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Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe Webmaster

Copyright: 1996 - 2024
    Kirt Blattenberger,


RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while typing up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

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RF & Microwave Magazine Article Archive - 2011

If you are like me, you spend a lot of time reading articles from technical magazines. Sometimes I read the entire article, but usually I just scan the text for highlights and look at the schematics, block diagrams, and charts / graphs. Often, I want to go back and find an article but cannot recall where I saw it. A Google search will usually eventually reveal a hyperlink to the article, but a lot of times it takes a lot of digging. Since my key interests are not necessarily the same as RF Cafe visitors, an attempt will be made to catalog all of them. If there is a magazine not included here that you would like me to include in the list, please send me an e-mail and I will try to incorporate its articles, too.

High Frequency Electronics | Microwave Journal | Microwaves & RF | Microwave Product Digest | Test & Measurement World

High Frequency Electronics


A High Bandwidth Class G Current-Mode Amplifier for Envelope Modulators (p.20)
G.T. Watkins

ISM Radio Bands: Will the Concept Work in the Future? (p.26)
Tom Perkins

Using Protocol Aware Tools to Simplify Program Development for RF SOC Test (p.32)
Ronald Burke

Avoiding Pitfalls When Selecting MIMO Antennas (p.38)
Jerry C. Posluszny

MIMO: An Overview (p.46)


Evaluating X-Parameter*, P2D and S2D Models for Characterizing Nonlinear Behavior in Active Devices (p.16)
Jiang Liu and Hugo Morales, Lawrence P. Dunleavy, and Loren Betts

Deciphering Digitizer Specs for Wireless Apps (p.30)
GaGe Applied Technologies

Inductors at UHF: EM Simulation Guides Vector Network Analyzer Measurements (p.40)
John B. Call


Implementing Modulation Functions in Microwave Frequency Synthesizers (p.20)
Alexander Chenakin, Phase Matrix, Inc.

Circuit Envelope Simulation: A Powerful Resource for 4G Power Amplifier Design (p.36)
Josh Moore, AWR Corporation

Probe Testing of Wafer Level Chip Scale Packaging (p.52)
John Whittaker

RF/Microwave Connectors on Printed Circuit Boards (p.60)
Gary Breed


Power Amplifier and Front End Module Requirements for IEEE 802.11n Applications
David Guo, RFMD

Extending Design and Simulation with User Defined Equations and Variables
Dale Henkes, ACS

Reducing EMI and Improving Signal Integrity Using Spread Spectrum Clocking
Jeffrey Batchelor and Jimmy Ma

Notes on the Design and Fabrication of Custom RFICs and MMICs
Gary Breed


Design and Optimization of Lumped Element Hybrid Couplers
Ashok Srinivas Vijayaraghavan and Lawrence Dunleavy

Factors to Consider for High Performance Coaxial Cables
Gary Breed

Design Requirements for Integrated Microwave Avionics Receivers
Leo G. Maloratsky

More Notes from History
Gary Breed


Understanding Dielectric Constant for Microwave PCB Materials
John Coonrod and Allen F. Horn III

Design Study of a High Efficiency LDMOS RF Amplifier
Mouqun Dong

Key Technologies Used in Today's High Frequency Power Devices
Gary Breed


Linear Power Amplifier Uses Mirror Predistortion
Khalet Fayed, Amin Ezzeddine, and Ho Huang

The Small-Signal Frequency Response of Ferrites
Nic Hamilton

Basic Electromagnetics Made True and Clear with Concrete Mathematics
W. Scott Bennett

Sensitivity of an Optical Receiver


Mutliband Monopole Antenna for Wireless Communication (p.20)
H. Hassan and A-K. Hamid

An Outphasing Transmitter Using Class-E PAs and Asymmetric Combining: Part 2 (p.34)
Ramon Beltran, RF Micro Devices; Frederick H. Raab, and Arturo Velazquez

Load Network Design Technique for Class F and Inverse Class FPAs (p.58)
Andrei Grebenikov

The Basics of Probe Measurements on Wafers and Other Substrates (p.78)
Gary Breed


