Module 8—Introduction to Amplifiers
Pages i - ix
1-1 to 1-10
, 1-11 to 1-20
1-21 to 1-30
, 1-31 to 1-40
2-1 to 2-10
, 2-11 to 2-20
2-21 to 2-30
, 2-31 to 2-35
3-1 to 3-10
,3-11 to 3-20
3-21 to 3-30
, 3-31 to 3-40
3-41 to 3-50
, 3-51 to 3-60
3-61 to 3-70
, AI-1 to AI-3
Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:
1. Describe the basic operation of a differential amplifier.
2. Describe the operation of a
differential amplifier under the following conditions:
a. Single Input, Single Output
b. Single input, differential output
c. Differential input, differential output
3. List the characteristics of an operational amplifier.
4. Identify the symbol for an operational
5. Label the blocks on a block diagram of an operational amplifier.
6. Describe the operation of an operational amplifier with inverting and noninverting configurations.
7. Describe the bandwidth of a typical operational amplifier and methods to modify the bandwidth.
8. Identify the following applications of operational amplifiers:
9. State the common usage for a magnetic amplifier.
10. Describe the basic operation of a magnetic amplifier.
11. Describe various methods of changing
12. Identify the purpose of components in a simple magnetic amplifier.
If you were to make a quick review of the subjects discussed in this module up to this point, you would
see that you have been given a considerable amount of information about amplifiers. You have been shown what
amplification is and how the different classes of amplifiers affect amplification. You also have been shown that
many factors must be considered when working with amplifiers, such as
impedance, feedback, frequency response, and coupling. With all this information behind you, you might
ask yourself "what more can there be to know about amplifiers?"
There is a great deal more to learn about
amplifiers. Even after you finish this chapter you will have only "scratched the surface" of the study of
amplifiers. But, you will have prepared yourself for the remainder of the NEETS. This, in turn, should prepare you
for further study and, perhaps, a career in electronics.
As in chapter 2, the circuits shown in this
chapter are intended to present particular concepts to you. Therefore, the circuits may be incomplete or not
practical for use in an actual piece of electronic equipment. You should keep in mind the fact that this text is
intended to teach certain facts about amplifiers, and in order to simplify the illustrations used, complete
operational circuits are not always shown.
In this chapter three types of special amplifiers are
discussed. These are: DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS, OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS, and MAGNETIC AMPLIFIERS. These are called
special amplifiers because they are used only in certain types of equipment.
The names of each of these
special amplifiers describe the operation of the amplifier, NOT what is amplified. For example, a magnetic
amplifier does not amplify magnetism but uses magnetic effects to produce amplification of an electronic signal.
A differential amplifier is an amplifier that can have two input signals and/or two output signals. This
amplifier can amplify the difference between two input signals. A differential amplifier will also "cancel out"
common signals at the two inputs.
One of the more interesting aspects of an operational amplifier is that it can be used to perform mathematical
operations electronically. Properly connected, an operational amplifier can add, subtract, multiply, divide, and
even perform the calculus operations of integration and differentiation. These amplifiers were originally used in
a type of computer known as the "analog computer" but are now used in many electronic applications.
magnetic amplifier uses a device called a "saturable core reactor" to control an a.c. output signal. The primary
use of magnetic amplifiers is in power control systems.
These brief descriptions of the three special
amplifiers are intended to provide you with a general idea of what these amplifiers are and how they can be used.
The remaining sections of this chapter will provide you with more detailed information on these special
A differential amplifier has two possible inputs and two possible outputs. This arrangement means that
the differential amplifier can be used in a variety of ways. Before examining the three basic configurations that
are possible with a differential amplifier, you need to be familiar with the basic circuitry of a differential
BASIC DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT
Before you are shown the operation of a differential
amplifier, you will be shown how a simpler circuit works. This simpler circuit, known as the DIFFERENCE AMPLIFIER,
has one thing in common
with the differential amplifier: It operates on the difference between two inputs. However, the
difference amplifier has only one output while the differential amplifier can have two outputs.
you should be familiar with some amplifier circuits, which should give you an idea of what a difference amplifier
is like. In NEETS, Module 7, you were shown the basic configurations for transistor amplifiers. Figure 3-1 shows
two of these configurations: the common emitter and the common base.
In view (A) of figure 3-1 a
common-emitter amplifier is shown. The output signal is an amplified version of the input signal and is 180
degrees out of phase with the input signal. View (B) is a common- base amplifier. In this circuit the output
signal is an amplified version of the input signal and is in phase with the input signal. In both of these
circuits, the output signal is controlled by the base-to-emitter bias. As this bias changes (because of the input
signal) the current through the transistor changes. This causes the output signal developed across the collector
load (R2) to change. None of this information is new, it is just a review of what you have already been shown
regarding transistor amplifiers.
