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Homepage Archive - January 2023 (page 4)

See Page 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 of the January 2023 homepage archives.
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Friday the 27th

Bell Telephone Laboratories X-Rays

Bell Telephone Laboratories X-Rays, April 1960 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeIs that an early tin foil hat prototype the lady on the cover of this month's Radio−Electronics magazine is modeling? Tin foil hats for RF radiation conspiracy kooks were probably not even a thing back in 1960. In some ways it fits in with the x−ray subject of the Bell Telephone Laboratories infomercial in the same issue. As you can see from the large and ever-growing list of Bell Labs promotions at the bottom of the page, the world's premier telephone company didn't get to the top by luck. Bell engineers and scientists were continually conducting research and development to assure service would be as efficient, affordable, and reliable as possible. Bell Telephone Laboratories was at the leading edge of communications technology, both wired and wireless, since day its founder uttered the words, "Mr. Watson, come here... I want to see you..."

Modelithics' Qorvo GaN Library v23.5.1

Modelithics Releases Qorvo GaN Library v23.5.1 - RF CafeModelithics is pleased to announce the release of version 23.5.1 of the Modelithics Qorvo GaN Library for use with Keysight Technologies' PathWave Advanced Design System (ADS) and Cadence AWR Design Environment®. This latest version offers new models for Qorvo's QPD1025, QPD1028, QPD1425, and QPD1425L discrete GaN-on-SiC HEMTs. Version 23.5.1 also offers 2 new embedding models for the T2G6000528-Q3 and T2G6003028-FL devices. The QPD1025 is an 1,800-W device intended to operate from 0.96 to 1.215 GHz, while the QPD1028 is a 750-W device intended to operate from 1.2 to 1.4 GHz. The QPD1425 and QPD1425L are 300-W devices intended for operation from 1.2 to 1.4 GHz. All four of the new models are Angelov-based models that include features like temperature scaling, self-heating effects, and intrinsic I-V sensing...

Standardized Wiring Diagram Symbols & Color Codes

Standardized Wiring Diagram Symbols & Color Codes, August 1956 Popular Electronics - RF CafeWhen this Standardized Wiring Diagram Symbols & Color Codes feature appeared in a 1956 issue of Popular Electronics magazine, semiconductors were just coming into common use. Therefore, only the simplest components like a diode and bipolar junction transistor (BJT) are included. In fact, the only two types of diodes shown are vacuum tube and selenium. The semiconductor diode is labeled as a crystal rectifier. There is no light emitting diode (LED), field effect transistor (FET), metal oxide semiconductor FET (MOSFET), integrated circuit (IC), or other commonly used modern device. Note also that the "Receptacle 117V" does not show a safety ground connection. The "Vibrator" was a device commonly used to convert direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC). About the only people who will find a use for this information are those who service and/or restore vintage electronic equipment...

EVs Throw Palladium Mega-Rally into Reverse

EVs Throw Palladium Mega-Rally into Reverse - RF Cafe"An era of breathtaking palladium rallies is likely to be ending, analysts said, as rising supply and stagnant demand erode prices of the metal used to neutralize vehicle exhaust emissions. Palladium, once the cheapest major precious metal, rocketed from less than $500 an ounce in 2016 to above $3,400 last March, leaving platinum and gold for dust. Powering the rally was rising demand from automakers who needed more palladium per vehicle to meet tightening emissions standards. Supply could not keep up, leading to huge deficits. That is now changing. Electric vehicles (EVs) that do not need palladium are gaining market share and automakers are substituting some palladium for cheaper platinum in combustion engine vehicles..."

Strays: Doorknob Tubes

Strays: Doorknob Tubes, April 1946 QST - RF CafeAt first I thought maybe this was intended to be an April Fools joke, being that it appeared in an April issue of QST magazine, but it is probably just a coincidence. One of the two topics refers to a "door knob for UHF," which in reality was a glass-encased vacuum tube that was shaped a lot like one of the old glass door knobs. The author penned a humorous take-off. On second thought, maybe this is a Fool's edition now that I have read the second item. All kidding aside, "Strays" concludes with a poem dedicated to those who became "Silent Keys" as a result of World War II...

RF Cascade Workbook

RF Cascade Workbook - RF Cafe RF Cascade Workbook is the next phase in the evolution of RF Cafe's long-running series, RF Cascade Workbook. Chances are you have never used a spreadsheet quite like this (click here for screen capture). It is a full-featured RF system cascade parameter and frequency planner that includes filters and mixers for a mere $45. Built in MS Excel, using RF Cascade Workbook 2018 is a cinch and the format is entirely customizable. It is significantly easier and faster than using a multi-thousand dollar simulator when a high level system analysis is all that is needed. An intro video takes you through the main features...

Thanks Again for Windfreak Technologies' Continued Support!

Windfreak TechnologiesWindfreak Technologies designs, manufactures, tests and sells high value USB powered and controlled radio frequency products such as RF signal generators, RF synthesizers, RF power detectors, mixers, up / downconverters. Since the conception of WFT, we have introduced products that have been purchased by a wide range of customers, from hobbyists to education facilities to government agencies. Worldwide customers include Europe, Australia, and Asia. Please contact Windfreak today to learn how they might help you with your current project.

