Wax nostalgic about and learn from the history of early electronics. See articles
from Popular Electronics,
published October 1954 - April 1985. All copyrights are hereby acknowledged.
Those of us who have
been around for six or more decades have lived through two evolutions of video
display types - raster scanned cathode ray tubes (CRTs) and digitally pixelated
light-emitting diode (LED) and liquid crystal (LCD) displays. Unlike with the
latter display types that improved in color depth, picture resolution and
display size, the former had effectively a fixed resolution of horizontal lines
(525 vertical steps - only 484 visible, actually, due to blanking). That meant
for CRTs, designers needed to find ways to make images appear in-focus while
also looking continuous on larger screens. Doing so involved cleverly adjusting
the size and spacing of fluorescent color dots on the picture tube face while
also using special metal masks between the electron gun and the tube. A lot of
research that included panels of people rendering opinions went into determining
what would be considered an acceptable tradeoff in larger size vs. picture
quality. Somehow, the higher quality 25" (some even up to 27") television set
pictures looked pretty darn good if you didn't sit right up next to the screen.
To get an idea of how profoundly minor changes in scan techniques can effect
picture quality, open the Display Settings screen in the Control Panel and
change the resolution to something other than the "native" resolution. Most
likely you will get a picture that makes you think your eyes have gone out of
focus, at least until you move far away from the screen.
Mac's Service Shop: Zenith's 1973 Color Line
By John T. Frye, W9EGV, KHD4167
Lay down your solder gun. Barney," Mac said to his assistant. "I want to update
you on the Zenith 1973 color TV line we're going to be encountering before long.
I bought these service manuals from the company and have been studying them. Now
I'm ready to bestow my acquired wisdom on lucky you."
"No contest," Barney said. "I'd always rather listen than work. Blast off."
1973 Zenith 25" Super Chromacolor Console TV
Zenith Super Chromacolor Portable TV (1973 TV Guide Fall
"First, Zenith has two complete color TV lines for 1973. Sets in one line are
remote controlled; those in the other, manually controlled. If the customer goes
for remote control he can have it in one 16" portable, or two 19", one 23" or one
25" table models. He can also get RC on ten 25" consoles or two 25" combinations.
But he still must make up his mind how sophisticated a remote control he needs.
The four-button 600-X turns the set on and off, switches vhf and uhf channels higher
or lower, adjusts the volume to one of three levels, and mutes the sound. The three-button
500 system turns the set on and off, adjusts the volume to two levels or mutes the
sound, and changes the vhf channels higher or lower. The 100 system turns the set
on and off and changes vhf channels higher or lower with a single button. All three
systems use Zenith's Space Command mechanically produced ultrasonic signal.
"Twenty-six sets in the manually operated line break down into two 16" portables;
five 19", one 23" and one 25" table models; four 23" and twelve 25" consoles; and
one 25" combination. All Zenith color sets are served by three basic chassis. The
Titan 200 is 100% solid-state and features the Zenith Dura-Module concept of five
good-sized plug-in modules. Incidentally, transistors and IC's on these modules
are also plug-in and can be replaced when necessary without changing the entire
module. The Titan 101 chassis is over 90% solid-state and also uses Dura-Modules.
The High Performance Chassis used in the portables features Zenith's solid-state
3-stage i-f module with an amplification factor of 26,000. This module has been
modified this year by incorporating a hot-carrier diode for detection and changing
the biasing for the third i-f transistor to increase reliability.
"The sound module, employing an IC amplifier, has also been changed this year
so the volume control varies a dc potential applied to the IC amplifier to control
its gain instead of varying the audio signal directly. You'll also find a change
in the black-and-white tracking adjustment procedure. Instead of using potentiometers
to vary the red, green, and blue gains, Zenith does this with taps in the red and
blue cathode circuits. Don't waist any time looking for knobs to twist. Just read
the service procedure.
"What's the 'Chromatic Brain' that I hear Zenith yakking about?"
"That's their name for circuitry designed to detect and extract color information
from the signal. It's built around a Zenith-developed IC containing two independent,
double-balanced demodulator systems. But there's no point in our going into features
you take for granted on a modern color set - such as automatic degaussing, afc,
motor-driven touch tuning, etc. Instead I'd like to call your attention to such
things as Zenith's solid-state electronic tuning, their voltage-regulating transformer,
their chromatic one-button tuning, system and their Super Chromacolor picture tube.
