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Homepage Archive - September 2020 (page 4)

These archive pages are provided in order to make it easier for you to find items that you remember seeing on the RF Cafe homepage. Of course probably the easiest way to find anything on the website is to use the "Search RF Cafe" box at the top of every page. About RF Cafe.

Homepage Archive Pages

2020:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
2018:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
2017:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
2016:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
2015:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
2014:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
2013:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
2012:  1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13

See Page 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | of the September 2020 homepage archives.

Friday 2

Thursday 1

Wednesday 30

Tuesday 29

Monday 28

Sunday 27

Friday 25

Microwaves - Receiving and Transmitting Antennas

Microwaves - Receiving and Transmitting Antennas, December 1949 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeThis is the eighth and final installment on a "Microwaves" series of articles in Radio-Electronics magazine by author C.W. Palmer. Each part is a stand-alone tutorial that does not rely on previous parts to be useful. Unlike most of the preceding articles that dealt in one way or another with waveguide, this final one concerns "receiving and transmitting antennas for microwave communication." It touches lightly on various types of antennas, field patterns, impedance matching, and applications. If you've been around for a while, you've likely seen it all before, but there are some nice photos of antennas designed and deployed by Bell Telephone Laboratories for their nationwide microwave telephone relay network. Bell Labs has done a lot of ground-breaking research in all aspects of communications technology...

Power Electronics with Microscopic Plumbing Saves Lots of Money

Power Electronics with Microscopic Plumbing Saves Lots of Money - RF Cafe"Designing semiconductor circuits hand-in-hand with microfluidic cooling systems could mean huge boosts in efficiency. The heat generated by today's densely-packed electronics is a costly resource drain. To keep systems at the right temperature for optimal computational performance, data center cooling in the U.S. consumes the as much energy and water as all the residents of the city of Philadelphia. Now, by integrating liquid cooling channels directly into semiconductor chips, researchers hope to reduce that drain at least in power electronics devices, making them smaller, cheaper and less energy-intensive. Traditionally, the electronics and the heat management system are designed and made separately, says Elison Matioli, an electrical engineering professor at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland. That introduces a fundamental obstacle..."

Quickly Assess Coax Cable Shielding Quality

Quickly Assess Coax Cable Shielding Quality - RF CafeKenneth Wyatt has a good article on the EDN website entitled, "Quickly Assess Relative Coax-Cable-Shielding Quality." It begins: "Testing most products for radiated emissions usually requires all I/O and power cables to be attached to the equipment under test (EUT) and spread out in accordance with the specific product standard. In many cases, we test engineers simply grab the nearest cables and hope for the best during the compliance test. Unfortunately, poor-quality cables can lead to emissions failures due to poor shielding or poor shield termination (via 'pigtails') to the connectors. In an earlier article, I related the issue of HDMI cable radiation due to shield pigtails. I also graphically demonstrate why cable shield pigtails lead to radiated emissions in the video. In addition to the shield pigtail issue, coax cables..."

WWV Offers Additional Services

WWV Offers Additional Services, April 1958 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeWWV is the oldest continuously-operating radio station in the U.S. since first going on the air from Washington, D.C. in May 1920. It moved around an area near D.C. for a few years before being relocated to its current location in Boulder, Colorado, in 1966. WWVB, another time standard transmitter, had already been established in Boulder a few years earlier. Sister station WWVH is located in Hawaii. The National Bureau of Standards (NBS) was renamed National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 1988, nearly a century after its inception in 1890. Having grown up not too far from Beltsville, Maryland, I remember driving by their main campus when the NBS sign was still on the lawn. The decision to change the name never did make sense, but then most of what government bureaucrats do perplex me...

Russian COVID-19 Vaccine Tests

Russian COVID-19 Vaccine Tests - RF CafeIn response to an article about the ongoing Wuhan Flu serum development programs, here is one of the cleverest online forum posts I've ever seen: "This might surprise many of you, but I volunteered for the vaccine trials for Covid-19. The vaccine is the one that was created in Russia. I received my first shot yesterday and I'm excited because it seems completely safe, with иo side effects whatsoeveя, and I feel sκ χoρoshό я чувствую себя немного странно и я думаю, что вытащил ослиные уши." Plug the Ruskie part into a translator.

Many Thanks to Aegis Power Systems for Their Continued Support!

Aegis Power Systems - RF CafeAegis Power Systems is a leading supplier of AC-DC and DC-DC power supplies for custom and special applications. Aegis has been designing and building highly reliable custom power supplies since 1995. They offer a complete line of switch mode power supplies and power converters for a variety of markets including defense, industrial, aircraft, VME, and telecom. Supports military, aircraft, EV, telecom, and embedded computing applications. Design and manufacture of custom power supply solutions to meet each customer's exacting specifications. Please visit Aegis Power Systems today.