Thursday the 26th

Inventions Wanted

Inventions Wanted, May 1960 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeThe National Inventors Council (NIC) mentioned by Hugo Gernsback in this 1960 Radio-Electronics magazine "Inventions Wanted" article was established in 1940 by the U.S. Department of Commerce. It served as a collection point for inventions that had possible national defense and military uses. In the mid-1950's, NIC's functions were transferred to the National Bureau of Standards (NBS, now NIST). An initial list was published six months earlier, and this list includes both updates to the former items and new requests. A few examples that have been realized at this point are: 913) Low-Loss High-Power Ferrites for Use as Microwave Phase Shifter | 914) A Broad-Band Maser Amplifier for Use in the Microwave Region | 975) A New Method of Electronically (not with frequency change) Scanning an Antenna | 1024) High-Power Broad-Band Solid-State RF Amplifiers | 1057) Solid-State Microwave Oscillators | 1139) Field Portable Digital Radar. What might a 2023 list include? Maybe a fully autonomous robotic foot soldier, an invisibility cloak for man and machine...

Please Thank IPP for Their Long-Time Support!

Innovative Power ProductsInnovative Power Products has been designing and manufacturing RF and Microwave passive components since 2005. We use the latest design tools available to build our baluns, 90-degree couplers, directional couplers, combiners/dividers, single-ended transformers, resistors, terminations, and custom products. Applications in military, medical, industrial, and commercial markets are serviced around the world. Products listed on the website link to detailed mechanical drawings, electrical specifications, and performance data. If you cannot find a product that meets your requirements on our website, contact us to speak with one of our experienced design engineers about your project.

Millimeter Wave-Absorbing Magnetic Materials

Millimeter Wave-Absorbing Magnetic Materials - RF Cafe"KIMS developed the world's first continuous manufacturing technology for millimeter wave-absorbing magnetic materials. A research team led by Dr. Youn-kyoung Baek and Dr. Jung-goo Lee succeeded in developing the world's first technology to consecutively manufacture epsilon iron oxide that can absorb millimeter wave with a high coercive force equivalent to that of neodymium (Nd) magnets. The researchers are in the Department of Magnetic Materials in Powder Materials Division at the Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), a government-funded research institute under the Ministry of Science and ICT. Iron oxide material with a high-coercive epsilon crystal phase is almost the only magnetic material that absorbs ultra-high frequencies which is a potential 6G frequency band. Until now, it was only formed in a nano-sized particle of 50 nanometers or less. Japan succeeded to produce pure epsilon iron oxide through batch-type wet process, but it involves time-consuming multi-stage process, resulting in a low yield..."

Space Simulation Thermal Vacuum Chambers

TotalTemp Technologies: Space Simulation Thermal Vacuum Chambers (TVAC) - RF CafeTotalTemp Technologies, a worldwide leading provider of benchtop temperature chambers and thermal platform equipment, introduces their VmSD49N Thermal Vacuum Test Chamber capable of +175°C to −75°C at 10−6 Torr. It is designed specifically for testing aerospace equipment. 10−6 Torr (1.333224*10−6 mbars, 1.93367810−8 psi) is the equivalent of 1/760,000,000th of an Earth atmosphere. Aerospace environmental testing in a thermal vacuum chamber allows for the exposing and weeding out potential failures due to temperature extremes and atmospheric pressure or the lack of it in space. With equipment destined for space, the stakes are always higher with the cost to launch, the chance of a failure being catastrophic plus the lack of service calls in space. The process of basic thermal testing in space is a little different than testing for land based systems, mainly because the lack of heat transfer by air. The intentional and unintentional transfer of heat by convection makes a big difference from what might otherwise be a common sense solution in an environment with air. Outgassing of many materials is another consideration that is usually not such a big deal on earth...

Mac's Radio Service Shop: A Breathing Spell

Mac's Radio Service Shop: A Breathing Spell, January 1955 Radio & Television News - RF CafeWe are accustomed these days with stores having "no questions asked" return policies for just about anything. I once watched a guy successfully return a 4" PVC plumbing fitting that had clearly been smeared with glue in the coupling areas. Another time a guy returned a painting drop cloth that was full of paint, declaring that it wasn't what he wanted. The return counter bins of Walmart and other stores are always chock full of stuff. Such was not always the case, though. This episode of Mac's Radio Service Shop from a 1955 issue of Radio & Television News magazine, mentions, among other things, how busy he and sidekick Barney had been right after Christmas doing troubleshooting and repair on various electronic equipment that had been received as gifts. Imagine receiving a radio for Christmas and not being able to simply return it to the store where it was purchased - even with a sale receipt. Nobody would stand for such a situation today...