Figure 3-1A.—Common-emitter and common-base amplifiers.
Figure 3-1B.—Common-emitter and common-base amplifiers.
NOTE: Bias arrangements for the following explanations will be termed base-to-emitter. In other publications
you will see the term emitter-to-base used to describe the same bias arrangement.
SINGLE-OUTPUT, DIFFERENCE AMPLIFIER
If you combine the common-base and common-emitter
configurations into a single transistor amplifier, you will have a circuit like the one shown in figure 3-2. This
circuit is the two-input, single-output, difference amplifier.
Figure 3-2.—Two-input, single-output, difference amplifier.
In figure 3-2, the transistor has two inputs (the emitter and the base) and one output (the collector).
Remember, the current through the transistor (and therefore the output signal) is controlled by the
base-to-emitter bias. In the circuit shown in figure 3-2, the combination of the two input signals controls the
output signal. In fact, the DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE INPUT SIGNALS determines the base-to-emitter bias.
the purpose of examining the operation of the circuit shown in figure 3-2, assume that the circuit has a gain of
-10. This means that for each 1-volt change in the base-to-emitter bias, there would be a 10-volt change in the
output signal. Assume, also, that the input signals will peak at 1-volt levels (+1 volt for the positive peak and
-1 volt for the negative peak). The secret to understanding this circuit (or any transistor amplifier circuit) is
to realize that the collector current is controlled by the base-to-emitter bias. In other words, in this circuit
the output signal (the voltage developed across R3) is determined by the difference between the voltage on the
base and the voltage on the emitter.
Figure 3-3 shows this two-input, single-output amplifier with input signals that are equal in amplitude and 180
degrees out of phase. Input number one has a positive alternation when input number two has a negative alternation
and vice versa.
Figure 3-3.—Input signals 180º out of phase.
The circuit and the input and output signals are shown at the top of the figure. The lower portion of
the figure is a comparison of the input signals and the output signal. Notice the vertical lines marked "T0"
through "T8." These represent "time zero" through "time eight." In other words, these lines provide a way to
examine the two input signals and the output signal at various instants of time.
In figure 3-3 at time zero (T0) both input signals are at 0 volts. The output signal is also at 0
volts. Between time zero (T0) and time one (T1), input signal number one goes positive and input signal number two
goes negative. Each of these voltage changes causes an increase in the base-to-emitter bias which causes current
through Q1 to increase. Increased current through Q1 results in a greater voltage drop across the collector load
(R3) which causes the output signal to go negative.
By time one (T1), input signal number one has reached
+1 volt and input signal number two has reached -1 volt. This is an overall increase in base-to-emitter bias of 2
volts. Since the gain of the circuit is -10, the output signal has decreased by 20 volts. As you can see, the
output signal has been determined by the difference between the two input signals. In fact, the base-to-emitter
bias can be found by subtracting the value of input signal number two from the value of input signal number one.
Between time one (T1) and time two (T2), input signal number one goes from +1 volt to 0 volts and input
signal number two goes from -1 volt to 0 volts. At time two (T2) both input signals are at 0 volts and the
base-to-emitter bias has returned to 0 volts. The output signal is also 0 volts.
Between time two (T2) and time three (T3), input signal number one goes negative and input signal number
two goes positive. At time three (T3), the value of the base-to-emitter bias is -2 volts.
This causes the output signal to be +20 volts at time three (T3).
Between time three (T3) and
time four (T4), input signal #1 goes from -1 volt to 0 volts and input signal #2 goes from +1 volt to 0 volts. At
time four (T4) both input signals are 0 volts, the bias is 0 volts, and the output is 0 volts.
four (T4) through time eight (T8), the circuit repeats the sequence of events that took place from time zero (T0)
through time four (T4).
You can see that when the input signals are equal in amplitude and 180 degrees out of phase, the
output signal is twice as large (40 volts peak to peak) as it would be from either input signal alone (if the
other input signal were held at 0 volts).
Figure 3-4 shows the two-input, single-output, difference
amplifier with two input signals that are equal in amplitude and in phase.
Figure 3-4.—Input signals in phase.
Notice, that the output signal remains at 0 volts for the entire time (T0 - T8). Since the two input
signals are equal in amplitude and in phase, the difference between them (the base-to-emitter bias) is always 0
volts. This causes a 0-volt output signal.
