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Homepage Archive - August 2018 (page 2)

These archive pages are provided in order to make it easier for you to find items that you remember seeing on the RF Cafe homepage. Of course probably the easiest way to find anything on the website is to use the "Search RF Cafe" box at the top of every page. About RF Cafe.

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See Page 1 | 2 | 3 of the August 2018 homepage archives.


Monday 20

Another Day in the Shop

Another Day in the Shop, May 1959 Electronics World - RF CafeIf you are a fan of John T. Frye's "Mac's Service Shop" series of technodramas, then you might also appreciate this short-run stories by Bob Eldridge titled, "Another Day in the Shop." Up through maybe the early 1980s, every town had at least one electronics service shop for taking care of televisions, radios, record players, tape recorders and players, cameras, computers, and just about anything else that might be fixed at less cost than buying a replacement unit. In the 1940's through the 1960's, there was often good money to be made not only with in-shop repair but also with doing house calls for repair and installation. Electronics magazines of the era were filled with both self-help and tips for the professionals regarding troubleshooting, use of test equipment, how to deal with customers, etc. Electronics World even ran for a while a feature that suggested types and quantities of replacement tubes, capacitors ..."

Can You Be an EE Without a Degree?

Can You Be an EE Without a Degree? - RF CafeFor as long as I can remember, having the title of "engineer" without also holding some sort of 4-or-more-year degree meant that those who do have the degree considered the "non-engineer" engineer to be illegitimate. It used to be - and might still be - that some government contracts (defense, aerospace, etc.) required anyone listed as an engineer to have at least a 4-year degree. Lou Freznel has a new article address in the topic. "Jobs are out there to be had, but if you don't have a certain type of degree, it's very unlikely you'll land one. Lou Frenzel says it's high time to look beyond that vaunted piece of paper. Is it possible for a person to do actual electronic engineering work without a college degree? I say yes. It's been done ..."

The London Electrical Cab Debuted More Than 120 Years Ago

The London Electrical Cab Made Its Debut More Than 120 Years Ago - RF Cafe"In August 2017, London's first hybrid black cabs hit the streets ahead of new legislation that came into effect this year, requiring all new cabs to be 'zero emissions capable.' The TX can operate for around 70 miles on battery power alone, with a petrol range extender allowing it to clock up around 400 miles before refueling. But London's very first electric cabs actually came into service exactly 120 years earlier. 'Mr W H Preece inaugurated a service of electrical cabs which are to ply for hire in the streets of London in competition with the ordinary hackney carriages,' wrote The Engineer in August 1897 ..."

Rohde & Schwarz Offering Free RF Signal Generator Pocket Guide

Rohde & Schwarz Offers Free RF Signal Generator Pocket Guide - RF CafeRohde & Schwarz USA (R&S USA) is now offering this free "Key Characteristics of Signal Generators and Modulation Methods: Pocket Guide." Register for this pocket guide to receive fundamental information on analog and digital modulation methods. The Pocket Guide is available as a spiral bound hard copy (no PDF for download at this time). The guide also provides important signal generator specifications and parameters that should be considered when choosing a signal generator. This is another in a series of Pocket Guides being offered by R&S. The "RF Component Pocket Guide," introduced earlier this year, is still available. Rohde & Schwarz also has a downloadable PDF file titled, "Modulation and Signal Generation with R&S® Signal Generators Educational Note Products" ...

Barriers to Commercial Satellite Launch 'Surmountable' for DOD

Barriers to Commercial Satellite Launch 'Surmountable' for DOD - RF Cafe"The Defense Department - and possibly any iteration of a 'Space Force' - could benefit from having commercial satellite providers host its sensors and communications payloads, according to the Government Accountability Office. In a July 30 report submitted to Congress, GAO endorsed the Defense Department's use of commercially hosted military payloads a way to save money and recommended it consolidate the current decentralized program data. DOD has used three commercially hosted payloads with another three planned or underway through 2022. In a letter to House Armed Services Committee, GAO auditors ..."