Post Your Engineer & Technician Job Openings on RF Cafe for Free

Engineering Job Board - RF CafeRF Cafe's raison d'être is and always has been to provide useful, quality content for engineers, technicians, engineering managers, students, and hobbyists. Part of that mission is offering to post applicable job openings. HR department employees and/or managers of hiring companies are welcome to submit opportunities for posting at no charge. 3rd party recruiters and temp agencies are not included so as to assure a high quality of listings. Please read through the easy procedure to benefit from RF Cafe's high quality visitors...

Many Thanks to San Francisco Circuits for Continued Support!

San Francisco CircuitsSF Circuits' specialty is in the complex, advanced technology of PCB fabrication and assembly, producing high quality multi-layered PCBs from elaborate layouts. With them, you receive unparalleled technical expertise at competitive prices as well as the most progressive solutions available. Their customers request PCB production that is outside the capabilities of normal circuit board providers. Please take a moment to visit San Francisco Circuits today. "Printed Circuit Fabrication & Assembly with No Limit on Technology or Quantity."

Wednesday the 25th

Hall Effect Sensors

Something New in Semiconductors, January 1960 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeAlthough the Hall effect had been known for 80 years when this article appeared in Radio−Electronics magazine in 1960, it was not until research in semiconductor compounds during that same era generated substantial enough voltage potentials for detection and use by circuits of the day that Hall effect sensors became useable in mass production. Indium arsenide (InAs) and indium antimonide (InSb) are two of the early examples. A single Hall effect sensor in 1960 would set you back around $25 - that's $253 in today's money... ouch! Hall effect sensors in small quantities can be bought now from Digi-Key for $2 and change. Modern Hall effect sensors are still made with InAs and InSb, along with gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium phosphide (InP), and even graphene. There is obviously something special about indium (In) that makes it the ideal base metal for Hall sensors. All the elements involved are in the p−block group of the periodic table...

Are Engineering °s Required?

Are Engineering °s Required?, Kirt's Cogitations #222 -  RF CafeBack in my days at defense contractor companies, first as a technician and then as an engineer, it was virtually unheard of for anyone with the title of "Engineer" to not have at least a Bachelor's degree in engineering or science. Only one instance, while at Westinghouse Oceanic Division in Annapolis, MD, comes to mind. I suspect the requirement was dictated by the government, since many times (if not always), part of a proposal included submitting resumes for many of the key personnel who would be working on the project being bid upon. In the commercial realm, again, only one person that I can recall (at Comsat) had achieved the rank of engineer without a degree. Now, after working at a commercial communications IC design and manufacturing company for many years, I have yet to run into any "engineers" who do not have at least a BSEE degree. Is it because people with engineering degrees are so easy to come by that there is no need to even consider someone without the degree? Are there any non-degreed engineers remaining? If so, are they a dying breed that will not be replaced? Probably you, and definitely I...

1-Chip Radar for Autonomous Vehicles

1-Chip Radar for Autonomous Vehicles - RF Cafe"As part of CES 2023, NXP Semiconductors announced a new 28-nm RFCMOS radar one-chip IC family for next-gen autonomous driving systems and advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS). The new SAF85xx one-chip family works alongside NXP's high-performance radar sensing and processing technologies in one device to address short-, medium-, and long-range radar that meets more NCAP safety requirements. This advanced radar sensing technology plays an essential part in accelerating the development of next-generation ADAS,' said Mr. Hiroshi Kondo, Head of the Safety Systems Business Unit at DENSO Corp. 'We know DENSO will extend its leadership position in ADAS by leveraging NXP's compact high-performance SAF85xx radar SoC..."

Trinity of Inaccuracy: Phase Noise, Jitter and Short-Term Stability

Trinity of Inaccuracy: Phase Noise, Jitter and Short-Term Stability - RF CafeThe stability and therefore usefulness of a system depends heavily on the quality of its reference oscillator. Understanding the cause and ramifications of oscillator imperfections is essential successful system design. Julian Emmerich and Harald Rudolph of KVG Quartz Crystal Technology have a great article on the Microwave Journal website entitled, "The Trinity of Inaccuracy: Phase Noise, Jitter and Short-Term Stability - What Everyone Should Know About Their Measurement and Interrelationships." It begins: "In electrical components and circuits, noise effects with different physical causes occur everywhere. In crystal oscillators there are three primary noise generating mechanisms: A ubiquitous background noise due to the thermal motion of the atoms and molecules of all components creates an insurmountable noise floor, which mainly affects noise far from the carrier (white noise). Noise caused by semiconductor components is called shot noise which has a 1/f dependence on the frequency. The dominant noise source close to the carrier is called flicker noise, which largely depends on the quality of the crystal..."