If you compute the bias at any time period (T0 - T8), you will
see that the output of the circuit remains at a constant zero.
From the above example, you can see that when the input signals are equal in amplitude and in phase,
there is no output from the difference amplifier because there is no difference between the two inputs. You also
know that when the input signals are equal in amplitude but 180 degrees out of phase, the output looks just like
the input except for amplitude and a 180-degree phase reversal with respect to input signal number one. What
happens if the input signals are equal in amplitude but different in phase by something other than 180 degrees?
This would mean that sometimes one signal would be going negative while the other would be going positive;
sometimes both signals would be going positive; and sometimes both signals would be going negative. Would the
output signal still look like the input signals? The answer is "no," because figure 3-5 shows a difference
amplifier with two input signals that are equal in amplitude but 90 degrees out of phase. From the figure you can
see that at time zero (T0) input number one is at 0 volts and input number two is at -1 volt. The base-to-emitter
bias is found to be +1 volt.
Figure 3-5.—Input signals 90º out of phase.
This +1-volt bias signal causes the output signal to be -10 volts at time zero (T0). Between time zero
(T0) and time one (T1), both input signals go positive. The difference between the input signals stays constant.
The effect of this is to keep the bias at +1 volt for the entire time between T0 and T1. This, in turn, keeps the
output signal at -10 volts.
Between time one (T1) and time two (T2), input signal number one goes in a
negative direction but input signal number two continues to go positive. Now the difference between the input
rapidly from +1 volt. Halfway between T1 and T2 (the dotted vertical line), input signal number one
and input signal number two are equal in amplitude. The difference between the input signals is 0 volts and this
causes the output signal to be 0 volts. From this point to T2 the difference between the input signals is a
negative value. At T2:
From time two (T2) to time three (T3), input signal number one goes negative and input signal number two
goes to zero. The difference between them stays constant at -1 volt. Therefore, the output signal stays at a
+10-volt level for the entire time period from T2 to T3. At T3 the bias condition will be:
Between T3 and T4 input signal number one goes to zero while input signal number two goes negative.
This, again, causes a rapid change in the difference between the input signals. Halfway between T3 and T4 (the
dotted vertical line) the two input signals are equal in amplitude; therefore, the difference between the input
signals is 0 volts, and the output signal becomes 0 volts. From that point to T4, the difference between the input
signals becomes a positive voltage. At T4:
(The sequence of events from T4 to T8 are the same as those of T0 to T4.)
As you have seen, this
amplifier amplifies the difference between two input signals. But this is NOT a differential amplifier. A
differential amplifier has two inputs and two outputs. The circuit you have just been shown has only one output.
Well then, how does a differential amplifier schematic look?
TYPICAL DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT
Figure 3-6 is the schematic diagram of a typical differential amplifier. Notice that there are two
inputs and two outputs. This circuit requires two transistors to provide the two inputs and two outputs. If you
look at one input and the transistor with which it is associated, you will see that each transistor is a
common-emitter amplifier for that input (input one and Q1; input two and Q2). R1 develops the signal at input one
for Q1, and R5 develops the signal at input two for Q2. R3 is the emitter resistor for both Q1 and Q2. Notice that
R3 is NOT bypassed. This means that when a signal at input one affects the current through Q1, that signal is
developed by R3. (The current through Q1 must flow through R3; as this current changes, the voltage developed
across R3 changes.) When a signal is developed by R3, it is applied to the emitter of Q2. In the same way, signals
at input two affect the current of Q2, are developed by R3, and are felt on the emitter of Q1. R2 develops the
signal for output one, and R4 develops the signal for output two.
Introduction to Matter, Energy, and Direct Current, Introduction
to Alternating Current and Transformers, Introduction to Circuit Protection,
Control, and Measurement, Introduction to Electrical Conductors, Wiring Techniques,
and Schematic Reading, Introduction to Generators and Motors,
Introduction to Electronic Emission, Tubes, and Power Supplies,
Introduction to Solid-State Devices and Power Supplies,
Introduction to Amplifiers, Introduction to
Wave-Generation and Wave-Shaping Circuits, Introduction to Wave Propagation, Transmission
Lines, and Antennas, Microwave Principles,
Modulation Principles, Introduction to Number Systems and Logic Circuits, Introduction
to Microelectronics, Principles of Synchros, Servos, and Gyros,
Introduction to Test Equipment, Radio-Frequency
Communications Principles, Radar Principles, The Technician's Handbook,
Master Glossary, Test Methods and Practices, Introduction to Digital Computers,
Magnetic Recording, Introduction to Fiber Optics