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"Science is about what is. Engineering is about what can be." - Neil Armstrong

Today in Science History

Tech Industry Headlines

Tech Industry Headlines - RF Cafe- Archive -

Raytheon to Merge with United Technologies

India-Based Job Seekers Lose Interest in U.S. Tech Jobs

• Debating the Fate of the C-Band

• Hackproofing Smart Meters

• Carbon Nitride Grown as 2D Semiconductor

Ofcom Begins Search for New CEO

• Creating Successor to Shrinking Transistors

• Was a Convicted Felon Running Radio Stations?

• SpaceX Falcon Heavy to Launch of 24 Satellites in June

Engineering & Science Crossword Puzzle for June 16

Engineering & Science Crossword Puzzle June 16, 2019 - RF CafeSince 2000, I have been creating custom engineering- and science-themed crossword puzzles for the brain-exercising benefit and pleasure of RF Cafe visitors who are fellow cruciverbalists. The jury is out on whether or not this type of mental challenge helps keep your gray matter from atrophying in old age, but it certainly helps maintain your vocabulary and cognitive skills at all ages. A database of thousands of words has been built up over the years and contains only clues and terms associated with engineering, science, physical, astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, etc. You will never find a word taxing your knowledge of a numbnut soap opera star or the name of some obscure village in the Andes mountains. You might, however, encounter the name of a movie star ...

Destiny and Geomagnetism

Destiny and Geomagnetism, July 1971 Popular Electronics - RF CafeIf you read the physics and geographic news of the day, most likely you have seen articles on the rapidly increasing migration rate of the geomagnetic "north pole" over the past few decades. Magnetic north has never exactly lined up with geometric north (as borne out in geological samples of rocks), and neither has it ever been uniformly distributed across the globe. Ancient explorers on terra firma and at sea knew that a magnetic compass needle did not align with the same stars, moon, or sun position for every location, after accounting for difference in longitude. That is because the earth's magnetic field is very nonuniform in strength and does not follow straight lines from pole to pole as they more generally do from outer space. A correction factor must be applied to any magnetic north indication based ...

ConductRF Rugged Replacement VNA Cables to 70 GHz

ConductRF Rugged Replacement VNA Cables - RF CafeConductRF, a premier manufacturer of standard and custom RF cable assemblies, announces the availability of Precision Ruggedized VNA Cables from ConductRF offer RF Engineers great alternatives to costly OEM cables that are now past their best days. We have standards for applications at 18 GHz, 27 GHz, 40 GHz, 50 GHz & 70 GHz. Our torque resistant connector heads and phase stable constructions ensure great performance for many tests to come. VNA Series cables are enhanced with a stainless steel spiral armor, providing protection from excess bending and crushing forces. A black non-conductive outer cover completes the product. These cables are phase stable during flexing and have an operating life cycle of up to 5,000 ...

The Iconoscope

The Iconoscope, July 1944 QST - RF CafeAn iconoscope was an early form of television image capturing tube. Some amateur radio operators were experimenting with slow scan TV even back when the technology was relatively new to the world. When this article was written in 1944, there were still large portions of the United States that did not have television broadcast coverage. Of course I would argue that at the time of my growing up in the 1960s and early 1970s a lot of areas - even suburbs - were still not covered by TV signals, based on how cruddy the reception at my parents' house was. But I digress. The article mentions that because of the lack of TV coverage, many amateurs did not even have television receivers (TV sets) in their homes to use along with experimental television transmitters ...

Cobham Antenna Systems Publishes Its 1st Newsletter

CAS News from Cobham Antenna Systems - RF Cafe"Welcome to the first issue of CAS News from Cobham Antenna Systems! Inspired by the richness of late-spring, we decided to launch this bi-monthly newsletter, to help keep everyone informed of all the exciting developments going on here at Cobham Antenna Systems (CAS), in Newmarket, UK. In this issue, the first of many to come, we cover our presence at two recent key industry exhibitions: AUVSI / Xponential 2019 in Chicago, USA, and EW-E 2019 in Stockholm, Sweden. At these shows we introduced a new antenna that is designed specifically for C-UAS (that is, Counter-Unmanned Airborne Systems). We also take a look at how we are helping Professor Alan Wilson ...

Organic Laser Diodes Within Reach

Organic Laser Diodes Within Reach - RF Cafe"Researchers from Kyushu University, Japan, have demonstrated lasing from an electrically driven organic diode. Reporting their findings in the journal Applied Physics Express under the title 'Indication of current-injection lasing from an organic semiconductor,' the researchers circumvented the traditional issues of organic materials (which due to their inherent resistance, tend to break down under the high currents required for lasing). A critical step in lasing is the injection of a large amount of electrical current into the organic layers to achieve a condition called population inversion ..."

Nova Microwave: RF & Microwave Circulators & Isolators

Nova Microwave circulators & isolatorsNova Microwave is a leader in technically differentiated electronic and radio frequency Ferrite Circulators and Isolators that connect, protect and control critical commercial and military wireless telecommunications systems. Our staff is dedicated to research and development of standard and custom design quality Ferrite Circulators and Isolators from 380 MHz to 26.5 GHz. Please visit Nova Microwave today.