Telemetering - Vital Link to the Stars

Telemetering - Vital Link to the Stars, November 1959 Popular Electronics - RF CafeTelemetering - the remote sensing and reporting of system parameters via radio link - was just coming of age in the late 1950s when this article appeared in Popular Electronics magazine. It was the age of space payload rocket development (as opposed to artillery and fireworks rockets), high speed jet airliners, and the Pioneer 1 space probe. There was a great need to collect data during the developmental and operational engineering project stages in order to ascertain causes for failures when they occurred and to know what went right when success triumphed. A pinnacle of the newborn telemetering era was Pioneer 1, which carried an image scanning infrared television system to study the Moon's surface to a resolution of 0.5 degrees, an ionization chamber to measure radiation in space, a diaphragm/microphone assembly to detect micrometeorites, a spin-coil magnetometer to measure magnetic fields to 5 microgauss, and temperature-variable resistors to record the spacecraft's internal conditions*. Unfortunately, the launching rocket experienced a malfunction that buggered the flight trajectory, but the craft...

Promote Your Company on RF Cafe

Sponsor RF Cafe for as Little as $40 per Month - RF CafeNew Scheme rotates all Banners in all locations on the page! RF Cafe typically receives 8,000-15,000 website visits each weekday. RF Cafe is a favorite of engineers, technicians, hobbyists, and students all over the world. With more than 16,000 pages in the Google search index, RF Cafe returns in favorable positions on many types of key searches, both for text and images. New content is added on a daily basis, which keeps the major search engines interested enough to spider it multiple times each day. Items added on the homepage often can be found in a Google search within a few hours of being posted. I also re-broadcast homepage items on LinkedIn. If you need your company news to be seen, RF Cafe is the place to be.

Many Thanks for Alliance Test Equipment's Support!

Allied Test Equipment Products - RF CafeAlliance Test Equipment sells used / refurbished test equipment and offers short- and long-term rentals. They also offer repair, maintenance and calibration. Prices discounted up to 80% off list price. Agilent/HP, Tektronix, Anritsu, Fluke, R&S and other major brands. A global organization with ability to source hard to find equipment through our network of suppliers. Alliance Test will purchase your excess test equipment in large or small lots. Blog posts offer advice on application and use of a wide range of test equipment. Please visit Allied Test Equipment today to see how they can help your project.

Tuesday the 24th

Infrared Guides Missiles

Infrared Guides Missiles, January 1960 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeNot really on point regarding infrared guided missiles as reported in this 1960 issue of Radio−Electronics magazine, but the photo of a Sidewinder missile on the wingtip of an F−104 Starfighter reminds me of back in the early 1980's when I visited the Smithsonian Air & Space Museum in Washington, D.C., and the wingtip of the F−104 hanging there was nearly close enough to touch. I marveled over how incredibly thin it was for an airplane capable of flying at Mach 2 (1,482  mph)*. Missiles or auxiliary fuel tanks (and sometimes experimental instruments) could be attached to that diminutive, yet evidently extremely strong wingtip. AIM−9 Sidewinder missiles went into service in 1956, so they were relatively new when this story was published. As many as 50 countries, including the U.S., still use them today. The current version is Block III, AIM−9M(R). That's the same time (1955) that B−52 Stratofortress bombers, also still in service, were deployed...

Anatech Electronics January 2023 Newsletter

Anatech Electronics January 2023 Newsletter - RF CafeSam Benzacar of Anatech Electronics, an RF and microwave filter company, has published his January 2023 newsletter that features his short op−ed entitled "Cellular to Smartphones from Space is Coming." He writes about the rapidly evolving direct-satellite-to-cellphone service being pioneered by AST SpaceMobile. The photo shows their world's largest space-borne phased array BlueWalker 3 antenna, which was lofted into orbit late last year. Using the online Satellite Orbital Decay Calculator to estimate the likely orbital lifetime of the 1,500 kg (3,300 lb), 64.4 m2 (693 ft2), BlueWalker 3 antenna array, initially in a 515 km (320 mi) high orbit, re-entry can be expected in a little under 6 years. It probably has some amount of propellant onboard to help maintain orbital height, thereby extending its lifetime. No doubt the orbit height and antenna size was a tradeoff of coverage area and path loss between the transmitter and receiver. If these LEO antenna arrays get physically and/or numerically much larger, we may experience more frequent solar eclipses. Maybe the companies should lobby governments for funds based on their lowering the global temperature due to decreased sunlight. The way governments work, though, instead they'll fine satellite companies for lowering the efficiency of solar arrays...

Space Electronics

Space Electronics, April 1961 Popular Electronics - RF CafeThe late 1950s and early 1960s were the dawn of the Space Age, beginning unofficially with the launch of Sputnik. Popular Electronics magazine put a lot of effort into educating the public on advances in space electronics, including not just the spaceborne platforms, but also ground tracking and communicating equipment. Much hardware was launched into orbit in the early years without giving much thought to the hazards or space debris. Failures in the form of explosions scattered chunks widely, but fortunately most were low enough to have their orbits degrade and re-enter the atmosphere. One interesting tidbit reported in this article that I didn't know was that the TV camera lens on the TIROS 2 weather satellite was defocused during launch (due to positional shifting from vibration and G forces, I suppose) and crippled the image quality severely...

