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Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe Webmaster

Copyright: 1996 - 2024


    Kirt Blattenberger,


RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while tying up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

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Homepage Archive - August 2017 (page 2)

These archive pages are provided in order to make it easier for you to find items that you remember seeing on the RF Cafe homepage. Of course probably the easiest way to find anything on the website is to use the "Search RF Cafe" box at the top of every page. About RF Cafe.

Homepage Archive Pages

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2012:  1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 (no archives before 2012)

See Page 1 | 2 | 3 of the August 2017 homepage archives.

Sunday 20

Engineering Crossword Puzzle w/Weekly Headlines August 20

RF Cafe Engineering Crossword Puzzle w/Weekly Headlines August 20, 2017For the sake of avid cruciverbalists amongst us, each week I create a new crossword puzzle that has a theme related to engineering, mathematics, chemistry, physics, and other technical words. At least 12 clues in this puzzle with an asterisk (*) are pulled from this past week's (8/14 - 8/18) "Tech Industry Headlines" column on the RF Cafe homepage. Enjoy! ...

Friday 18

Japanese Trade-Name Directory, August 1969 Electronics World

Japanese Trade-Name Directory, August 1969 Electronics World - RF CafeThe January 1969 issue of Electronics World magazine published an extensive list of Japanese company trade names and their addresses. Many of them went out of business or were bought by other corporations long ago, as occurs in all countries. I OCRed the company names, but didn't bother with the addresses. You will see that "Craig" is listed twice, which appears to be a typo where the first one should have been "Cardinal." "Aiwa" is also listed twice, but that might have been a legitimate duplication due to separate locations. Aiwa stereo equipment is now being serviced by Sony according to the Aiwa.com website. My first "real" cassette ...

New Class of Chemical Reaction Discovered

New Class of Chemical Reaction Discovered - RF Cafe"A new study led by Michael P. Burke, assistant professor of mechanical engineering at Columbia Engineering, has identified the significance of a new class of chemical reactions involving three molecules that each participate in the breaking and forming of chemical bonds. The reaction of three different molecules is enabled by an 'ephemeral collision complex,' formed from the collision of two molecules, which lives long enough ..."

1st Newspaper Article Re Invention of Transistor

1st Newspaper Appearance of Transistor Invention Announcement, Kirt's Cogitation #290 - RF CafeHmmm.... let us see what made the front page of the July 1, 1948 edition of Murray Hill, New Jersey's, The Madison Eagle newspaper: "Man Found Dead, Wedged in Drain on Park Edge," "Lawyer Fined $50 on Zone Charge," and Sandra Dean Stevenson had been born two weeks earlier. Oh, also included was "Invention Replaces Vacuum Tube" and "Local Man Invents New Device in Electronics for Bell Lab; Could Revolutionize Radio." Page 10 ran, "Bell Laboratory Releases Data on Newly Invented Transistor." It is widely known that Drs. Brattain, Shockley, and Bardeen formerly announced on December 23, 1947, within the walls of Bell Labs ...

Modelithics Adds S-Parameter Models for Vanguard Ls and X-frmrs

Modelithics® Adds New S-Parameter Models for Vanguard Electronics Inductors and Transformers - RF CafeModelithics and Vanguard Electronics recently collaborated to develop s-parameter models for multiple inductor and transformer components from Vanguard. Associated s-parameter files are also available* to designers as free downloads, from Modelithics' website, for use in RF design simulations. The s-parameter models are conveniently included in the SPAR Library contained within the Modelithics® COMPLETE Library. The new s-parameter models and S-parameter data files are now ...

Exotic Quantum States Made from Light

Exotic Quantum States Made from Light - RF Cafe"Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. The individual particles merge with each other, making them indistinguishable. Researchers call this a photonic Bose-Einstein condensate. It has long been known that normal atoms form such condensates. Prof. Martin Weitz from the Institute of Applied Physics at the University of Bonn attracted attention among experts ..."

Thursday 17

The Solid-State Inductor

The Solid-State Inductor, September 1969 Electronics World - RF CafeIf you do a search on solid state inductors, you will not find much with a date later than the time when this article appeared in Electronics World in 1969. It appears a patent was issued in 1965, but the concept seems to never have caught on. The theory and construction is simple enough according to the information here. Fundamentally, it involves exploiting the properties of a Hall device when loaded with capacitive or inductive loads to effect inductive or capacitive properties, respectively. The ability to integrate capacitive elements into solid state substrates means the current and voltage phase relationship of an inductor can be obtained in an IC without a physical inductive ...