Innovative Power Products: RF & Microwave Passive Components

Please click here to visit the Innovative Power Products websiteIPP RF power dividers, couplers, terminations - RF CafeInnovative Power Products (IPP) has over 30 years of experience designing & manufacturing RF & microwave passive components. Their high power, broadband couplers, combiners, resistors, baluns, terminations and attenuators are fabricated using the latest materials and design tools available, resulting in unrivaled product performance. Applications in military, medical, industrial and commercial markets. Take a couple minutes to visit their website and see how IPP can help you today ...

Hacked Satellite Systems Could Launch Microwave-like Attacks

Hacked Satellite Systems Could Launch Microwave-like Attacks - RF Cafe"At Black Hat conference in Las Vegas, researcher says theoretical threat to ships, planes and military is 'no longer theoretical.' The satellite communications that ships, planes and the military use to connect to the internet are vulnerable to hackers that, in the worst-case scenario, could carry out 'cyber-physical attacks,' turning satellite antennas into weapons that operate, essentially, like microwave ovens. According to research presented at the Black Hat information security conference in Las Vegas, a number of popular satellite communication systems are vulnerable to the attacks ..."

Friday 17

Electronic Angle Quiz

Electronic Angle Quiz, September 1967 Popular Electronics - RF CafeDang, I swapped two answers and scored an 80%. Haste makes waste, as the saying goes. Don't rush through this 1967 Popular Electronics "Electronic Angle Quiz" like I did and you'll probably ace it with the greatest of ease - especially if you have been in the electronics realm at least since the 1980s. Generation X'ers can have a two-question handicap (might never have seen real-life example of drawing "A" or "E") and Millennials (might never have seen drawing "A," "B," "D," or "H") get a four-question handicap ...

RF Stencils for Visio v3.1 Available!

RF Microwave Wireless Analog Block Diagrams Stencils Shapes for Visio - v3 - RF Cafe

With more than 780 custom-built symbols, this has got to be the most comprehensive set of Visio Stencils available for RF, analog, and digital system and schematic drawings! Every object has been built from scratch to fit proportionally on the provided A- and B-size drawing page templates (you can use your own page if preferred). Components are provided for equipment racks (EIA and ETSI) and test equipment, system block diagrams and conceptual drawings, and for schematics ...

Evolving 5G Landscape Creates New RF Challenges

Evolving 5G Landscape Creates New RF Challenges - RF CafeMessrs. Ben Thomas and Scott Vasquez, both with Qorvo (formerly RFMD), write about "Evolving 5G Landscape Creates New RF Challenges," in the July 2018 issue of Microwaves & RF magazine. A bevy of new technology - beam steering, massive MIMO, high linearity, etc. - has been and/or is in the process of being invented in order to accommodate extreme performance specifications. Phones, base stations, and small cells must all interact in concert for the 5G scheme to work. The industry hype has been huge. Say the authors, "5G is approaching rapidly, with the first deployments expected in 2019. Initially, mobile operators are targeting specific applications where they see considerable potential demand and opportunity. However, 5G will expand the global uses of wireless communications. A second wave of applications in 2020 and beyond will include automotive communications ..."

Electronics in Israel

Electronics in Israel, January 17, 1964 Electronics Magazine - RF CafeOnce World War II and the Korean War were through consuming a large percentage of the world's material and labor resources, technology focus shifted largely toward inventing and manufacturing consumer goods. It was a period similar to the Roaring Twenties, after World War I where innovation and high employment fueled good times for a lot of the population. Creature comforts like indoor plumbing, refrigerators, electric toasters and can openers, radio, affordable automobiles, were appearing in the majority of homes. Unfortunately, not all countries enjoyed the upturn during those eras, usually because of continued war and/or oppressive Communist / Socialist / Marxist regimes. Israel did not formally become a country again until 1948, having been ruled ...

Bittele Electronics: PCB Fabrication & Assembly

Bittele Electronics PCB Fabrication - RF CafeSince 2003, Bittele Electronics has consistently provided low-volume, electronic contract manufacturing (ECM) and turnkey PCB assembly services. It specializes in board level turnkey PCB assembly for design engineers needing low volume or prototype multi-layer printed circuit boards. Free Passive Components: Bittele Electronics is taking one further step in its commitment of offering the best service to clients of its PCB assembly business. Bittele is now offering common passive components to its clients FREE of Charge ...