NTSB Warns of Risks Posed by Heavy Electric Vehicles

NTSB Warns of Risks Posed by Heavy Electric Vehicles - RF Cafe"The head of the National Transportation Safety Board expressed concern Wednesday about the safety risks that heavy electric vehicles pose if they collide with lighter vehicles. The official, Jennifer Homendy, raised the issue in a speech in Washington to the Transportation Research Board. She noted, by way of example, that an electric GMC Hummer weighs about 9,000 pounds, with a battery pack that alone is 2,900 pounds - roughly the entire weight of a typical Honda Civic. 'I'm concerned about the increased risk of severe injury and death for all road users from heavier curb weights and increasing size, power, and performance of vehicles on our roads, including electric vehicles,' Homendy said in remarks prepared for the group. The extra weight that EVs typically carry stems from the outsize mass of their batteries. To achieve 300 or more miles of range per charge from an EV, batteries have to weigh thousands of pounds..."

Acoustics Anagram

Acoustics Anagram, October 1961 Electronics World - RF CafeIsn't an anagram a word game where letters of one word are rearranged to spell another word or series of words? For instance, an anagram for "microwave" is "warm voice," one for ''resistance" is "ancestries," and for "vector" is "covert." If so, then this puzzle is misnamed; it is really a crossword puzzle. Maybe back in 1961 the word anagram included this type of puzzle which appeared in the October issue of Electronics World magazine.. Regardless of the naming error, I did learn a new word: "inertance," which means "the effect of inertia in an acoustic system, an impeding of the transmission of sound through the system..."

Get Your Custom-Designed RF Cafe Gear!

Custom-Designed RF-Themed Cups, T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks (Cafe Press) - RF CafeThis assortment of custom-designed themes by RF Cafe includes T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks, Tote Bags, Coffee Mugs and Steins, Purses, Sweatshirts, and Baseball Caps. Choose from amazingly clever "We Are the World's Matchmakers" Smith chart design or the "Engineer's Troubleshooting Flow Chart." My "Matchmaker's" design has been ripped off by other people and used on their products, so please be sure to purchase only official RF Cafe gear. My markup is only a paltry 50¢ per item - Cafe Press gets the rest of your purchase price. These would make excellent gifts for husbands, wives, kids, significant others, and for handing out at company events or as rewards for excellent service. It's a great way to help support RF Cafe. Thanks...

Many Thanks to Reactel for Their Long-Time Support!

Reactel Filters - RF Cafe

Reactel has become one of the industry leaders in the design and manufacture of RF and microwave filters, diplexers, and sub-assemblies. They offer the generally known tubular, LC, cavity, and waveguide designs, as well as state of the art high performance suspended substrate models. Through a continuous process of research and development, they have established a full line of filters of filters of all types - lowpass, highpass, bandpass, bandstop, diplexer, and more. Established in 1979. Please contact Reactel today to see how they might help your project.

Monday the 23rd

What Is a Decibel?

What Is a Decibel?, January 1964 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeThe decibel is not a concept unique to electronics - power, volts, current - although it is undoubtedly most often used there. Probably the next most often used realm for decibels is with sound (audio), which is the subject of this 1964 Radio−Electronics magazine article. The decibel, abbreviated nowadays as "dB" ("db" in the article's era) is nothing more than a logarithmic representation of a dimensionless ratio of increase (positive dB) or decrease (negative dB). As the numerical "deci" implies, a decibel is one tenth of a bel ("B," named in honor of Alexander Graham Bell). It can be applied to any numerical magnitude comparison. Although not normally done, a decibel ratio could be applied to dissimilar units; for instance, a ratio of 100 apples to 50 oranges is 3 dB. Conversely, a ratio of 50 apples to 100 oranges is -3 dB. Mr. King provides the gory mathematical details...

Sky-High Radar | Cosmic Rays | Trial & Error

Sky-High Radar | Trial/Error Machine | Lab Aloft Chases Cosmic Rays | This Brain Squirts, January 1957 Popular Electronics - RF CafeHere are a few tech headlines from the January 1957 issue of Popular Electronics magazine. Sky-High Radar by Sikorsky is a new high-powered airborne search radar. The electronic Trial & Error Machine "differentiates between right and wrong decisions and profits from its own mistakes," making it the perfect gadget for today's environment where any freakish act gets rewarded and eventually normalized. Lab Aloft Chases Cosmic Rays uses a UASF KC-97 Stratofreighter for researching those mysterious and ubiquitous high energy entities which perpetually bombard our Earthly existence. This Brain That Squirts reports on Bendix's prototype carburetor that uses an electronically controlled "electrojector" to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. Now, all of our internal combustion vehicles contain an electrojector...

Blocking Radio Waves and Electromagnetic Interference

Blocking Radio Waves and Electromagnetic Interference - RF Cafe"Researchers in Drexel University's College of Engineering have developed a thin film device, fabricated by spray coating, that can block electromagnetic radiation with the flip of a switch. The breakthrough, enabled by versatile two-dimensional materials called MXenes, could adjust the performance of electronic devices, strengthen wireless connections and secure mobile communications against intrusion. The team, led by Yury Gogotsi, PhD, Distinguished University and Bach professor in Drexel's College of Engineering, previously demonstrated that the two-dimensional layered MXene materials, discovered just over a decade ago, when combined with an electrolyte solution, can be turned into a potent active shield against electromagnetic waves. This latest MXene discovery, reported in Nature Nanotechnology, shows how this shielding can be tuned when a small voltage - less than that produced by an alkaline battery..."