Frost & Sullivan Applauds Copper Mountain's USB VNA Solutions

Frost & Sullivan Applauds Copper Mountain Technologies for its Robust USB VNA Solution - RF CafeBased on its recent analysis of the universal serial bus (USB) vector network analyzer (VNA) industry, Frost & Sullivan recognizes Copper Mountain Technologies (CMT) with the 2017 Global Frost & Sullivan Award for Product Leadership. The imminent move of many Internet of Things (IoT) technologies from research to commercialization is expected to drive the demand for lower cost instrumentation over the next 5 to 10 years. CMT is well positioned to make the most of this opportunity with a strong and established USB VNA offering that is coupled with superior customer support ...

2 New Radio Service Data Sheets

RCA Victor Models 9T and K2 9-Tube, 5- to 566-Meter (Beam Power Output) Set, January 1937 Radio-Craft - RF Cafe1937 was one of the years where radio receivers boasted major technology advances. American and European households had by then finely crafted wooden-cased radios as the centerpiece of their living rooms, and decent reception was the norm if reasonable care was exercised when installing the antenna and avoiding static-generating appliances. The market was ready for and receptive to whiz-bang new features like automatic stations tuning, "Magic Eye" indicators, and high fidelity sound. This Philco model sported all those features and more. Of course electronics service shops loved the sophisticated electromechanical ...

Philco Model '37-116 (Shadometer) and 122 (Dial Tuning)

RCA Victor Models 9T and K2, 5- to 566-Meter (Beam Power Output) Set

Single Molecules Work as Reproducible Transistors

Single Molecules Work as Reproducible Transistors - RF Cafe"A major goal in the field of molecular electronics, which aims to use single molecules as electronic components, is to make a device where a quantized, controllable flow of charge can be achieved at room temperature. A first step in this field is for researchers to demonstrate that single molecules can function as reproducible circuit elements such as transistors or diodes that can easily operate at room temperature ..."

Terahertz Multiplexer: 100x Faster Than Today's Best

Terahertz Multiplexer: 100x Faster Than Today's Best - RF Cafe"Researchers have demonstrated the transmission of two separate video signals through a terahertz multiplexer at a data rate more than 100 times faster than today's fastest cellular data networks. Multiplexing, the ability to send multiple signals through a single channel, is a fundamental feature of any voice or data communication system ..."

Wednesday 16

Comic with an Electronics Theme

Comics with an Electronics Theme, June 1972 Popular Electronics - RF CafeClose out this Wednesday with a tech-themed comic from a 1972 issue of Popular Electronics magazine. Those of you who entered the engineering realm sometime after the 1990s might not recognize the strange looking surface the guy is sitting behind. It was an early tabletop touch-type display where the stylus with which the user created an image (drawing) was a wooden stick with a round shaft of graphite located coaxially in the center. The pointed, relatively soft tip wore down rather quickly and required frequent reshaping to maintain a constant pixel width in the lines. Portions of drawings made on those devices could only be erased and redrawn a few times ...

Controlled Spalling of Bulk and Free-Standing GaN Substrates

Controlled Spalling of Bulk and Free-Standing GaN Substrates - RF Cafe"IBM T. J. Watson Research Center in the USA has been exploring controlled spalling as a method for transferring thin layers of gallium nitride (GaN) from bulk and free-standing substrates. The researchers see the process as potentially contributing to the application in power electronics, where at present there are difficulties in thinning GaN to increase thermal conductivity ..."

The Truth About FM

The Truth About FM, August 1969 Electronics World - RF CafeAuthor Thomas Haskett uses this space in a 1969 issue of Electronics World to clear up misconceptions about how stereo FM radio broadcasts are accomplished. It is not only about the mechanics of frequency modulation itself - terms like frequency deviation and modulation index (often erroneously confused or equated) - but also pre-emphasis, SCA (Subsidiary Communications Authorization), simplex and multiplex operation, sum and difference channels, etc. This is a good review of FM broadcasting without all the messy mathematics on which engineers thrive ...

NI/AWR App Note to Design a Modified 3-Level Doherty Amplifier

New Application Note Explains How to Design a Modified Three-Level Doherty Amplifier Using NI AWR Software - RF CafeToday's communication systems often use complex modulation techniques with peak-to-average ratio (PAR) signals of 9 dB and higher, requiring power amplifiers (PAs) in these systems to operate below the power levels that would yield optimum power-added efficiency (PAE). This application note presents a modified three-level Doherty amplifier as an alternative to the conventional three-way Doherty amplifier. The operating principle of the modified amplifier, which produces good efficiency over the top 10 dB of operation, is explained and the design ...

Military Integrated Circuit Custom Design

Military Integrated Circuit Custom Design - RF Cafe"U.S. military researchers are moving forward with a project to revolutionize high-end integrated circuit (IC) custom design for military and aerospace applications. Officials of the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in Arlington, Va., announced AN $8.2 million contract modification Tuesday to the USC Information Sciences Institute (ISI) in Los Angeles for phase-two options in the Circuit Realization at Faster Timescales ..."