Thursday 24

Cakes Baked in 90 Seconds - Early Microwave Oven

Cakes Baked in 90 Seconds - Early Microwave Oven, November 1951 Radio & Television News - RF CafeLittle known to most people (including moi until recently), DeForest Training School was started by DeVry University's founder Herman A. DeVry. DeVry and DeForest were DeGood DeFriends, leading DeVry to name his electronics school after DeForest. It was re-named DeVry Technical Institute in 1953. Research at DeForest Training School produced one of the first RF / microwave food baking "ovens." The prototype reported in this 1951 Radio & Television News magazine article was not at all like modern microwave ovens. There was no enclosure into which baking bowls, pans, and dishes can be inserted. Rather, electrodes were arranged at the perimeters of the special pan that in this demonstration contained cake batter. It was adapted from a process originally developed for RF induction heating of industrial materials...

Many Thanks to Electro-Photonics for Their Continued Support

Electro-PhotonicsElectro-Photonics is a global supplier of RF & Microwave components. Their products include SMT hybrid and directional couplers, wire bondable passive components, mounting tabs, filters, transmission lines, and very useful test boards for evaluating components (spiral inductors, single-layer capacitors). The Electro-Photonics team can support your small R&D design requirements with RF & Microwave test fixtures and save you valuable design and characterization time. Please take a moment to visit Electro-Photonics' website and see how your project might benefit. 

Radiation-Tolerant FPGAs Solve Spacecraft Design Challenges

Radiation-Tolerant FPGAs Solve Spacecraft Design Challenges - RF Cafe"Satellite and spacecraft system designers have a few different options when selecting field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) semiconductors. One FPGA option is commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components that reduce component unit cost and lead time, but they are generally not reliable enough, must be up-screened (which increases cost and engineering resources), and require soft and hard Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) to mitigate radiation effects in space. In missions where failure is not an option, designers typically choose higher-cost FPGAs that are radiation-hardened by design (RHBD). These are already screened and qualified to Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) Class Q and V standards..."

Hobnobbing with Harbaugh: Biocells Revisited

Hobnobbing with Harbaugh: Biocells Revisited, September 1964 Popular Electronics - RF Cafe"Hobnobbing with Harbaugh" was a regular comic feature in Popular Electronics magazine in the 1960s. Creator Dave Harbaugh chose topics ranging from husband-wife relationships where the husband is a technophile of some sort and the wife either purposely or unknowingly challenges his efforts to participate in his hobby, to contemporary (at the time) subjects such as this month's treatment of biocells. Like solid state electronics back in the day, bioengineering was a mysterious field few understood. It received a great deal of attention by comedians and sci-fi film makers who got a kick out of scaring people over the possibility of an alien contamination (a la "The Andromeda Strain") or some secret government laboratory brewing up a deadly contagion...

Anatech Microwave September 2020 Product Update

Anatech Microwave September 2020 Product Update - RF CafeAnatech Electronics offers the industry's largest portfolio of high-performance standard and customized RF and microwave filters and filter-related products for military, commercial, aerospace and defense, and industrial applications up to 40 GHz. One each new cavity-type duplexer and triplexer have been introduced. The AD1542-1643D296 is an Inmarsat duplexer with 1524-1560 MHz and 1626.5-1660.5 MHz passbands, and the AD1800-2072-2250TR293 is a triplexer with 2025-2120 MHz, 2200-2230 MHz, and 1750-1850 MHz. Passband insertion loos is >15 dB on all, and insertion loss is <1 dB. Custom RF power directional coupler designs can be designed and produced when a standard...

Free Webinar: Build Your Own Radar at Home

Professor David Ricketts, NCSU - RF CafeOn September 29th beginning at Noon EDT, Cadence | AWR will be presenting a free webinar entitled NCSU Rabbit Radar - Design, Simulate & Build Your Own Radar at Home. "In this webinar, Dr. Ricketts describes how to design, simulate, and build a 2.4GHz frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar at home or in a lab. The webinar begins with a short theory session followed by an explanation of the key components of an FMCW radar, which include a mixer, power amplifier, coupler, low noise amplifier, and filters. The components will use transmission line structures that attendees will design...