Motorola PNP & NPN Oxide-Passivated Silicon Annular Transistors

Motorola PNP & NPN Oxide-Passivated Silicon Annular Transistors, May 4, 1964 Electronics Magazine - RF CafeEverything is relative... just ask Albert Einstein. The use of terms like "contemporary," "modern," etc., in the titles of books has always annoyed me. They would be okay if the titles also included the year or at least the decade to which the claim applies. Not quite as nefarious is the claim of "high frequency" when describing electronics components since it is safe to assume that most readers understand the era to which it applies. To a lesser extent that goes for "high voltage" and "high current." This 1964 advertisement for Motorola's Oxide-Passivated Silicon Annular Transistors appeared in Electronics magazine touting the high frequency capability ...

Notable Quote by Neil Armstrong

Notable Quote by Neil Armstrong - RF CafeAs we approach the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing, many magazines are publishing articles about the event and the background leading up to it. I have tagged a couple notable quotes from astronauts involved that will be posted over the next month or so. The June issue of Discover magazine included this one as delivered by Neil Armstrong to the National Press Club: "I am, and ever will be, a white-socks, pocket-protector, nerdy engineer, born under the second law of thermodynamics, steeped in the steam tables, in love with free-body diagrams. ... Science is about what is. Engineering is about what can be." Amen, bro.

Custom MMIC Intros 18 to 40 GHz K-, Ka-Band LNA

Custom MMIC Intros 18 to 40 GHz K-, Ka-Band LNAThe CMD299 is a highly efficient GaAs MMIC low noise amplifier ideally suited for EW and communications systems where small size and low power consumption are needed. The device is optimized for 30 GHz and delivers greater than 17 dB of gain with a corresponding noise figure of 3.5 dB and output 1 dB compression point of +7 dBm. The CMD299 is a 50 ohm matched design which eliminates the need for external DC blocks and RF port matching. The CMD299 offers full passivation for increased reliability and moisture protection ...

3D Smith Chart High Frequency Circuit Design

3D Smith Chart High Frequency Circuit Design (PRIME 2019) - RF CafeAndrei Muller, of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne will present his 3D Smith Chart software during the PRIME 2019 event on Monday, July 15th. The talk will start by presenting the mathematics behind the Smith chart and extended 2D Smith chart from the group theory of geometry point of view (Kleinian view of geometry). Using the Maxime Bochert-Klein results on Mobius transformations (among which the Smith chart constitutive equation belongs). The introduction will show what happens by applying the voltage reflection coefficient transformation and power wave reflection coefficient transformation on the grid of the impedance plane, random geometrical objects and photos. The geometry of these mappings will be then compared with the geometry of other scattering parameters mappings when applied to the same objects ...

2D Materials Show Promise for Future Electronic Devices

2D Materials Show Promise for Future Electronic Devices - RF Cafe"A new method to develop 2D materials, called transition metal dichalcogenides, paves the way for novel applications in optoelectronics and other next-generation electronic devices. The promise of 2D graphene material for next-generation electronics is well-known - because of its high conductivity and light weight. However, there are many other 2D materials that also can be used in future electronics applications to bring new and improved characteristics. Some of the materials in which researchers are particularly interested are a group of semiconductors called transition metal dichalcogenides, or TMDs. These materials, a few atoms thick ..."

PCB Directory: Printed Circuit Board Fabrication & Assembly

PCB  Directory - RF Cafe

PCB Directory is the largest directory of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Manufacturers, Assembly houses, and Design Services on the Internet. We have listed the leading printed circuit board manufacturers around the world and made them searchable by their capabilities - Number of laminates used, Board thicknesses supported, Number of layers supported, Types of substrates (e.g., material, flexible, rigid), Geographical location, and more.

Sentinel Model 217-P Portable Radio Set Radio Service Data Sheet

Sentinel Model 217-P Portable Radio Set Radio Service Data Sheet, August 1940 Radio-Craft - RF CafeMany months have passed since I last posted one of the Radio Service Data Sheets for vintage radio sets. This one for the Sentinel Model 217−P portable appeared in the August 1940 issue of Radio−Craft magazine. Hobbyists and professional electronics service shops relied on these back in the day because obtaining the information from manufacturers could be difficult or even impossible. Some companies would not provide service information for alignment and troubleshooting to businesses that were not officially endorsed to do so. That left some of the smaller shops and most do-it-yourselfers without a means to work on sets. Once places like SAMS Photofacts came along with information packets that could be purchased ...

Carl & Jerry: Abetting or Not?

Carl & Jerry: Abetting or Not?, October 1956 Popular Electronics - RF CafeCarl and Jerry found the appearance and construction of 2,400 megacycle transmitters and receivers to be quite odd compared to the equipment they were used to dealing with. It's sometimes hard to believe such an attitude of wonder when our world today is utterly filled with wireless devices operating in the 2.4 GHz ISM band. Author John T. Frye could never have imagined that such a reality would would exist half a century after his story of the pair of teenage electronics sleuths. Unlike our postage stamp size integrated assemblies that cost a few dollars, they speak of "special ultra-high-frequency 'light-house' tubes with a cavity resonator clamped on top of them." Back to the story, though... Did you know that police were using radar guns as far back as 1963? ...