Photon-Triggered Nanowire Transistors a Step Toward Optical Computing

Photon-Triggered Nanowire Transistors a Step Toward Optical Computing - RF Cafe"The idea of substituting electrons with photons in computing has led to a variety of approaches for achieving the promise of speed-of-light computing. Not many of these schemes, however, have involved devices in which electronic currents are optically switched and amplified only by light and without the need for an electronic gate. Now a team of researchers at Korea University has jumped into this largely untouched field with a nanowire-based ..."

Tuesday 15

Poll: Which RF Cafe Features Do You Find Useful?

Poll: Which RF Cafe Features Do You Find Useful? - RF CafePoll: Which RF Cafe Features Do You Find Useful? While there really is no easy way to determine what the most popular features might be, your participation in the poll will provide at least some idea. You can post comments without needing to sign in. Thanks ...

Will There Be - An Electronic Mail Service?

Will There Be - An Electronic Mail Service?, August 1969 Electronics World - RF CafeTalk about prescience on the part of a writer! Electronics World magazine editor Walter Buchsbaum published this article in 1969 predicting the wide-scale adoption of electronic mail (e-mail) over a nationwide and even worldwide network. Interestingly, he questioned whether e-mail could help lighten the U.S. Post Office's load. Part of the scheme would include a joint effort by the USPS and Western Union whereby "Telegramletters" would be sent long distance via telegram and then printed and delivered by the Post Office to the final destination. It turns out to have practically crippled the USPS by usurping the vast majority of personal and business first-class service. A wideband microwave network ...

A Few Great RF & Microwave Engineering Articles for August 2017

A Few Great RF & Microwave Engineering Articles for August 2017 - RF CafeAugust issues of the most popular electronics and RF magazines do not have a whole lot of really interesting (to me, anyway) articles. One titled Dead Meters Expose Battery Terminal Design Issues does strike a familiar chord that is worth reading if for no other reason than to see the comments by readers. Just about everyone has experienced the horror and inconvenience of opening a battery-powered device and discovering ...

Microwave Material Measurements Without Cables

Understanding Limitations of Modern Military Radio Testbeds

mmWaves Hit the Highway <more>

Rigol "RF Basics" Technology Guide

Rigol "RF Basics" Technology Guide - RF Cafe Cool ProductYou might think the world doesn't need another RF basics book, but the fact is there are so many new people coming into the field that there is always room for one more - particular a well-done edition like "RF Basics Handbook" from Rigol Technologies. The PDF download is free, but you do need to fill out a submission form. A replication of the table of contents give you an idea of all the topics covered. The photos and drawings are very good quality. Of course the equipment used in the publication are representative of Rigol's product line, but that's to be expected ...

Random Number Generator Built from Carbon Nanotubes

Random Number Generator Built from Carbon Nanotubes - RF Cafe"Researchers have built a true random number generator that they say could improve the security of printed and flexible electronics. They made it from a static random-access memory cell printed with a special ink containing carbon nanotubes. The memory cell uses fluctuations in thermal noise to generate random bits. Generating random numbers within an electronic device is critically important because random numbers are the basis ..."

Monday 14

Batteroo ReBoost: Make Rechargeables Work Anywhere

Batteroo ReBoost: Make Rechargeables Work AnywhereHere is a really great idea that is long overdue. A lot of electronics devices that use standard cylindrical cells like AA, C, and D, do not last long because the nominal voltage of rechargeable NiCd and NiMH cells is 1.20-1.25 V, and most devices really are designed for 1.50 V alkalines. Batteroo ReBoost is a current Indiegogo (similar to Kickstarter) project that is the brainchild of Frankie Roohparvar. He combines one or more rechargeable cells into a standard case size along with an output regulator (and booster if needed) to turn a 1.2 V cell into a 1.5 V cell. It appears units are shipping now. Batteroo has received the Arrow Electronics Certification. If I had money to spare, I'd invest in them ...

No Snow in June: Match Your TV Antenna to Receiver for Best Picture

No Snow in June: Match Your TV Antenna to Receiver for Best Possible Picture, June 1970 Popular Electronics - RF CafeFew homeowners in the era of television antennas on the roof had any knowledge at all about how the antenna and twin lead transmission line system worked. Even those who were familiar with it only knew the basics like keeping the transmission line away from metallic objects and properly terminating the ends. This article in a 1970 issue of Popular Electronics described a method for optimizing the antenna and transmission line in terms of impedance matching and using very low loss open ladder line to optimize signal strength to the receiver. It is exactly the subject (received signal strength) I recently lamented about being often ignored when discussing aspects of ...

Room Temp Laser-on-CMOS Achieved

Room Temp Laser-on-CMOS Achieved - RF Cafe"The Nanophotonics Lab at Arizona State University (Tempe), working with Tsinghua University (Beijing), has demonstrated an on-chip CMOS communications laser that the researchers say is the first to lase at room temperature. The team built the proof-of-concept device without III-V compounds by placing a monolayer of molybdenum ditelluride over a nanobeam silicon cavity. Others have achieved monolayer ..."