Please Visit NorthEast RF's Website in Appreciation of Their Support

NorthEast RF - RF CafeNorthEast RF's comprehensive antenna testing services include linear | circular polarized antenna measurements and OTA cellular device pre-compliance. Up to 18" diameter and <10 kg weight. Antennas can be rapidly evaluated and optimized using our fast near field spherical system. Test results supplied in data file with pattern viewer software. A picture of the test configuration is included to help aligned axis. Our selection of human head and hand phantoms are ideal for verification of body worn devices. Turnaround time is usually 3-days.

Wednesday 23

Crystal Diodes in Modern Electronics

Crystal Diodes in Modern Electronics, November 1951 Radio & Television News - RF CafeUse of the word "modern" in titles of books and magazine articles has always bothered me because of how quickly the referenced topic becomes obsolete. It is only "modern" for a relatively short period of time. In 1951 when this article appeared in Radio & Television News magazine, germanium was the dominant semiconductor in use for diodes and transistors. They could be used in small signal circuits of up to about 500 MHz. That meant they could easily replace vacuum tubes in AM and FM radios, and at least the IF and baseband sections of TVs. You might think that would have represented a big component cost savings, but semiconductors were much more expensive than vacuum tubes at the time. Still, the power savings, size reduction, and higher reliability made the circuit changes worthwhile...

DARPA's Ultra-Linear High-Speed GaN Advances to Next Phase

DARPA's Ultra-Linear High-Speed GaN Advances to Next Phase - RF Cafe"A team of researchers at HRL laboratories, led by Principal Investigator Dr. Jeong-Sun Moon, is developing the next generation of Gallium Nitride (GaN) transistors that will have a dramatic effect on electronic components that amplify electromagnetic signals for communications, radar, and 5G wireless networks. The ultra-linear monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers that utilize these high-speed GaN transistors can see greatly improved linearity, noise reduction, and reduced power consumption. Moon's team has successfully met and exceeded the performance metrics defined by the Dynamic Range-enhanced Electronics and Materials (DREaM) program, a DARPA effort to improve dynamic range in millimeter-wave..."

IPP Needs an RF/Microwave Design Engineer

Innovative Power Products Needs an RF/Microwave Design Engineer - RF CafeInnovative Power Products (IPP), a company with over 35 years of experience designing and manufacturing RF and microwave passive components, wants to immediately fill an opening for an RF/Microwave Design Engineer. The position requires demonstrated success in the design and test of wide band, high power RF and microwave passive components. Candidate to be familiar with linear and full-wave EM simulators. Responsibilities include design, simulation, engineering document release, and prototype test of new products. He/she will communicate with customers, travel as required to visit customers or vendors, collaborate with Design and Drafting to satisfy customer requirements. Train and support technicians on S-parameters, test procedures, troubleshooting, and documentation of product...

Planes Can Land in Fog! Thanks to Short Waves

Planes Can Land in Fog! Thanks to Short Waves, December 1931/January 1932 Short Wave Craft - RF CafeThe Instrument Landing Systems (ILS) has been around since the early 1930s, as made apparent by this article in Short Wave Craft magazine. Frequencies, circuits, and infrastructure equipment have evolved over the years, but fundamentally, landing an aircraft (airplane, helicopter, dirigible) under 'blind' flying conditions has not changed. Two precision beams - one in elevation and one in azimuth - broadcast by ground-based installations are detected by airborne receivers and relative positions are displayed for the pilot's use in navigation. ILS does not help the pilot fly the aircraft; it only leads him to the runway threshold. In the past couple decades, space-based Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment has increasingly been used to replace ground-based microwave systems...

Teledyne e2v HiRel Intros 25 GHz Frequency Doubler

Teledyne e2v HiRel Expands RF Line with New 25 GHz Frequency Doubler - RF CafeTeledyne e2v HiRel, part of the Teledyne Defense Electronics Group, today announced the latest addition to its rapidly expanding line of RF solutions, a new RF MMIC Frequency Doubler. Launching Teledyne e2v HiRel's new Frequency Multiplier product line, this Active Doubler, TDFM001000, is designed for high reliability signal chain applications in Space. It is particularly well-suited specifically for satellite transponders, transmit/receive modules, microwave-based communications, millimeter-wave point-to-point radio, and related processes. The TDFM001000 is a 7.5-25.0 / 15.0-50.0 GHz single ended input (no external balun required) GaAs MMIC doubler...

