planned and currently being implemented.
Also included are a few news headlines related to Anatech's core business of designing
and manufacturing filters ...
The first thing I learned (or re-learned)
in reading this article is that in 1967, "Hertz" had only recently been assigned
as the official unit of frequency. According to Wikipedia, International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC) adopted it in in 1930, but it wasn't until 1960 that it was adopted
by the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) (Conférence Générale des
Poids et Mesures). Hertz replace cycles per second (cps). The next thing that happened
was that I was reminded of how images such as the op-art tracing of antenna oscillation
that are routinely generated today ...
QuinStar Technology designs and manufactures
mm-wave products for communication, scientific, and test applications
along with providing microelectronic assembly, rapid prototyping, and mass customization.
Amplifiers, Oscillators, Switches, Attenuators, Circulators, Isolators, Filters,
Waveguide, Antennas, Phase Shifters, Transceivers, Mixers, Detectors. QuinStar specializes
in cryogenic amplifiers, circulators, and isolators. Please
visit QuinStar today to see how they can help your project.
is über-cool. "As useful as conventional fixed-wing and quadrotor drones have
become, they still tend to be relatively complicated, expensive machines that you
really want to be able to use more than once. When a one-way trip is all that you
have in mind, you want something simple, reliable, and cheap, and we've seen a bunch
of different designs for drone gliders that more or less fulfill those criteria.
For an even simpler gliding design, you want to minimize both airframe mass and
control surfaces, and the maple tree provides some inspiration in the form of
samara, those distinctive seed pods that whirl
to the ground ..."
Providing full solution service is our motto,
not just selling goods. RF & Connector Technology has persistently
pursued a management policy stressing quality assurance system and technological
advancement. From your very first contact, you will be supported by competent RF
specialists; all of them have several years of field experience in this industry
allowing them to suggest a fundamental solution and troubleshooting approach. Coaxial
RF connectors, cable assemblies, antennas, terminations, attenuators, couplers,
dividers, and more. Practically, we put priority on process inspection at each step
of workflow as well as during final inspection in order to actualize "Zero Defects."
IC designers have been striving to make the
"ideal" opamp ever since the device type was first conceived. An ideal opamp has
a certain set of well-defined properties that permit it be used in circuits defined
by neat mathematical equations without the need for compensating or limiting terms.
An example of compensation might be having an input impedance of something other
than infinite ohms that causes a voltage division effect on the input voltage, and
a limitation would be a gain-bandwidth product that prevents it from being used
in high frequency applications. Opamps appeared in electronics before semiconductors
came onto the scene, and a couple companies attempted to market prepackaged vacuum
tube opamps that plugged into a standard octal kind of socket . EE120 at the University
of Vermont introduced me to operational amplifier theory ...
At VidaRF, the phrase 'Providing Simple
Solutions for Complex Connections' is more than just a slogan – it's a mindset,
a mission, and a driving force behind everything we do. Their pledge is to design
and distribute high performance, cost effective
RF Microwave products to fit each customer's unique applications.
Please visit VidaRF today to see how their lines of Attenuators & Terminations,
Directional Couplers, Power Dividers, Coaxial Connectors, and Circulator & Isolators
can be of use to your project. "When the standard just will not do, VidaRF has the
solution for you!"
Mostly just old farts like me remember anything
LORAN (LOng RAnge Navigation). My familiarity with it came not from boat navigation,
but from airplane navigation. Before LORAN became totally obsolete due to GPS (phased
out in U.S. and Canada in 2010), the transmitter stations were commonly tuned in
in order to obtain positional fixes via triangulation. Whilst taking flying lessons
at Lee Airport, in Edgewater, Maryland, the ground instructor included it in the
lessons, and even the FAA Private Pilot exams had a question or two on LORAN. The
el cheapo Piper Colts that I flew were lucky to have a VOR (VHF omnidirectional
range ) receiver in it, so I never actually used LORAN. They did have direction
finders (DF), which could tune in, among other things, VHF television station channels ...
On July 17, at 1 pm ET, Keysight Technologies
will host a webinar presented by Alistair Scott entitled "Accelerating Test Automation Development." Test
engineers are under constant pressure to reduce the total cost of test, and at the
same time, get products through testing faster. Learn steps that will accelerate
your test workflow. 3 key topics are: Learn where test engineers spend non-value-added
time. Learn how test engineers are using automation to accelerate test workflows.
Learn how collaborative tools can make your workgroup more efficient. Registration
is required for the free event.
"Over 100 students attended the OSCC, held
at the University of Surrey on the 24th June. 17 teams from 11 schools created and
submitted apps for the competition's final. OSCC-students-652 The event, now in
its third year, was co-hosted by Red Hat, Lord Wandsworth College and the University
of Surrey. Participating students were tasked with creating an app to help any local
charity of their choice. The competition's stated goal was to 'inspire the UK's
next generation of digital talent,' by
introducing students to basic coding, illustrating
the opportunities a STEM education can provide, and demonstrating the value of open
source collaboration. A short introductory lecture from Stella Kazamia, teaching
fellow in the Department of Computer Science ..."
Rohde & Schwarz develops, produces and
test & measurement, information and communications technology.