Many Thanks to Saelig for Their Continued Support!

Saelig Company ElectronicsSaelig sells and supports a wide range of electronic control and instrumentation equipment and components to customers ranging from Fortune 500 industrial users, military, educational institutions and hospitals to individual end-users. They've found remarkable test equipment and components from around the world with specs or prices you won't find anywhere else. Please visit Saelig today for your test equipment needs ...

Pentagon Changes DOD Acquisition and Tech Approach

Pentagon Changes DOD Acquisition and Tech Approach - RF Cafe"The Pentagon has released its long-anticipated report detailing plans to restructure the organizations that manage acquisition and technology research for the Department of Defense. The so-called Section 901 report, officially titled "Restructuring the Department of Defense Acquisition, Technology and Logistics Organization and Chief Management Officer Organization," was delivered to Congress on Aug. 1. The basic structures of the reorg were set by the 2017 National Defense ..."

Sunday 13

RF Cafe Engineering Crossword w/Weekly Headlines for August 13

RF Cafe Engineering Crossword Puzzle w/Weekly Headlines August 13, 2017For the sake of avid cruciverbalists amongst us, each week I create a new crossword puzzle that has a theme related to engineering, mathematics, chemistry, physics, and other technical words. At least 12 lues in this puzzle with an asterisk (*) are pulled from this past week's (8/7 - 8/11) "Tech Industry Headlines" column on the RF Cafe homepage (see the Headline Archives page for help). Enjoy!

Friday 11

Engineering Jobs to See Double-Digit Growth in Next 7 Years

Engineering Jobs to See Double-Digit Growth in Next 7 Years - RF Cafe"Employment of mechanical engineers is projected to grow 5% through 2024, while some other engineering focuses will see higher employment growth and some will see lower or no growth. Recent projections from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics indicate engineering jobs will grow 3% over the coming 7 years. While some disciplines such as aerospace engineering will experience a small decline [including most electrical], jobs for most engineering disciplines are on the rise. This is ..."

A Brief History of Brilliant Women

A Brief History of Brilliant Women - RF CafeI don't normally abet promotions involving group identity angles, but since this article appeared (perhaps not coincidently) around the date that Hedy Lamarr was awarded her patent for frequency hopping spread spectrum (see the RF Cafe commemorative logo for August 11), I decided to go ahead and link to it. "Women in engineering have produced some of the greatest achievements in engineering, yet most endured harsh inequalities - some of which continue today in various forms. Female engineers will never have equal footing with their male counterparts. This is not to imply anything in terms of ..."

New APC-7 Coax Connector Tops Performance Records

New Coax Connector Tops Performance Records, August 1969 Electronics World - RF CafeAPC-7 (Amphenol Precision Connector - 7 mm) coaxial connectors were standard on network analyzers by the time I entered the microwave design and manufacturing field in the late 1980s. The test equipment we used for maintaining the S-band airport surveillance radar in the USAF (early 1980s) used N coax connectors, and I cannot recall what was used for the X-band precision approach radar. SMA coax connectors were developed in the 1960s, same as the APC-7 connectors, but I don't remember seeing an SMA until I started working for General Electric Aerospace Electronics Systems ...

Aviat Networks Seeks a Transmission Engineer

Aviat Networks Seeks a Transmission Engineer - RF CafeAviat Networks, a trusted expert in microwave networking, has an immediate opening for a Transmission Engineer to support the North American Sales and Delivery teams. Responsibilities include desktop microwave designs for clients' proposed, and existing network optimization projects, design of microwave radio paths in terms of antenna selection, center-line optimization, recommendation of space diversity, site selection and, in some cases, recommendation of specific radio modulation types and capacities. Additionally, you will perform site and path surveys to validate modeled conditions for proposed microwave links by ...

Notable Tech Quote by Winston Churchill

Winston Churchill Quotation from Malakand Field Force - RF Cafe"I pass with relief from the tossing sea of Cause and Theory to the firm ground of Result and Fact." - Winston L. Spencer Churchill, The Story of the Malakand Field Force - An Episode of Frontier War, p60. Other Notable Tech Quotes ...

Magnet with Nearly Massless Charge Carriers Discovered

Magnet with Nearly Massless Charge Carriers Discovered - RF Cafe"Advances in modern electronics has demanded the requisite hardware, transistors, to be smaller in each new iteration. Recent progress in nanotechnology has reduced the size of silicon transistors down to the order of 10 nanometers. However, for such small transistors, other physical effects set in, which limit their functionality. The recent discoveries of topological materials - a new class of relativistic quantum materials - hold great promise for use in energy saving electronics ..."

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