KiloDrone: Intense Sound of 1,000 Analog Oscillators

KiloDrone Intense Sound of 1,000 Analog Oscillators - RF CafeThe October issue of IEEE's Spectrum magazine ran an article entitled, "Let a Thousand Analog Oscillators Sing." It reports on Sam Battle's "KiloDrone" DIY project consisting of 1,000 analog reverse-avalanche oscillators, each built with a transistor, capacitor, and resistor. A singe opamp isolates and amplifies the output of each unit. In his video Mr. Battle explains the project, runs through the tune-up procedure, and exhibits the final result. According to the story, only 1.2 A is used from a 12 V DC supply for the entire setup. There are 10 independently tuned oscillators on each rack-mountable panel. A printed PCB panel (not including components) can be purchased for $52. Bob Pease would have loved this guy whose motivation is summarized thusly: "I like the tangibility of analog. I hate working on computers. I just can't stand looking at screens. I like standing up and moving around and making things in a physical world."

Many Thanks to ISOTEC for Continued Support!

ISOTEC Corporation - RF CafeSince 1996, ISOTEC has designed, developed and manufactured an extensive line of RF/microwave connectors, between-series adapters, RF components and filters for wireless service providers including non-magnetic connectors for quantum computing and MRI equipments etc. ISOTEC's product line includes low-PIM RF connectors components such as power dividers and directional couplers. Off-the-shelf and customized products up to 40 GHz and our low-PIM products can meet -160 dBc with 2 tones and 20 W test. Quick prototyping, advanced in-house testing and high-performance. Designs that are cost effective practical and repeatable.

Tuesday 22

Electron Shadows Map Force Fields

Electron Shadows Map Force Fields, December 1949 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeWhen I saw the images in this "Electron Shadows Map Force Fields" article from a 1949 issue of Radio-Electronics magazine, the first thing I though of was how as kids back in the 1960s we would hold magnets against the front of the television cathode ray tube (CRT) to see how they distorted the picture. If I still had a CRT TV or computer monitor around, I'd take some photos of it for the sake of those who have never seen what happens. The difference between that and the images formed here is that the professionals inserted the object of interest directly in the electron beam, between the cathode and the fluorescent glass grid. As with the images in the article, magnets of various shapes created unique responses. If you drag the magnet across the face of the CRT...

DC to Daylight Microwave Absorbers Shield the Warfighter

DC to Daylight Microwave Absorbers Shield the Warfighter - RF Cafe"The evolution of military electronics is marked by an endless series of measures and countermeasures. The enemy meets an enhancement in U.S. fighter jet technology with an improvement in its missile-guidance capabilities, forcing additional innovations from the U.S. The never-ending effort to enhance the effectiveness of military technology and protect the warfighter on the battlefield propels forward innovation in the industry. Today, there's a battle underway that is dramatically expanding the frequency ranges used by the military for communications - soldier-to-soldier, soldier-to-satellite, aircraft-to-ground, missile-to-target, and more. Whereas military electronics used to operate in a narrow band of frequencies, today, military design engineers must protect equipment from damaging signal interference and enemy..."

Academy of EMC Standards Documents

Academy of EMC Standards Documents - RF CafeRF Cafe visitor Kire P. let me know about a really nice website with lots of information about EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) and governing industry standards. The Academy of EMC is a non-profit based in Switzerland. It  has a large variety of downloadable documents covering EMC guidelines (PCBs, cables, enclosures, etc.) for how to assure your products will pass testing global, EU, U.S. and other EMC standards, including compliance marks from countries and groups. An educational area contains suggestions for books and other resources. There are also half a dozen articles on the Blog page. Keep in mind when reviewing any standard that you must go to the source for the most up-to-date version. Failure to do so can be quite expensive.

RF/Microwave Switching Adds Flexibility to Diverse Applications

RF/Microwave Switching Adds Flexibility to Diverse Applications - RF CafeThe Evaluation Engineering website has a good article entitled, "RF/Microwave Switching Adds Flexibility to Diverse Applications" that runs through some state of the art hardware available for R&D and production test setups. It pitches products from multiple vendors, so it is not just an infomercial. "Engineers in industries ranging from telecommunications to military / aerospace need high-performance RF/microwave switching as part of their test setups. Consequently, vendors are offering products ranging from individual switches to complete switching systems to meet customer demand. This report describes the latest available RF / microwave switching products and the applications they serve..."

Radio Amateur Course - How the Vacuum Tube Works

Radio Amateur Course - How the Vacuum Tube Work, October 1935 Short Wave Craft - RF CafeA while back I was using the familiar analogy that relates water pressure, hose diameter, and flow rate to electrical voltage, resistance, and current, respectively, in an explanation to my daughter regarding why the water characteristics in her house changed after the well supply pipe and indoor plumbing changed. The cause, I proposed, was due to an increased distance between well and house, and the use of the plastic PEX tubing with a smaller inside diameter than the old copper pipe, respectively. The submersible pump and holding tank still supply the same 50 psi as before, but since that pressure now has to force the water through a path inside the house with more resistance to water flow, the delivery rate to fixtures is now lower. When I hold the contacts closed on the pump control relay, the most I can get is about 55 psi. Raising the pressure will require replacing...