"The solid-state electronic tuning is standard in ten of the 25" color sets in
the remote control line and provides for control of both the solid-state vhf and
uhf tuners through a solid-state 'nerve center' mounted on its own Dura-Module.
With this system, up to fourteen pre-tuned channels, locally available, can be set
up through the front of the set in any combination or sequence desired for direct
channel-to-channel tuning by the hand-held RC unit. When desired, new channels can
be quickly added or substituted for one no longer watched, thus providing true 82-channel
The Voltage-Regulating Transformer
"The voltage-regulating transformer is used in their 25DC56 color TV chassis.
(Incidentally, the '25' in the chassis number indicates a 25" diagonal picture tube;
the 'D' indicates the year 1973; the 'C' stands for color, and the '56' is the individual
chassis designation.) This transformer supplies all voltages required with reasonable
regulation under power line variation from 95 V to 140 V. This is done by using
a transformer with loose coupling between primary and secondary windings and by
tuning the secondary winding to resonance at the 60-Hz line frequency by means of
an externally mounted 3.5-μF oil-filled capacitor. Resonating the secondary causes
the voltage to increase until the core material saturates, rendering any further
increase in voltage impossible. The effect is much the same as if you had a double-ended
zener across the secondary. Not only does this arrangement provide good regulation
of the secondary voltage through wide swings of the line voltage or current demands,
it also suppresses transient pulses on the incoming power line-transients that can
wreck transistors and IC's. For example, the total B-plus change on the 128-V line
is approximately only 5 V with brightness varied from minimum to maximum or with
the line voltage changing from 100 V to 132 V; and a 30-V transient appearing in
the primary for 2 seconds appears on the output side at less than 15 V in amplitude
and lasts for only about 100 milliseconds.
Still another advantage to the loose coupling of the transformer windings is
the limiting of short-circuit currents. Under conditions of a direct short circuit
across the secondary, the current will increase only to about double the normal
current, which will trip the circuit breaker with no damage to the transformer.
But let me warn you of one thing: don't expect to get the rated 6 volts rms on the
filament of the picture tube if you use a conventional D'Arsonval meter movement
where the rms voltage is derived from a sine wave peak detector.
You're measuring a square wave produced by the limiting action of the transformer,
and a true rms-reading meter or a dynamometer movement must be used. It would be
a good idea if Zenith would provide a scope measurement of this filament voltage.
Not many service technicians have dynamometers!
"Zenith's chromatic one-button tuning system features versatility,
and is available on thirty-eight sets, spread over both color lines. With the Chromatic
Tuning button off, the color-level, tint, contrast, and brightness are adjusted
with the manual controls to taste. When the button is on, it lights with an orange
glow and a 'second' set of controls pre-set at the factory for a normal picture,
are switched in and override the manual controls.
"But the owner may prefer a different 'normal' picture than the factory set up.
If so, with the Chromatic Tuning on, he or the service technician can readjust the
brightness, contrast, color level, and tint with an insulated screwdriver provided.
From then on, any time the Chromatic Tuning is on, the owner's custom-selected picture
appears automatically on the screen.
"Finally, even if he does not change the factory settings, he still has a short
range of adjustment with the manual controls when the Chromatic Tuning is on. He
can make slight changes in flesh tones and color intensity to compensate for discrepancies
that may occur with older color movies, certain taped programs, and occasional variations
in transmission by TV stations."
Super Chromacolor Picture Tube® "That brings us to Zenith's 1973
Super Chromacolor Picture Tube. I'm always astonished that a Rube Goldberg contraption
such as the three-gun shadow mask color picture tube - with all the precise geometry
and nanosecond timing its operation demands - can be made to work at all; yet Zenith
seems to have brought that performance closer to perfection by achieving a significant
increase in brightness by increasing the area of total active phosphor on the face
of the tube.
"As you know, the shadow mask is used as a stencil in depositing the dots of
the phosphors on the tube face. That means the size of the holes in the shadow mask
- some 450,000 such holes in a 25" tube - determines the size of the phosphor dots.
In a standard tube the dots are 17 thousandths of an inch in diameter at the center.