3D-Printable Alloy for Flexible Electronics and Soft Robots

3D-Printable Alloy for Flexible Electronics and Soft Robots - RF Cafe"The physical structure of liquid metal is altered by incorporating a conductive nano- or micro-nickel filler. Liquid metal printing is integral to the flexible electronics field. Additive manufacturing enables fast fabrication of intricate designs and circuitry. The field features a range of products including electrically conductive textiles; bendable displays; sensors for torque, pressure, and other types of strain; wearable sensor suits, such as those used in the development of video games; antennae; and biomedical sensors. Soft robots, flexible computer screens, and other stretchable electronic devices also can be created ..."

Thursday 16

Low-Friction Interface Has Potential for Wear Reduction

Low-Friction Interface Has Potential for Wear Reduction - RF Cafe"Discovery may herald high-performance computer hard disks where lack of friction enables greater data storage. It has long been known that layered solid materials, particularly graphite, can act as lubricants. A joint project between Tel Aviv and Tsinghua Universities has now found that the interface between graphite and a two-dimensional material, hexagonal boron nitride, exhibits a property known as superlubricity where friction between two surfaces virtually disappears altogether. 'Superlubricity is a highly intriguing physical phenomenon, a state of practically zero or ultra-low friction between two contacting surfaces,' said Prof Oded Hod ..."

Windfreak Technologies: USB-Powered RF Synthesizers, Mixers

Windfreak TechnologiesSynthNV: 34 MHz – 4.4 GHz RF Signal Generator w/ Power DetectorSynthUSBII: 34 MHz – 4.4 GHz Low Cost RF Signal GeneratorWindfreak Technologies designs, manufactures, tests and sells high value USB powered and controlled radio frequency products such as RF signal generators, RF synthesizers, RF power detectors, mixers, up/downconverters. Worldwide customers include Europe, Australia, and Asia. Please contact Windfreak today to learn how they might help you with your current project ...

pSemi Announces World's First Monolithic, SOI Wi-Fi Front-End Module

pSemi Announces World's First Monolithic, SOI Wi-Fi Front-End Module - RF CafepSemi Corporation (formerly Peregrine Semiconductor), introduces the world's first monolithic, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) Wi-Fi front-end module (FEM)—the PE561221. Ideal for Wi-Fi home gateways, routers and set-top boxes, this high-performance module uses a smart bias circuit to deliver a high linearity signal and excellent long-packet error vector magnitude (EVM) performance. The PE561221 combines the intelligent integration capabilities of pSemi's SOI technology and Murata's expertise in Wi-Fi connectivity solutions and advanced packaging. This 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi FEM integrates a low-noise amplifier (LNA), a power amplifier (PA) and two RF switches ...

Fairchild Semiconductor Advertisement

Fairchild Semiconductor Ad, December 13, 1965 Electronics Magazine - RF CafeMaybe at one time I knew this, but the claim by Fairchild Semiconductor in this 1965 Electronics magazine advertisement took me by surprise. They claim to have invented the dual-inline-package (DIP) format. According to Wikipedia, a trio of chaps - Don Forbes, Rex Rice and Bryant Rogers - all Fairchild engineers, developed the DIP package in 1964, a year prior to the ad. Previously, a round can designated TO# (Transistor Outline) with # (number) leads around the perimeter was used for integrated circuits, but as the I/O pin count increased, that form factor became unwieldy. An extensive search for a patent on the DIP, assigned to Fairchild and/or the three inventors, did not turn up anything ...

Reusable Lab-on-a-Chip Uses Acoustic Waves to Manipulate Fluid Droplets

Reusable Lab-on-a-Chip Uses Acoustic Waves to Manipulate Fluid Droplets - RF Cafe"Researchers in the U.S. have developed a way to manipulate and mix droplets of fluids by having them surf on acoustic waves in oil. The group, from Duke University in North Carolina, claims that the technology could form the basis of a reusable and programmable biomedical chip for applications ranging from diagnostics to laboratory-based research. So-called lab-on-a-chip systems have played an increasingly important role in the biomedical and pharmaceutical sectors, but because these devices rely on solid surfaces their application has been hindered by problems related to surface absorption ..."