Electronics Themed Comics

Electronics Themed Comics, November 1940 QST - RF CafeThe weekend is over and it's time to hunker down for five long days of grueling work. Most of the electronics-themed comics that appeared in QST magazine were associated directly with particular columns. For example, the cartoons featuring "Jeeves," the overtaxed manservant of a never-seen house master, was part of the "How's DX" feature. Drawn by artist Phil Glidersleeve (aka "Gil"), W1CJD, poor Jeeves was often found doing his boss's will in the most precarious situation with intemperate weather making his assignments tough to complete. Situations involving Podunk Hollow Radio Club were frequent subjects of Gil's drawing pen as well. If the fellow Ham in the page 13 comic trying to find an errant peanut tube was bad, he'd really fret over today's grain-of-salt size components...

Promote Your Company on RF Cafe

Sponsor RF Cafe for as Little as $40 per Month - RF CafeNew Scheme rotates all Banners in all locations on the page! RF Cafe typically receives 8,000-15,000 website visits each weekday. RF Cafe is a favorite of engineers, technicians, hobbyists, and students all over the world. With more than 16,000 pages in the Google search index, RF Cafe returns in favorable positions on many types of key searches, both for text and images. New content is added on a daily basis, which keeps the major search engines interested enough to spider it multiple times each day. Items added on the homepage often can be found in a Google search within a few hours of being posted. I also re-broadcast homepage items on LinkedIn. If you need your company news to be seen, RF Cafe is the place to be.

Many Thanks to Aegis Power Systems for Their Continued Support!

Aegis Power Systems - RF CafeAegis Power Systems is a leading supplier of AC-DC and DC-DC power supplies for custom and special applications. Aegis has been designing and building highly reliable custom power supplies since 1995. They offer a complete line of switch mode power supplies and power converters for a variety of markets including defense, industrial, aircraft, VME, and telecom. Supports military, aircraft, EV, telecom, and embedded computing applications. Design and manufacture of custom power supply solutions to meet each customer's exacting specifications. Please visit Aegis Power Systems today. Manufactured in the USA.

Sunday the 22nd

Buzz Aldrin Marries Sweetheart on His 93rd Birthday

Buzz Aldrin, Apollo 11, NASA - RF Cafe Buzz Aldrin Marries Sweetheart on His 93rd Birthday - RF CafeBuzz Aldrin has always been my favorite astronaut. He is the subject of my January 20th RF Cafe website logo. Aside from being the second human to set foot on the moon during the Apollo 11 mission, the West Point alum has a reputation as brilliant engineer, decorated fighter pilot, pull no punches opinions, and sharp witticism. No modern being has earned the right to be considered a role model than Dr. Aldrin (astronautics, MIT). Legend has it that Buzz Lightyear was named in honor of him. At 93 years old, he is still outspoken on matters of science and infinitely more lucid than many people decades his younger and even some presidents. It came as no surprise when this headline appeared last Friday: "Astronaut Buzz Aldrin gets married to 63-year-old girlfriend on 93rd birthday: 'As excited as eloping teens.'" In this age of compromised masculinity, it is good to have an authentic "man's man" (and evidently "woman's man") in our midst.

Electronics Theme Crossword for January 22

Electronics Theme Crossword Puzzle for January 22, 2023 - RF CafeThis week's crossword puzzle for January 22nd sports an electronics theme. Many of the words begin or end with the letter "K." Their clues have been marked with an asterisk (*). All RF Cafe crossword puzzles are custom made by me, Kirt Blattenberger, and have only words and clues related to RF, microwave, and mm-wave engineering, optics, mathematics, chemistry, physics, and other technical subjects. As always, this crossword contains no names of politicians, mountain ranges, exotic foods or plants, movie stars, or anything of the sort unless it/he/she is related to this puzzle's technology theme (e.g., Reginald Denny, Hedy Lamarr, or the Tunguska event in Siberia). The technically inclined cruciverbalists amongst us will appreciate the effort. Enjoy!

Many Thanks to Berkeley Nucleonics for Continued Support!

Berkeley Nucleonics Corp - RF CafeBerkeley Nucleonics Corporation (BNC) is a leading manufacturer of precision electronic instrumentation for test, measurement, and nuclear research. Founded in 1963, BNC initially developed custom pulse generators. We became known for meeting the most stringent requirements for high precision and stability, and for producing instruments of unsurpassed reliability and performance. We continue to maintain a leadership position as a developer of custom pulse, signal, light, and function generators. Our designs incorporate the latest innovations in software and hardware engineering, surface mount production, and automated testing procedures.