An Outphasing Transmitter Using Class-E PAs and Asymmetric Combining: Part 1
Ramon Beltran, RF Micro Devices, Frederick, H. Raab, and Arturo Velazquez

Using a Microwave System Analyzer to Measure Satellite End-to-End Group Delay
Graham Stevens

Designing at Frequencies Below 100 MHz
Gary Breed

Online Archives of Past Articles in High Frequency Electronics


Automating the Screening of Microphonic Defects in Automotive Radio Receivers
Chin-leong Lim

Using Modified Microstrip Lines to Improve Circuit Performance
Leo G. Maloratsky

Design Resources to Help Achieve EMC Compliance
Gary Breed

Clarifications on Mixer Math


Control Interfaces for RF and Microwave Frequency Synthesizers
Alexander Chenakin, Phase Matrix, Inc.

High-Frequency Algorithmic Advances in EM Tools for Signal Integrity - Part 2
John Dunn

A One-Half Square Inch UMTS Base Station Receiver Module
Douglas Stuetzle and Todd Nelson

Performance Expectations for Reduced-Size Antennas
Gary Breed


High-Frequency Algorithmic Advances in EM Tools for Signal Integrity - Part 1
John Dunn

Notes on Design and Deployment of Wireless Infrastructure Systems

The Mathematics of Mixers: Basic Principles
Gary Breed

Design of Input Matching Networks for Class-E RF Power Amplifiers
Firas Mohammed Ali Al-Raie

A Magnetic Field Response Sensor for Measurement of Liquid Levels


Microwave Journal


Wideband Voltage Variable Attenuator with Fewer Components
Chin Leong Lim

Compact Dual-mode, Dual-band, Microstrip Filter with Multiple Transmission Zeros
C.L. Wei, B.F. Jia, Z.J. Zhu and M.C. Tang


Design and Fabrication of Monolithic High Quality Factor RF-Solenoids Using Dielectric Structure
Reza Kamali-Sarvestani and John D. Williams

Improved Thermal Management of Microwave PCBs Using Advanced Circuit Materials
John Coonrod

A Compact Microstrip Diplexer Using Composite Right-/Left-Handed Transmission Line with Enhanced Harmonic Suppression
He-Xiu Xu, Guang-Ming Wang, Jian-Gang Liang and Tian-Peng Li


High Efficiency L-Band GaN Power Amplifier
S. Aich, J. Dhar, S.K. Garg, B.V. Bakori and R.K. Arora

Direct Measurement-Based Modeling of Ultra-Low Resistance Passive Components
M.D. Brunsman

Design of V-Band Millimeter-Wave CMOS Low Noise Amplifier
Hsin-Chih Kuo, Chu-Yun Yang and Huey-Ru Chuang

High Tuning Sensitivity Dielectric Resonator Oscillator From Optimization of Dielectric Resonator TE01 Mode
Amir Effendy Muhammad-Afifi, Widad Ismail, and Jit Singh Mandeep

Broadband Bandstop Filter Using Periodic Fractal Electromagnetic Bandgap Structures
J.M. Huang, H.Z. Zhu, H. Guo, and K. Han


Adaptive Mode-Coupled Harmonically Tuned High-Q Ultra Low Phase Noise Sources
Ulrich L. Rohde and Ajay K. Poddar

A New Generation of High Frequency SiGe HBTs
Bernd Heinemann and Alexander Fox

New Bandstop Filter Using Simple Defected Microstrip Structure
Jian-Kang Xiao, Wen-Jun Zhu, and Jeffrey S. Fu

Loaded Annular Ring Slot Microstrip Antenna for Wideband and Multi-band Operation
A.T. Mobashsher, M.T. Islam and N. Misran

Determination of Transmission Zeros of Self-Equalized Cross-Coupled Resonator Bandpass Filters
Rui Wang and Jun Xu

A Repetitive Sampling Receiver for Pulsed Time Domain Load-Pull
Jad Faraj, Simon Mathias, Jean-Pierre Teyssier, Johannes Benedikt, and Michael Casbon