The electron beam is 13 thousandths in diameter. Being smaller than the dot, the
beam illuminates only 45% to 65% of each dot. The remaining dot-area is needed as
a 'guard band' or tolerance allowance for the alignment of electron beams and phosphor
dots. By allowing a larger target for the beam to hit, we avoid discoloration produced
by slight beam misalignment. The aluminized area between dots in a standard tube
reflects room light and causes washout and loss of picture contrast. To overcome
this a low-light-transmission glass is used in the face of the standard tube to
cut down on reflected light. Unfortunately it also absorbs about half of the actual
"The original Chromacolor tube, patented in 1964 and introduced in 1969, doubled
the brightness of the then-standard tube by illuminating each dot completely and
surrounding the dots with a jet-black light-absorbing material that soaked up reflected
room light. Tubes employing this black-surround feature are called 'matrix' tubes
and are used by several manufacturers because they permit the use of higher light-transmission
glass in the face of the tube and consequently brighter pictures without increasing
room light reflection.
"Zenith employs what they call the 'negative guard band' approach in which the
electron beam is made larger than the phosphor dot, and it is done with their 'Iris
Mask.' A mask is first prepared in normal fashion except the holes are smaller -
9 thousandths of an inch in diameter at the center in the original Chromacolor tube
- and it is used in depositing the phosphor dots. Then the mask is removed and the
holes are acid-etched to 14.5 thousandths at the center of the tube. Now we have
a beam larger than the dot; so the entire surface of the dot and part of the black
area surrounding it are illuminated. Even if the larger beam is slightly misaligned,
it will still illuminate the entire dot, instead of the 45% to 65% formerly illuminated
by the smaller beam.
"There are other less important changes. In the original Chromacolor tube the
dots grew progressively smaller moving from the center toward the edges. This provides
additional guard band to assure alignment of the sharply-deflected beams at the
edges. The decrease in size was in the form of concentric circles with the dots
in each circle being the same size, but growing smaller as the circles grew larger.
In the Super Chromacolor tube, the decrease in size is in the form of concentric
rectangles instead of concentric circles. With this configuration, the majority
of holes in the mask are larger than in the previous Chromacolor tube, although
some at the edge are actually smaller. Finally, the electron guns are made more
precise to approach the ideal of a perfectly round electron beam. A beam slightly
oval in shape produces a tiny amount of distortion."
"Zenith got a reputation of being kind of reaction my when they were so slow
to switch over from hand-wiring to printed circuits," Bamey offered.
"Probably conservative would be a better word," Mac suggested. "Maybe they follow
Pope's advice: 'Be not the first by whom the new is tried, nor yet the last to lay
the old aside.' Perhaps this comes from taking their advertising slogan seriously.
'The quality goes in before the name goes on.' Those first PC boards, with their
plated-through holes and their flimsy construction, were pretty horrible. I know
Zenith carries on an aggressive research program, and just last October they demonstrated
a 0.63- inch thick TV display panel using a matrix, and gas discharge principle.
Their Robert Adler forecasts we shall have flat wide screen TV by 1985 at the latest,
and he says a component failure in any part of a TV receiver should be a rare event
by that time. He also speaks of their experiments with 3-D holographic TV, although
be is not optimistic about this being perfected in the near future.
"Incidentally, their advanced color-TV research groups are housed in the new
parts and service administrative headquarters at 5600 West Jarvis Avenue, Niles,
Illinois. This is also the base for Zenith's customer relations service program
in which P. J. Wood, Vice-President Customer Relations, says: 'Service is arranged
for virtually 100 percent of all customer complaints as soon as we hear from a customer
- within 48 hours at the latest.' I'll bet they are, too, for a follow-up letter
from Zenith President, John J. Nevin, asks for customer reaction to the service
Barney rose from his stool and stretched until his muscles cracked. "It's refreshing
to see a manufacturer backing his product like that," he said. "Let's hope the idea
Posted March 25, 2020
Mac's Radio Service Shop Episodes on RF Cafe
This series of instructive stories was the brainchild of none other than John T.
Frye, creator of the Carl and Jerry series that ran in
Popular Electronics for many years. Mac's Radio Service Shop began life
in Radio & Television News
magazine (which itself started as simply Radio News), and then changed
its name to Mac's Service Shop after the magazine became Electronics
World. 'Mac' is electronics repair shop owner Mac McGregor, and Barney
is his eager, if not somewhat naive, technician assistant. 'Lessons' are taught
in story format with dialogs between Mac and Barney.
RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling
2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas
and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer.
The Internet was still largely an unknown entity at the time and not much was available
in the form of WYSIWYG
All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text
used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.