Wednesday 15

TV X-Rays Are Back

TV X-Rays Are Back, June 1969 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeColor television was a big hit with homeowners and was adopted fairly rapidly in the 1960s even considering the relatively high cost and low number of network color broadcasts in the beginning years. The enthusiasm underwent a severe reduction when word got out that large doses of x−rays were streaming out of the front of the CRT for sets that did not take precautions to prevent it (which was the majority of sets initially). The major cause was extremely high voltages applied between the electron gun and phosphorescent raster grid - in the neighborhood of 35 kV or more - when the high voltage regulator circuit malfunctioned. Note that even when everything was working properly ...

Pasternack Debuts SPDT High-Power PIN Diode RF Switches

Pasternack Debuts New Line of SPDT High-Power PIN Diode RF Switches with 50 Ohm Reflective Designs - RF CafePasternack, a leading provider of RF, microwave and millimeter wave products, has unveiled a new line of SPDT high-power PIN diode RF switches that offer desirable performance for transmit and receive signal routing applications. Typical applications can involve use in radar systems, EW applications, base station infrastructure, repeaters, military/microwave radios, public safety/land mobile radios, UHF/VHF radios, and test and measurement applications. Pasternack's new line of SPDT high-power PIN diode switches consists of 7 different models that offer excellent power handling and isolation with broadband performance and fast switching speed. Ideal for transmit and receive applications, these solid state PIN diode switches ...

New Classic, Highly Informative Watkins-Johnson Tech-Notes Added

New Classic, Highly Informative Watkins-Johnson Tech-Notes Added - RF CafeBelieve it or not, there was a time when the Internet did not exist and getting quality information could be difficult. Offices, cubicles, laboratories, company technical libraries, even hallways, were piled high with reference books, magazines, component books, applications notes, datasheets, white papers, and every other form of information that might be useful. Watkins-Johnson Tech-Notes were particularly notable for their practical design and application content. Thanks to Mr. Larry Jugler for providing these three new Watkins-Johnson Tech-Notes for adding to my collection of PDF files:

- Competitive Receiver Technologies

- RF Signal Processing Before the Receiver

- Software Design of Microprocessor-Controlled Receivers

All-Transistor TV Receiver Shown by RCA

All-Transistor TV Receiver Shown by RCA, February 1953 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeThis news tidbit appeared in a 1953 issue of Radio-Electronics along with an editorial by Hugo Gernsback titled "Transistor Transition." RCA had just developed its first fully solid state - except for the cathode ray tube (CRT) - television. Note that at the time the CRT was still often referred to as a kinescope. In fact, the word "kinescope" was coined and trademarked by RCA, so they had a vested interest in perpetuating its usage. Jerry Herzog, shown in the photo, was one of the engineers responsible for the design and construction of the television ...

San Francisco Circuits: PCB Fabrications & Assembly Service

San Francisco CircuitsSan Francisco Circuits PCBs - RF CafeSF Circuits' specialty is in the complex, advanced technology of PCB fabrication and assembly, producing high quality multi-layered PCBs from elaborate layouts. With them, you receive unparalleled technical expertise at competitive prices as well as the most progressive solutions available. Their customers request PCB production that is outside the capabilities of normal circuit board providers. Please take a moment to visit San Francisco Circuits today ...

Are Telcos Ready for Smart Home $11.2B Opportunity?

Are Telcos Ready for Smart Home $11.2B Opportunity? - RF Cafe"ABI Research estimates the smart home segment could potentially be worth in the region of $11.2B by 2022, but the diversification question still remains for the telcos. The smart home is a concept which has been on the horizon for some time, we've been debating the merits of talking fridges for years, but until recently it has perhaps been little more than a gimmick. The advantages of the expensive upgrades were limited, and in all honesty, there seem like little point in connecting your toilet to the internet. That said, during the last 12-18 months applications and services have started to appear to make the prospect genuinely interesting..."

Tuesday 14

Alliance Test Equipment: Used & Refurbished, Purchase & Rental

Alliance Test EquipmentAllied Test Equipment Products - RF CafeAlliance Test sells used / refurbished test equipment, we offer short- and long-term rentals. They also offer repair, maintenance and calibration. Prices discounted up to 80% off list price. Agilent/HP, Tektronix, Anritsu, Fluke, R&S and other major brands. A global organization with ability to source hard to find equipment through our network of suppliers. Please visit Allied Test Equipment today to see how they can help your project ...