G/T for a Satellite-Terrestrial Handset with Internal and External Antennas
X. Zhao, T. Haarakangas, J. Katajisto, M. Niemi, P. Myllylä, J. Inget and J. Alasalmi

Design of a Fifth-Order Analog Predistorter for Base Station HPA of Cellular Mobile Systems
X.L. Sun, S.W. Cheung and T.I. Yuk

Compact CPW-Fed UWB Antenna with a Notched Band Characteristic
Cheng-yuan Liu, Ying-song Li, Tao Jang, and Xiao-dong Yang


Accounting for Dynamic Behavior in FET Device Models
Graham Rile

Programming a Network Analyzer for Third-Order Intercept Point Measurement
Zhaolong Li, Xuping Zhang, Ke Wu, and Xiaoping Chen

Analysis of 3G Noise to GPS in 3G Handsets
T. AlSharabati and Y. Chen


Impact of Materials on Microwave Cable Performance
Paul Pino

RF SOI Solutions as a Platform for Wireless Front-End Applications
R. Wolf, A. Joseph, P. Rabbeniand J. Dunn

Trends in Multi-Functional MMIC Design
Anthony Sweeney

New Generation High Linearity Navigation Front-End Devices Covering GPS and GLONASS
Daniel Kehrer and Deepak Bachu

Measurement Tips and Techniques: Know the Weakest Link in Your RF Network Analysis
David Broadbent


Methods for Characterizing the Dielectric Constant of Microwave PCB Laminates
John Coonrod

Analytical Design of an Inverse Class F Power Amplifier for Linear Amplification
Yingjie Xu, Jingqi Wang and Xiaowei Zhu

Design of a Metamaterial Bandpass Filter Using the ZOR of a Modified Circular Mushroom Structure
Geonho Jang and Sungtek Kahng

A HEMT Large-Signal Model with Improved Transconductance and Gate Capacitance Peaking Characteristics
Lin-Sheng Liu

Design of a Wide Stopband Bandpass Filter with Source-Load Coupling
Zhong Yin Xiao, Shan Gao, De Chen Ma and Liang Liang Xiang

Fast Calculation of Transimpedance Gain and Equivalent Input Noise Current Density for High-Speed Optical Preamplifier Design
Jianjun Gao

Multipaction Discharge in Coaxial Components
Rudy Fuks


Reconfigurable GaAs MMIC Power Amplifier Design Methodology Using a Tunable Interstage Network
Regina Gani, Grant A. Ellis, and Teoh Chin Soon

Linearity Looms Large for Next Generation RF Systems
Srikanth Sridharan

An Analog Approach to Power Amplifier Predistortion
Frederic Roger

Battling Phase Noise at RF and Microwave Frequencies
John Hansen


Narrowband Vector Intermodulation Measurements
Kokulathasan Thalayasingam and Holger Heuermann

Improved UHF Nonlinear Measurements Using Active Load Pull
Darren McCarthy

A Multiband Bandstop Filter Using a Single Ring Resonator for a Wireless Access Communication System
Yanwei Wang, Jianyi Zhou and Wei Hong

A Wideband Millimeter-Wave Coaxial to Rectangular Waveguide Transition Structure
Yan Zhou

Tackling the Mixed-Signal Testing Challenges of SDR
Greg Jue and Brad Frieden


Multilayer Technology Enables Miniaturization of Integrated Multi-Function Modules
Ronen Holtzman

Vector-Receiver Load Pull Measurements
Steve Dudkiewicz

Setting New Noise Performance Benchmarks Using Wideband Low-Noise, High-Linearity LNAs
Chin-Leong Lim

Cross Correlation in Phase Noise Analysis
Jason Breitbarth

RF Power Detector Simultaneously Delivers rms and Envelope Outputs
Analog Devices


New RF Metrics for the Smartphone-Centered World
Ben Thomas and Jackie Johnson, RFMD

MEMS Tuner Modules Could Solve Handset Reception Problems
Patrick Hindle

Highly Integrated Ka-Band TX Front-End Module with an 8×8 Antenna Array
W. Simon, J. Kassner, O. Litschke, H. Fischer and S. Holzwarth