Women in Engineering Scholarship Podcast

Women in Engineering Scholarship Podcast (IMS 2019) - RF CafeListen in on our latest news as our very own CEO Paul Blount proudly presents Custom MMIC's Women in Engineering scholarship last Wednesday, June 5th 2019 at the International Microwave Symposium in Boston. In this quick podcast, meet the first three recipients of the scholarship: Sarah McKinley, Emma Fournier and Grace Remillard. Blount describes each of the women as "so talented."

Mechanical Engineering Salaries State by State

Mechanical Engineering Salaries State by State - RF CafeThis latest report by the Interesting Engineering website lists a state-by-state accounting of mechanical engineers' salaries. Data was assimilated from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The Bureau projects a 9% job growth rate form 2016 to 2026. The average salary went from $90,340 in 2017 per year to $92,800 in 2018, which represents a 2.7% increase. That is just about on par with the 2-3% inflation number claimed by the BLS. The value of benefits is not included. Alaska had the highest average pay at $128,69, while Arkansas came in last with $71,730. On a side note, I've always been critical of multistate companies having different pay scales for people doing the same jobs at various locations. Sure, cost of living differs, but ultimately they are paying employees unequally from a corporate accounting perspective.

China to Launch New Amateur Satellite with 'Sail Ball' Stabilization

China to Launch New Amateur Satellite with 'Sail Ball' Stabilization - RF Cafe"Chinese Amateur Satellite Group (CAMSAT) has announced the impending launch of the CAS-7B satellite, also designated as BP-1B, a short-lived spacecraft that will carry an Amateur Radio payload. An unusual feature of the spacecraft is its 'sail ball' passive stabilization system. The 1.5-U CubeSat is attached to a 500-millimeter flexible film ball - or sail - that will offer passive 'pneumatic resistance' stabilization. CAS-7B is expected to remain in orbit for up to 1 month. The spacecraft will carry an Amateur Radio transponder and educational mission. CAMSAT is working with Beijing Institute of Technology (BIT), a top aerospace school ..."

Empower RF Systems: RF & Microwave Power Amplifiers

Empower RF SystemsEmpower RF Systems is a global leader in power amplifier solutions. Empower RF Systems is an established and technologically superior supplier of high power solid state RF & microwave amplifiers. Our offerings include modules, intelligent rack-mount amplifiers, and multi-function RF Power Amplifier solutions to 6 GHz in broadband and band specific designs. Output power combinations range from tens of watts to multi-kilowatts. Unprecedented size, weight and power reduction of our amplifiers is superior to anything in the market at similar frequencies and power levels.

Lesson from Europe

Lesson from Europe - Editorial, May 4, 1964 Electronics Magazine - RF CafeIn the light of having just marked the 75th anniversary of the D-Day (Operation Overlord, June 6, 1944), which marked the beginning of the end of Hitler's ruthless siege on all of Europe, please note how Electronics magazine editor Lewis Young cites, in 1964, the continued rebuilding of Europe as the reason many - maybe most - companies there are still, two decades later, concentrating engineering and financial resources on getting back on a solid footing rather than chasing after the latest and greatest in nonessential technologies. It was probably an accurate assessment of the situation. However, I do take issue with his admonishment to American companies to emulate Europe's "practical approach" to innovation and manufacturing. There was absolutely no reason to dissuade and throttle activity here ...

Advanced MMICs Aid in Reducing Size and Power in Phased Array Radar Systems

Advanced MMICs Aid in Reducing Size and Power in Phased Array Radar Systems - RF CafeCustom MMIC, a leading designer and manufacturer of high performance monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), has posted a new blog entry entitled, "Advanced MMICs Aid in Reducing Size and Power in Phased Array Radar Systems." Phased-array radar systems are important instruments in national electronic defense strategies. From the large, ship-based systems that scan for distantly launched missiles to the more compact arrays installed on fighter aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), electronic phased-array radars come in many sizes and forms, providing reliable signal detection and identification. These modern systems offer many advantages over earlier radar ...

Units Converter

Units Converter - RF CafeThere is a plethora of special purpose calculators and units conversion resources available online. As with most things on the Internet, you need to verify the accuracy of results when using any of them for the first time. One units conversion website I have used many times for swapping between SAE and metric units, and when needing to find alternate forms of electrical units like volts/meter to Newtons/coulomb, is UnitConverter.net. A nice feature is that the equivalent numerical values are instantly displayed for all alternate units as well as for the new units you are seeking. I did not find a furlong per fortnight unit for speed, though ;-)  The site also provides an assortment of calculators.

Windfreak Technologies This Changes Everything (Rohde & Schwarz) - RF Cafe
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Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe Webmaster
Copyright: 1996 - 2024
    Kirt Blattenberger,

RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The Internet was still largely an unknown entity at the time and not much was available in the form of WYSIWYG ...

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