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Mathematics of equity versus equality

 

https://phys.org/news/2022-12-panama-huge-copper-dispute.html

 

The New "Mystery Ray"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://chargedevs.com/features/a-closer-look-at-power-factor-correction/

 

 

Engineering Job Opening

Promote Your Company on RF Cafe

Sponsor RF Cafe for as Little as $40 per Month - RF CafeNew Scheme rotates all Banners in all locations on the page! RF Cafe typically receives 8,000-15,000 website visits each weekday. RF Cafe is a favorite of engineers, technicians, hobbyists, and students all over the world. With more than 16,000 pages in the Google search index, RF Cafe returns in favorable positions on many types of key searches, both for text and images. New content is added on a daily basis, which keeps the major search engines interested enough to spider it multiple times each day. Items added on the homepage often can be found in a Google search within a few hours of being posted. I also re-broadcast homepage items on LinkedIn. If you need your company news to be seen, RF Cafe is the place to be.

RF Cascade Workbook

RF Cascade Workbook - RF Cafe RF Cascade Workbook is the next phase in the evolution of RF Cafe's long-running series, RF Cascade Workbook. Chances are you have never used a spreadsheet quite like this (click here for screen capture). It is a full-featured RF system cascade parameter and frequency planner that includes filters and mixers for a mere $45. Built in MS Excel, using RF Cascade Workbook 2018 is a cinch and the format is entirely customizable. It is significantly easier and faster than using a multi-thousand dollar simulator when a high level system analysis is all that is needed. An intro video takes you through the main features...

RF & Electronics Stencils for Visio

RF & Electronics stencils for Visio r4 - RF CafeWith more than 1000 custom-built stencils, this has got to be the most comprehensive set of Visio Stencils available for RF, analog, and digital system and schematic drawings! Every stencil symbol has been built to fit proportionally on the included A-, B-, and C-size drawing page templates (or use your own page if preferred). Components are provided for system block diagrams, conceptual drawings, schematics, test equipment, racks (EIA 19", ETSI 21"), and more. Test equipment and racks are built at a 1:1 scale so that measurements can be made directly using Visio built-in dimensioning objects. Page templates are provided with a preset scale (changeable) for a good presentation that can incorporate all provided symbols...

RF & Electronics Symbols for Office™

RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols for Office™ r2 - RF CafeIt was a lot of work, but I finally finished a version of the "RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols" that works well with Microsoft Office™ programs Word™, Excel™, and Power Point™. This is an equivalent of the extensive set of amplifier, mixer, filter, switch, connector, waveguide, digital, analog, antenna, and other commonly used symbols for system block diagrams and schematics created for Visio™. Each of the 1,000 or so symbols was exported individually from Visio in the EMF file format, then imported into Word on a Drawing Canvas. The EMF format allows an image to be scaled up or down without becoming pixelated, so all the shapes can be resized in a document and still look good. The imported symbols can also be UnGrouped into their original constituent parts for editing. Check them out!

RF & Electronics Symbols for Visio

RF Electronics Wireless Analog Block Diagrams Symbols Shapes for Visio - RF CafeWith more than 1000 custom-built symbols, this has got to be the most comprehensive set of Visio Symbols available for RF, analog, and digital system and schematic drawings! Every object has been built to fit proportionally on the provided A-, B- and C-size drawing page templates (or can use your own). Symbols are provided for equipment racks and test equipment, system block diagrams, conceptual drawings, and schematics. Unlike previous versions, these are NOT Stencils, but instead are all contained on tabbed pages within a single Visio document. That puts everything in front of you in its full glory. Just copy and paste what you need on your drawing. The file format is XML so everything plays nicely with Visio 2013 and later...

Get Your Custom-Designed RF Cafe Gear!

Custom-Designed RF-Themed Cups, T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks (Cafe Press) - RF CafeThis assortment of custom-designed themes by RF Cafe includes T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks, Tote Bags, Coffee Mugs and Steins, Purses, Sweatshirts, and Baseball Caps. Choose from amazingly clever "We Are the World's Matchmakers" Smith chart design or the "Engineer's Troubleshooting Flow Chart." My "Matchmaker's" design has been ripped off by other people and used on their products, so please be sure to purchase only official RF Cafe gear. My markup is only a paltry 50¢ per item - Cafe Press gets the rest of your purchase price. These would make excellent gifts for husbands, wives, kids, significant others, and for handing out at company events or as rewards for excellent service. It's a great way to help support RF Cafe. Thanks...

Post Your Engineer & Technician Job Openings on RF Cafe for Free

Engineering Job Board - RF CafeRF Cafe's raison d'être is and always has been to provide useful, quality content for engineers, technicians, engineering managers, students, and hobbyists. Part of that mission is offering to post applicable job openings. HR department employees and/or managers of hiring companies are welcome to submit opportunities for posting at no charge. 3rd party recruiters and temp agencies are not included so as to assure a high quality of listings. Please read through the easy procedure to benefit from RF Cafe's high quality visitors...