Transistor Transition (Editorial)

Transistor Transition (Editorial), February 1953 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeHugo Gernsback was well-known not just for his technical prowess, but for an uncanny ability to predict future developments in electronics, transportation, and production methods. Barely three years had passed since Messrs. Bardeen, Shockley, and Brattain, announced their invention of the transistor when this editorial titled, "Transistor Transition" appeared in Radio-Electronics magazine. Gernsback mentions the concept of "appliqued circuits" (i.e., printed circuits) and "roll-up display" transistor picture tubes (i.e., flexible displays), and "pocket radios" that can be held up to the ear. Production prices for transistors at the time were about $8 apiece, which is the inflation-adjusted equivalent of $76 in 2018. At that price point, who could blame the pro-tube, never-transistor crowd from denying the possibility of transistors ever replacing tubes ...

Please Welcome Rohde & Schwarz as a New Banner Advertiser!

Rohde & Schwarz New Sponsor - RF CafePlease welcome Rohde & Schwarz as RF Cafe's newest Banner Advertiser in a 160x600−px slot! R&S has been a long-time supporter. Dr. Lothar Rohde and Dr. Hermann Schwarz founded the company Munich, Germany, in 1933. Per a Wikipedia entry, R&S received a electronics equipment depot maintenance contract in 1945 from the U.S. Army, which might be their first presence here in the U.S., providing serious competition to Hewlett Packard. I found this Rohde & Schwarz ad in a 1965 issue of Electronics magazine. Rohde & Schwarz is now a premier player in the communications test equipment realm. Lab benches and production test stations have taken on a noticeably blue hue thanks to all the R&S equipment in use ...

Japanese Technology - The New Push for Technical Leadership

Japanese Technology - The New Push for Technical Leadership, December 13, 1965 Electronics Magazine - RF CafeIf the December 13, 1965, edition of Electronics magazine had a theme, it was undoubtedly reporting on the current state of Japanese technology. The cover photo is a shot of a microwave antennas dominating Tokyo's skyline. Japanese technology companies worked hard to overcome the largely undeserved negative connotation that a "Made in Japan" label carried in the day. Do you remember the scene in the movie "Back to the Future Part III" where Doc, having traveled back in time from the 1950s, is trying to fix his DeLorean time travel car and discovers a burnt out circuit and claims, "No wonder this circuit failed, it says made in Japan?" Marty, who travelled from the 1980s, replied, "What do you mean doc, all the best stuff is made in Japan." There is no denying the Japanese people succeeded at their goal ...

Please Welcome Greg Boone to the Vaunted List of USAF Radar Techs

Please Welcome Greg Boone to the Vaunted List of USAF Radar TechsGreg Boone was in technical school at Keesler AFB, MS, during my time there in 1989. We were both AFSC 303x1 radar maintenance techs, although he began a couple months before I arrived. His service info is now in the USAF Radar Techs list. Greg was part of a group of guys, including Jim Flinn and me, who used to take stashes of firecrackers and bottle rockets to a road construction site in the Biloxi, Mississippi, area and play "war games" against opposing sides. As far as I know, none of us ever face any real fire while in the service. At least back in the era, a commonly repeated saying was that the Air Force is the only branch of service where the officers are sent into the heat of battle while the enlisted stay safely behind the lines ...

NIST FY 2019 Budget Would Eliminate WWV and WWVH

NIST FY 2019 Budget Would Eliminate WWV and WWVH - RF CafeCall to action - contact NIST to continue WWV and WWVH broadcasts. "The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) FY 2019 budget request includes shutting down NIST radio stations in Colorado and Hawaii - in other words, WWV and WWVH. Radio amateurs, HF listeners, and others around the world routinely make use of the time and frequency standard signals, which also include propagation information. NIST said eliminating funding currently 'supporting fundamental measurement dissemination' would include putting WWV and WWVH off the air for a saving of $6.3M. The NIST FY 2019 budget request for efforts related to Fundamental Measurement, Quantum Science and Measurement Dissemination is $127M ..."