Hybrid Finite Element: Boundary Integral Technique for Efficient Simulation of Radiation and Scattering
John Silvestro, Kezhong Zhao and Arien Sligar

UHF RFID Printed Dipole Antenna with CPS Matching and Inductively Coupled Feed
Nenad PopoviĆ and Ivana RadnoviĆ

A Miniature Lumped-Element LTCC Bandpass Filter with Finite Transmission Zeros for Bluetooth Applications
Yong Zhang and Dafu Lu

Microwaves & RF


Simple Predistorter Polishes PA Performance

Design Tunable Filters Using Feedback
Taghi Moghimi Kandelousy

Matching DFDs to Target Applications
Kevin Burns


Digital VGAs Boost Base-Station Performance
Christopher Stephens

Process uW Signals with High-Speed Logic
Kenneth V. Puglia

When is a Square Wave Truly Square?
Philip Arnold

CMOS LNA Supports Many Receiver Standards

Three-Way Divider Channels WiMAX


VVA Extends BW and Dynamic Range
Chin-Leong Lim

CMOS LNA Boosts 64 GHz

PIFAs Suit Mobile Wireless Applications

Making MIMO Receivers Smaller


Fabricate an 8.35-GHz Frequency Synthesizer
A. Attaran, H. Ameri, and M. Moghavvemi

Satellite Connects Cyclone Warning System
P.K. Jain, N. Neelakantan, and V.S. Hedge

DMS Structures Stop Bandpass Filter Harmonics
Huan-Huan Xie, Yong-Chang Jiao, Bing Wang, and Fu-Shun Zhang

Mixers, Detectors Serve mm-Wave Bands
Jiri Polivka

Analyze DE-MZMs with Multicarrier RF Inputs
Muhammad Taher Abuelma'atti


Sidebands Are Not Necessary
Harold R. Walker

Stub-Loaded Resonators Tune Dual-Band BPF

Optimize a Waveguide Mode Converter

Synthesize Distributed Element Filter Designs


Enhancing Analysis of Spurious Emissions
Joe Gorin

LNA Lowers Noise, Raises OIP3 at 3.5 GHz
Chin-Leong Lim

Microstrip Slotline Yields Tiny Divider

SIW Arms Compact Dual-Mode Filter/a>


How VCO Tuning BW Affects Phase Noise
Eoin Carey

Suppress Patch Antenna Harmonics

UWB BPF Features Dual Notched Bands

Dual-Band Antenna Handles WLAN/WiMAX



Unconventional PLLs Simplify Difficult Designs
James A. Crawford

Adaptive Modulation Boosts Link Throughput

Design an LNA for 38-GHz Radios

Thermal Design Begins at the Circuit Board
John Coonrod


Select a VCO or YIG for a PLL Synthesizer?
Alexander Chenakin

Designing Compact V/W-Band Gunn Sources
Saabra Deen

Fractal Microstrip Antenna Aids Wideband Applications
Abolfazl Azari

Body-Biased VCO Tunes 12 to 16 GHz


Amplifier System Powers Whole-Body MRI Scans
Daniel P. Myer

DGS and Multilayer Methods Make LPF
A. Batmanov

MMR Helps Tune UWB Bandpass Filter

DGS Lowpass Filters Extend Wide Stopbands

Transmission Lines Withstand Vibration
Steve Huettner


Extend Active RFID with a ZigBee Network

Prevent PCB Problems in ISM-Band Designs
Martin Stoehr

Coupling Quiets Quadrature Oscillator



Relay Extends WiMAX Service
K. Voudouris, Dr. Nikos Athanasopolous, P. Triakas, D. Manor, and A. Mor

SP10T Switch Routes 2G/3G/4G Signals
Nuttapong Srirattana

Conformal Network Feeds Compact Helical Antenna
Yuannan Mo, Zhenya Lei, Tingwei Xu, Dan Xi, and Peige Ren

Make Quick Work of Impedance Measurements
Alberto Bagnasco


Microwave Product Digest


Choosing the Right RF Switches for Smart Mobile Device Applications
Skyworks Solutions, Inc.

