April 1952 Radio-Electronics
[Table of Contents]
Wax nostalgic about and learn from the history of early electronics.
See articles from Radio-Electronics,
published 1930-1988. All copyrights hereby acknowledged.
There is a physical limit
to how small of a distance may separate two distinct objects (line, dots, etc.),
generally agreed to be about half a wavelength of the color being observed, and
be seen with perfect human eye.
Applying that rule of thumb to blue light with a wavelength of approximately 4000 Å
(400 nm) yields a distance of 200 nm. Accordingly, there is no amount of
magnification possible which will allow a healthy human eye to resolve objects
closer together than that. Even with perfect optics, magnifications of greater
than about 1500x are not able to render greater detail. To resolve smaller
distance requires shorter wavelengths, but we cannot see them directly and need
a device to transform the detected image into a visible image. That is what an
electron microscope does to enable molecule sized particle to be "seen." The
SARS-CoV-2 particle has been measured by electron microscopy and found to
range between 50 to 140 nm, so it cannot be viewed directly with an optical
microscope. Cigarette smoke
is about 400 nm in diameter (at the limit of visible light detection) and
readily passes through masks work to "protect" against COVID (which is 1/3 the
Bell Telephone Laboratories - Electrons Probe the Future
In 1927, Bell Laboratories physicists demonstrated that moving electrons behave
like light waves, and thus launched the new science of electron optics.
Now, through the electron beams of the electron microscope and electron diffraction
camera, scientists learn crucial details about the properties of metals far beyond
the reach of optical microscopes or chemical analysis.
At the Laboratories, electron beams have revealed the minute formations which
produce the vigor of the permanent magnets used in telephone ringers and magnetron
tubes for radar. The same techniques help show what makes an alloy hard, a cathode
emit more electrons and how germanium must be processed to make good Transistors.
This is the kind of research which digs deep inside materials to discover how
they can he made better for your telephone system ... and for the many devices which
the Laboratories are now developing for national defense.
1 - Electron micrograph of an alloy of aluminum, nickel, cobalt and iron. Magnification
2 - Cooled from high temperature in a magnetic field, the alloy becomes a
powerful, permanent magnet. Note changed structure. Black bars reveal formation
of precipitate parallel to the applied field. Each bar is a permanent magnet.
3 - A Bell scientist adjusts electron diffraction camera. Electrons are projected
on the specimen at glancing angles. They rebound in patterns which tell the arrangement
of the atoms ... help show how telephone materials can be improved.
4 - Diffraction pattern of polished germanium reveals minute impurities which
would degrade the performance of a Transistor.
Improving telephone service for America provides careers for creative men in
scientific and technical fields.
Bell Telephone Laboratories
- 90-Mile Laboratory
for Telephone and Television, 6/1945 Radio News
Wire-Wrap, 10/53 Radio-Electronics
EDT Crystals, 10/47 Radio-Craft
- Germanium Refining,
5/54 Radio & TV News
- Crystal Timekeeping,
1/46 Radio News
Cable, 11/56 Radio & Television News
- Pipe Circuits,
11/48 Radio & Television News
Electron Tube, 6/54 Radio & Television News
Wire Bonding, 3/58 Radio News
Radio Relay Stations, 8/52 Radio & Television News
6/56 Radio & Television News
Cards, 3/55 Radio & Television News
Communications, 10/55 Radio & Television News
Devices, 2/58 Radio & TV News
Adventure in Silicon, 5/55 Radio & Television News
- Pipes of Progress,
6/55 Radio & Television News
Project Echo, 11/60 Electronics World
Diode Speeds Voices, 8/58 Popular Electronics
Electron Microscope, April 1952 Radio-Electronics
- Thermistor, November 1946
Germanium Crystal, 1/1954 Radio-Electronics
Antenna, 5/46 Radio-Craft
- Quality Control, 6/46
Radio News Article
Radio-Relay, 10/51 Radio & TV News
Battery, 7/54 Radio & Television News
Germanium Transistors, 1/54 Radio & Television News
Magnetron, 10/45 Radio News
The Cableman, 10/49 Radio & Television News
Coaxial Cable, 12/49 Radio & Television News
Whiskers, 12/55 Radio & Television News
Contact Inspection, 7/55 Radio & Television News
10th Anniversary, 6/58 Radio & Television News
Wrapping, 10/53 Radio & Television News
Diode Amplifier, 11/58 Radio News
Nobel Prize Winners, 2/57 Radio & Television News
Diode Speeds Voices, 8/58 Popular Electronics
Microwave Relays, 7/59 Electronics World
May 12, 2022