Module 9 - Introduction to Wave-Generation and Wave-Shaping
Navy Electricity and Electronics Training Series (NEETS)
Chapter 3:  Pages 3-51 through 3-56

NEETS   Module 9 − Introduction to Wave− Generation and Wave−Shaping

Pages i, 1−1, 1−11, 1−21, 1−31, 1−41, 2−1, 2−11, 2−21, 2−31, 3−1, 3−11, 3−21, 3−31, 3−41, 3−51, 4−1, 4−11, 4−21, 4−31, 4−41, 4−51, Index

NEETS Modules
- Matter, Energy, and Direct Current
- Alternating Current and Transformers
- Circuit Protection, Control, and Measurement
- Electrical Conductors, Wiring Techniques, and Schematic Reading
- Generators and Motors
- Electronic Emission, Tubes, and Power Supplies
- Solid-State Devices and Power Supplies
- Amplifiers
- Wave-Generation and Wave-Shaping Circuits
- Wave Propagation, Transmission Lines, and Antennas
- Microwave Principles
- Modulation Principles
- Introduction to Number Systems and Logic Circuits
- - Introduction to Microelectronics
- Principles of Synchros, Servos, and Gyros
- Introduction to Test Equipment
- Radio-Frequency Communications Principles
- Radar Principles
- The Technician's Handbook, Master Glossary
- Test Methods and Practices
- Introduction to Digital Computers
- Magnetic Recording
- Introduction to Fiber Optics
Note: Navy Electricity and Electronics Training Series (NEETS) content is U.S. Navy property in the public domain.

Sawtooth Wave - RF Cafe

A TRAPEZOIDAL WAVE looks like a sawtooth wave sitting on top of a square wave. The leading edge is called the JUMP voltage.

Trapezoidal Wave - RF Cafe

A TRIGGER is a very narrow pulse used to turn on or off another circuit.

Trigger - RF Cafe

A MULTIVIBRATOR is used to generate a square or rectangular wave. a multivibrator is basically two amplifiers with regenerative feedback.

The ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR has no stable state. The transistors alternately switch from cutoff to saturation at a frequency determined by the RC time constants of the coupling circuits.


Astable Multivibrator - RF Cafe

The MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR has one stable state. One transistor conducts while the other is cut off. An external trigger must be applied to change this condition.

Monostable Multivibrator - RF Cafe

The BIsTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR has two steady states. It remains in one of the stable states until a trigger is applied. It then switches to the other stable state until another trigger is applied.


Bistable Multivibrator - RF Cafe

The bistable multivibrator is also known as a FLIP-FLOP. The two inputs are SET and CLEAR. The two outputs are "1" and "0." a trigger pulse on the set input will cause the "1" output (negative or positive voltage depending on the type transistor used). At the same time the "0" output will equal 0 volts. This is the SET state.

SET state - RF Cafe

 A CLEAR STATE of a flip-flop exists when the "1" output measures low voltage (or 0 volts) and the "0" output is high voltage. The flip-flop will flop to the CLEAR state only upon application of a trigger pulse to the CLEAR (C) input.

Clear State - RF Cafe

There is a third lead on some flip-flops. This lead is the TOGGLE (T) input. Every time a trigger pulse is applied to the (T) input, the flip-flop will change states.


BlockING Oscillators are used in applications which require a narrow pulse with sharp leading and trailing edges. They are used as TRIGGER GENERATORS or Frequency DIVIDERS.

Blocking Oscillators - RF Cafe

A SAWTOOTH GENERATOR voltage waveform has a linear change in voltage and a fast recovery time. The linear change in voltage is generated by taking the output from a capacitor. The sawtooth voltage waveform is used to provide electrostatic deflection in oscilloscopes.

Sawtooth Generator - RF Cafe


A TRAPEZOIDAL GENERATOR voltage waveform is used to provide, a linear increase in current through a coil. a trapezoidal wave begins with a step or jump voltage, then a sawtooth wave. a trapezoidal wave of voltage is used in electromagnetic deflection display devices.

Trapezoidal Generator - RF Cafe

Answers to Questions Q1. Through Q14.

A1.   Multivibrator.

A2.   Astable.

A3.   Monostable.

A4.   Bistable.

A5.   RC coupling networks.

A6.   One-shot.

A7.   Two.

A8.   Two.

A9.   SET state.

A10.   Transformer.


A11.   Ten percent.

A12.   Decreases linearity.

A13.   To allow the capacitor time to discharge

A14.   a resistor.