Low Cost, Highly Flexible Scalar Network Analyzer
Sook Hua Wong

Connecting RF and Protocol Measurements for Troubleshooting and Optimizing Wireless Links
Ben Zarlingo

Analyzing Embedded Systems with Mixed Signal Oscilloscopes
Dr. Wolfgang Herbordt


Using the LINC2 Visual System Architect to Determine the System Spurious-Free Dynamic Range (SFDR)
Applied Computational Sciences

Powerful New Signal Generator Sweeps from 10 MHz to 70 GHz Wideband Coverage and Excellent Phase Noise Serves Multiple Applications
Hittite Microwave Corporation

LDMOS Transistor Delivers Highest Performance in UHF Broadcast Transmitters
Freescale Semiconductor

Tackling Thermal Issues in Microwave PCBs
Rogers Corporation

Making Designs More Robust Using a New Design Methodology and Powerful Tools to Resolve Yield Problems in Designs
Agilent Technologies


Radar Antennas for Modern Radar Systems
Cobham Antenna Systems

Wireless Sensor Networks: The Challenges and Opportunities
Raghu Das

Making the Right Choice in High-Linearity Power Amplifiers
Mark Schmeichel

Solutions for Radar Applications
Dave Cruickshank and Brian Hartnett, Skyworks Solutions, Inc.

A New Approach to Frequency Synthesis
Vitaly Koslov and Nicholas Payne


Impact of Materials on Microwave Cable Performance
Paul Pino

Designing with Your Eyes Open
Rick Eads

A New Standard in Low Noise Signal Generation, Now with Avionics
David Asquith

Conducting Millimeter-Wave Measurements with a Signal Analyzer and External Mixer


Understanding and Specifying Ceramic Filters
Anatech Electronics

An Efficient PA for Multiple Wireless Standards Applications
Greg Durham, RFMD

Equalizers Adjust Amplitude Slopes at IF and L-Band
Christopher M. Augustine

New Manufacturing Processes Offer an LDS Antenna Option for Laptops and Tablets
Esa Kalistaja

Maintaining a Healthy Last Mile Connection for 3G/4G Networks
Rolland Zhang


Passive In–Building Networks Require Critical Component Performance
Anatech Electronics

Hittite's New Wideband PLL+VCO - The Ultimate Solution for Low Jitter and Low Spurious Requirements Meeting the Challenge of Today's Wideband Transceivers from 25 to 3000 MHz
Hittite Microwave

Aluminum Diamond Meets Cost and Technical Challenges for Removing Heat from GaN Devices Demonstrates a reduction in junction temperature of 25% in GaN HEMTs
Kevin Loutfy

RFSA2013 and RFSA2023 Broadband High Performance Voltage-Controlled Attenuators
Darrin Walraven, RFMD


Hittite Launches Next Generation HMC-T2200 Series Synthesized Signal Generator Platform
Hittite Microwave Corporation

Nardalert S3 Refines Role of Personal RF and Microwave Safety Monitors
Narda Safety Test Solutions

Wideband GaN Power Amplifiers for Software-Defined Radios

RF Power Meter Shows Greatest Signal Detail
Wireless Telecom Group


Modular Framework Speeds Bench Instrument Evolution
Marv Rozner

Tackling the Challenges of LTE-Advanced
Jan Whitacre

High CV Tantalum Capacitors - Challenges and Limitations
I. Horacek, T. Zednicek, S. Zednicek, T. Karnik, J. Petrzilek, P. Jacisko, and P. Gregorova

Hittite's 18 GHz Ultra Wideband Track-and-Hold Amplifier Enhances High Speed ADC Performance
Hittite Microwave

Compact Power Amplifier for LTE Mobile Terminals Using Coupling Variation Reduction Technique
Yang Li, Dmitri Prikhodko, Yevgeniy Tkachenko and Rick Zhu, Skyworks Solutions, Inc.