Monday 13

Laser Communications Demonstrated from CubeSats for 1st Time

Laser Communications Demonstrated from Cubesats for 1st Time - RF Cafe"The Aerospace Corporation announced a milestone with the Optical Communications and Sensor Demonstration (OCSD) mission. The laser communication system, carried by the two low-Earth-orbiting OCSD CubeSats also known as AeroCube-7B and Aerocube-7C, successfully transmitted data at a rate of 100 megabits per second which is 50 times greater than typical communication systems for this size spacecraft. 'This is a significant achievement, given that high speed laser communications is mostly done from larger satellite systems,' said Steve Isakowitz, Aerospace president and CEO ..."

Ransom Stephens and Ovi Jacob Headline EDI CON USA 2018

Ransom Stephens and Ovi Jacob Headline EDI CON USA 2018 Plenary Keynotes - RF CafeEDI CON USA, the industry event that brings together RF/microwave and high-speed digital design engineers and system integrators, announces its plenary keynote speakers - Ovi Jacob and Ransom Stephens - for the 2018 conference, which will be held in Santa Clara, CA October 17 and 18. All pass holders will be eligible to see these talks, each happening at 11:30AM. On Wednesday, October 17, 2018, Ovi Jacob, Director of Business Development at Vayyar Imaging, will provide a fascinating glimpse at technology that is changing the world, and our ability to survive in it. In his talk, "Looking Deeper: Using Radar to Save Lives and Improve the World" Jacob will address how radar is being used for life-saving cancer detection, as well as in everyday applications ...

Look Out! It's Hot!

Look Out! It's Hot!, June 1966 Popular Electronics - RF CafeElectrocution has always been - and always should be - a hot topic (pun intended) in the realm of electrical and electronics servicing and usage. Trade and hobby magazines have dedicated many column inches to it over the years. A lot of people are deathly (there I go with the puns again) afraid of being anywhere in the proximity of an exposed electrical connection. My father, a newspaper classified advertising manager, was one of those people. He would cringe when I took the cover off the fuse panel in the house to work on it. He could barely bring himself to replace a blown fuse, which was not a completely unjustified fear given the low standards of older electrical wiring. Those screw-in fuses had a threaded metal perimeter around the bottom portion with a button connection at the bottom center. Theoretically, that threaded metal perimeter is at ground potential ...

Promote Your Company on RF Cafe for as Little as $35/Month

Sponsor RF Cafe for as Little as $35 per Month - RF CafeRF Cafe typically receives 10,000-15,000 website visits each weekday and about half that on weekends. RF Cafe is a favorite of engineers, technicians, hobbyists, and students all over the world. With more than 7,000 pages in the Google search index, RF Cafe returns in favorable positions on many types of key searches, both for text and images. New content is added on a daily basis. Items added on the homepage are broadcast on LinkedIn, Facebook, and Twitter. Banner advertising begins at $150/month ...

VidaRF: Passive RF & Microwave Components

vidaRF passive RF & microwave components - RF CafeAt VidaRF, the phrase 'Providing Simple Solutions for Complex Connections' is more than just a slogan – it's a mindset, a mission, and a driving force behind everything we do. Their pledge is to design and distribute high performance, cost effective RF Microwave products to fit each customer's unique applications. Please visit VidaRF today to see how their lines of attenuators & terminations, directional couplers, power dividers, coaxial connectors, and circulator & isolators can be of use to your project. "When the standard just will not do, VidaRF has the solution for you!" ...

Marriage of Topology and Magnetism in a Weyl System

Marriage of Topology and Magnetism in a Weyl System - RF Cafe"Topology is a global aspect of materials, leading to fundamental new properties for compounds with large relativistic effects. The incorporation of heavy elements gives rise to non-trivial topological phases of matter, such as topological insulators, Dirac and Weyl semimetals. The semimetals are characterized by band-touching points with linear dispersion, similar to massless relativistic particles in high energy physics. The interplay of symmetry, relativistic effects and, in magnetic materials, the magnetic structure, allows for the realization of a wide variety of topological phases through Berry curvature design. The Berry curvature describes the entanglement ..."

Innovative Power Products Resistors Terminations

Exodus Advanced Communications Best in Class RF Amplifier SSPAs
Innovative Power Products Passive RF Products - RF Cafe
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    Kirt Blattenberger,


RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while tying up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

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