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Vertical Electrochemical Transistor for Wearable Electronics

Vertical Electrochemical Transistor for Wearable Electronics - RF Cafe"A transdisciplinary Northwestern University research team has developed a revolutionary transistor that is expected be ideal for lightweight, flexible, high-performance bioelectronics. The electrochemical transistor is compatible with blood and water and can amplify important signals, making it especially useful for biomedical sensing. Such a transistor could enable wearable devices for onsite signal processing, right at the biology-device interface. Potential applications include measuring heartbeat and levels of sodium and potassium in blood as well as eye motion for studying sleep disorders. 'All modern electronics use transistors, which rapidly turn current on and off,' said Tobin J. Marks, a co-corresponding author of the study. "Here we use chemistry to enhance the switching. Our electrochemical transistor takes performance to a totally new level. You have all the properties of a conventional transistor but far higher transconductance..."

Air Waveguide Length Record Set in Dormitory

Air Waveguide Length Record Set in Dormitory - RF Cafe"It's not at every university that laser pulses powerful enough to burn paper and skin are sent blazing down a hallway. But that's what happened in UMD's Energy Research Facility, an unremarkable looking building on the northeast corner of campus. If you visit the utilitarian white and gray hall now, it seems like any other university hall - as long as you don't peak behind a cork board and spot the metal plate covering a hole in the wall. UMD Physics Professor Howard Milchberg and his colleagues transformed the hallway into a laboratory. Their efforts were to temporarily transfigure thin air into a fiber optic cable - or, more specifically, an air waveguide - that would guide light for tens of meters. Like one of the fiber optic internet cables that provide efficient highways for streams of optical data, an air waveguide prescribes a path for light. These air waveguides have many potential applications related to collecting or transmitting light, such as detecting light emitted by atmospheric pollution, long-range laser communication or even laser weaponry. With an air waveguide, there is no need to unspool solid cable..."

THz Quantum Magnetic Switch at RT

Room Temperature THz Quantum Magnetic Switch - RF Cafe"A class of nonvolatile memory devices, called MRAM, based on quantum magnetic materials, can offer a thousandfold performance beyond current state-of-the-art memory devices. The materials known as antiferromagnets were previously demonstrated to store stable memory states, but were difficult to read from. This new study, now published in Nature, paves an efficient way for reading the memory states, with the potential to do so incredibly quickly too. You can probably blink about four times a second. You could say this frequency of blinking is 4 hertz (cycles per second). Imagine trying to blink 1 billion times a second, or at 1 gigahertz, it would be physically impossible for a human. But this is the current order of magnitude in which contemporary high-end digital devices, such as magnetic memory, switch their states as operations are performed. And many people wish to push the boundary a thousand times further, into the regime of a trillion times a second, or terahertz. The barrier for realizing faster memory devices may be the materials used..."

Antennas & Microchips Blur Line Between Science and Sci-Fi

Antennas and Microchips Blur Line Between Science and Sci-Fi - RF Cafe"Sophisticated antenna arrays paired with high-frequency wireless chips act like superpowers for modern electronics, boosting everything from sensing to security to data processing. In his lab at Princeton, Kaushik Sengupta is working to expand those powers even further. In recent years, Sengupta's lab has designed antenna arrays that help engineers make strides toward peering through matter, boosting communications in canyons of skyscrapers, putting a medical lab on a smart phone, and encrypting critical data with electromagnetic waves instead of software. In a new article in Advanced Science, Sengupta's research team presented a new type of antenna array based on the paper-folding art of origami. The shape-shifting array, designed like a folded paper box called a waterbomb..."

Wireless EV Charging Threat to AM Reception

Wireless EV Charging Threat to AM Reception - RF CafeRegular EV chargers are bad enough with power factor and harmonics issues, but the gross inefficiencies in power transfer with contactless charging will make matters even worse. Imagine a world full of them! "Consumers are eager to cut the cord on their electronics charging devices, a trend that could soon benefit drivers of electric vehicles (EVs). HD Radio developer and licensing company Xperi is seeking to raise awareness about a potential new threat to AM radio broadcast reception: the proposed introduction of wireless power transfer systems for electric vehicle charging, or WPT-EV, that use switching frequencies that generate harmonics in the lower AM band. Xperi recently filed comments about this concern in response to a notice of inquiry at the FCC about radio receiver performance. It hopes to raise awareness and also believes its HD Radio technology can be of help. Interference to AM from unintentional radiators including low-cost switching power supplies in EVs is a concern..."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

These archive pages are provided in order to make it easier for you to find items that you remember seeing on the RF Cafe homepage. Of course probably the easiest way to find anything on the website is to use the "Search RF Cafe" box at the top of every page. About RF Cafe.

Homepage Archive Pages

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Windfreak Technologies Frequency Synthesizers - RF Cafe
Windfreak Technologies Frequency Synthesizers - RF Cafe
Triad RF Systems Amplifiers - RF Cafe
KR Electronics (RF Filters) - RF Cafe
Exodus Advanced Communications Best in Class RF Amplifier SSPAs

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About RF Cafe

Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe Webmaster

Copyright: 1996 - 2024

Webmaster:

    Kirt Blattenberger,

    BSEE - KB3UON

RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while tying up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.

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AirplanesAndRockets.com