Focus is on test and measurement, broadcast and media, cybersecurity, secure communications,
monitoring and network testing. Markets serviced are wireless, the automotive industry,
aerospace and defense, industrial electronics, research and education, broadcast
and media network operations, consumer electronics, cybersecurity for business and
governments, communications and security solutions for critical infrastructures
and the armed forces, reconnaissance equipment for homeland and external security,
and much more.
All types of
sales and repair services get accused of ineptness of skill which requires more
time than necessary, overcharging for parts and/or labor, underhandedness in faking
problems and selling unnecessary replacement parts, improper customer interfacing,
sloppiness in appearance and/or work environment, failure to arrive on time for
appointments, etc. Some of the most often cited these days are auto mechanics, cellphone
repairers, home improvement contractors, lawn care, and builders. Up until about
a decade ago when cellphone repair began to dominate over computer repair, the latter
was a big source of complaints. In the 1950s and 60s, it was TV and radio repairmen
who took a lot of abuse not just from their customers, but from large, organized
electronic service conglomerates and were abetted by mostly ignorant media outlets
looking for a good story ...
Whitepapers, pamphlets, books, magazines,
and chapter examples listed here are a small sample of a lot of new items that are
offered for FREE through
TradePub. The publishers make them available to qualifying people
as a promotional campaign for their full line of offerings. Whitepaper topics include
careers, manufacturing, and engineering, while magazine titles include
Microwave Engineering Europe,
Electronic Design, and
Microwave Product Digest. Note: I earn a few pennies
(literally) when you download one of these or the many other pubs available, so
please help yourself.
ConductRF introduces its
TESTeLINK RF Test Cables. Key features include: Flexible cable construction,
Low VSWR performance, Optimized low loss at max frequency, Phase matched sets available,
High shielding effectiveness, Broad connector solution choices, and Custom marking &
ruggedizing options. Examples are attenuation <1.04 db/ft @ 50 GHz
(TSA72)and <2.07 db/ft @ 67 GHz (PFA61). Shielding effectiveness of >-100 dB
to 18 GHz. Please contact ConductRF today for help with your project's needs.
Microwave is a leader in technically differentiated electronic and radio frequency
and Isolators that connect, protect and control critical commercial and military
wireless telecommunications systems. Our staff is dedicated to research and development
of standard and custom design quality Ferrite Circulators and Isolators from 380 MHz
to 26.5 GHz. Please visit Nova Microwave today.
Maybe it comes from having crossed the half-century
Rubicon, but with increasing frequency I find myself seeking out vintage magazines
to learn how the world used to be. I am a realist who has no misconceptions about
how idyllic things used to be and that today is utter debauchery, but it is apparent
from a lot of the publications that we surely have changed significantly in the
last 50+ years - better in some ways, worse in others. For many years I have been
purchasing of WWII era
QST magazines off eBay. As I have been doing for a while on my Airplanes and
Rockets website, I am going to begin scanning and posting vintage electronics magazine
advertisements and articles. A lot of the information is timeless in its application,
especially since vacuum tubes are still in widespread use in the Amateur Radio realm.
Of course electronics ...
The Evaluation Engineering website
posted this article by TotalTemp Technologies' John Booher entitled, "How and When to Use Thermal Chambers for Testing." It begins:
"The components and subassemblies of any piece of equipment or machinery were developed
with the environmental conditions of where it would be operating in mind. This article
explains the key factors that determine how thermal testing is put to use. Have
you ever wondered what journey a piece of equipment or machinery took before ending
up in space? Or what testing was done before the rocket's blastoff? Or why a piece
of equipment failed prematurely? Well somewhere ..."
"Wafer bonding and lithography equipment
provider EV Group (EVG) has unveiled a
maskless lithography technology specifically
developed for the back-end lithography requirements of advanced packaging, MEMS,
biomedical and high-density PCB applications. Dubbed MLE (for Maskless Exposure),
the technology is said to be scalable for high-volume manufacturing, combining a
patterning resolution better than 2 µm in any arbitrary direction with digitally
programmable layouts that eliminate the significant overhead costs associated with
Please take a few moments to
everythingRF website to see how they can assist
you with your project. everythingRF is a product discovery platform for RF and microwave
products and services. They currently have 227,460 products from more than 1210
companies across 285 categories in their database and enable engineers to search
for them using their customized parametric search tool. Amplifiers, test equipment,
power couplers and dividers, coaxial connectors, waveguide, antennas, filters, mixers,
power supplies, and everything else. Please visit everythingRF today to see how
they can help you.
engineering and science-themed crossword puzzles are done weekly for the brain-exercising
benefit and pleasure of RF Cafe visitors who are fellow cruciverbalists. The jury
is out on whether or not this type of mental challenge helps keep your gray matter
from atrophying in old age, but it certainly helps maintain your vocabulary and
cognitive skills at all ages. A database of thousands of words has been built up
over the years and contains only clues and terms associated with engineering, science,
physical, astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, etc. You will never find a word taxing
your knowledge of a numbnut soap opera star or the name of some obscure village
in the Andes mountains. You might, however, encounter the name of a movie star like
Hedy Lamarr or a geographical ...