Cavity Filters, Duplexers Meet Demands of 700 MHz 4G Networks
Anatech Electronics

A Cost-Effective Approach to EMI, EMP and Surge Protection
Dom Lecce

High Power Filters
Manny Assurian, Ray Hashemi and Jim Assurian, Reactel, Incorporated

Current Trends in RF/Microwave Switch Matrices
Twinkle Shah

PIN Diodes for High Power T/R Switches
Rick Cory, Skyworks Solutions, Inc.



Monolithic Semiconductor Technologies for Low Cost Phased Array Radar
Timothy Boles, Douglas Carlson, and Suja Ramnath

Digital and Microwave Technologies Meet in Latest Integrated Microwave Assemblies
Narda Microwave

RFMD® Front End Modules
Antonio Espinoza, RFMD®, Inc.

A Low Cost PLL Synthesizer with Fine Frequency Resolution
Vitaly Koslov


Software Embedded Digital RF and Microwave Attenuators
Chandra Gupta and Michael J. Masterson

Tips for Making Fast, Accurate Antenna Measurements
Say Phommakesone

Modern EW Systems Require Efficient RF Power Management
Joe Hajduk

Introducing the World's First Commercialized, Triple Mode Filter for Wireless Communication Systems Applications
Min Jeon

High Power RF Lightning Protection
George M. Kauffman

Radiated Efficiency: A True Measure of Antenna Performance
Jouni Lifländer


Test & Measurement World


Jitter and Timing Analysis in the Presence of Crosstalk
Chris Loberg


Reduce the Cost of Optical Transceiver Testing
Greg LeCheminant

Evaluating Inertial Measurement Units
Raymond Chow

Logic Probe Uses Two Comparators
Vladimir Rentyuk


Math Functions Reveal Circuit Parameters
Martin Rowe

SMUs Simplify LVR Measurements
Jennifer Cheney and Qing D. Starks

Boost NVM Programming Speed
Rick Nelson

Minimize Noise in Power-Supply Measurements
John Lo Giudice

Testing 18-bit ADCs
Jim Williams and Guy Hoover

Test Sets Mimic Cells for LTE Handover Test
Rick Nelson


Charge-Pumping Measurements
Mary Anne Tupta

Speeding SOC Test
Tim Lyons

Measure Resistance and Temperature with a Sound Card
Zoltan Gingl and Peter Kocsis

Control Test Instruments with Python
Martin Rowe

Automating Network Test
Martin Rowe


Engineers Know When to Automate
Jack Browne


Log Amp Linearizes Thermistors
Martin Rowe

Build a Tester Around a Microcontroller
Martin Rowe

Debugging Low-Power Designs
Gina Bonini


So, You Want to Build an H-Bot?
Kevin C. Craig

Integrator Boosts Inductive-Probe Bandwidth
Martin Rowe

Circuit Lets You Isolate and Measure Current
Anton Mayer

Prepare Signals for Microcontroller ADCs
Sean Newton and Alec Bath


Maximize a Waveform Generator's Memory
Joan Mercadé

Measure an Optocoupler's CTR
Chee Hua How

Optimizing the SOC Test-Development Effort
Mick Tegethoff and Tom Jackson


Impedance: A Multidisciplinary Concept
Kevin C. Craig

How Do You Connect Your Oscilloscope?
Martin Rowe

VISA Tunnels Down to the Kernel
Martin Rowe

Ensuring High-Quality ICs
Colin Renfrew

Test Ideas: Condition Thermocouples Before Digitizing
Moshe Gerstenhaber and Michael O'Sullivan, Analog Devices



Testing with Less Stress
Anthony Suto

Circuit Measures Capacitance or Inductance
Jim McLucas

From the Real World to the Digital World
Kevin Craig

Bandwidth Can Limit ESD Measurements
Martin Rowe



Manage Your Measurement Errors
Jordan Dimitrov

Measure Resistance with a Microcontroller
Adolfo Mondragon

Innovative Power Products Couplers
RF Cascade Workbook 2018 by RF Cafe
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