1st Day of Autumn in Northern Hemisphere

Autumnal Equinox Northern Hemisphere 2020 - RF CafeFall has finally arrived! The autumnal equinox occurs today, September 22, 2020, at 9:30 A.M. EDT (13:30 UTC). The equinox occurs at the same moment worldwide, regardless of local time zone. The word "equinox" comes from Latin "aequus," meaning "equal," and the Latin "nox," meaning "night." It marks the moment the sun crosses the celestial equator, which is coincident with Earth's equatorial plane, as it descends from north to south (south to north transition marks the vernal equinox).  I've never seen this offered anywhere, but why not "equal day" rather than "equal night?"  "Pernox" means day, which would give us equipernox rather than equinox. The winter solstice (solstice = sol + stitium ≈ sun stands still) occurs December 21, 5:02 A.M. EST.

Many Thanks to Berkeley Nucleonics for Continued Support!

Berkeley Nucleonics Corp - RF CafeBerkeley Nucleonics Corporation (BNC) is a leading manufacturer of precision electronic instrumentation for test, measurement, and nuclear research. Founded in 1963, BNC initially developed custom pulse generators. We became known for meeting the most stringent requirements for high precision and stability, and for producing instruments of unsurpassed reliability and performance. We continue to maintain a leadership position as a developer of custom pulse, signal, light, and function generators. Our designs incorporate the latest innovations in software and hardware engineering, surface mount production, and automated testing procedures.


Engineering Themed Crossword Puzzle for September 27th

Engineering Themed Crossword Puzzle for September 27th, 2020 - RF CafeSeptember 27th's custom Engineering themed crossword puzzle contains only only words from my custom-created lexicon related to engineering, science, mathematics, chemistry, physics, astronomy, etc. (1,000s of them). You will never find among the words names of politicians, mountain ranges, exotic foods or plants, movie stars, or anything of the sort. You might, however, find someone or something in the otherwise excluded list directly related to this puzzle's technology theme, such as Hedy Lamarr or the Bikini Atoll, respectively. The technically inclined cruciverbalists amongst us will appreciate the effort...

















PCBONLINE Blog: Comprehensive Guide to SMT Stencils

PCBONLINE Blog: Comprehensive Guide to SMT Stencils - RF CafePCBONLINE, a global high-end PCB manufacturer servicing electronics manufacturing (EMS) customers in defense, aerospace, medical, and other high-end industries, has posted a technical blog entitled, "Comprehensive Guide to SMT Stencils." It answers questions about what are SMT (Surface Mount Technology) and SMT stencils and what are they used for, where do you get SMT stencils for PCB assembly, what are the different types of SMT stencils, and how do you use SMT stencils? SMT (Surface Mount Technology) stencils are very important for PCB designing and manufacturing. If you can't decide which type of SMT stencil to go for and you need a detailed guide for this topic, then you're in the right place. This article will focus on every aspect of PCB stencils and by the time you reach the end...



Heathkit 1982 Christmas Catalog

Heathkit Christmas 1982 Catalog - RF Cafe


 Electronics-Themed Comics June 1951 Radio-Electronics  

Engineering Job Opening

Promote Your Company on RF Cafe for as Little as $40/mo.

Sponsor RF Cafe for as Little as $40 per Month - RF CafeRF Cafe typically receives 8,000-15,000 website visits each weekday and about half that on weekends. RF Cafe is a favorite of engineers, technicians, hobbyists, and students all over the world. With more than 13,000 pages in the Google search index, RF Cafe returns in favorable positions on many types of key searches, both for text and images. New content is added on a daily basis, which keeps the major search engines interested enough to spider it multiple times each day. Items added on the homepage often can be found in a Google search within a few hours of being posted. I also re-broadcast homepage items on LinkedIn. If you need your company news to be seen, RF Cafe is the place to be. Advertising begins at $40/month.

RF Cascade Workbook 2018

RF Cascade Workbook 2018 Is Available Now! - RF CafeRF Cascade Workbook 2018 is the next phase in the evolution of RF Cafe's long-running series, RF Cascade Workbook. Chances are you have never used a spreadsheet quite like this. It is a full-featured RF system cascade parameter and frequency planner that includes filters and mixers for a mere $45. Built in MS Excel, using RF Cascade Workbook 2018 is a cinch and the format is entirely customizable. It is significantly easier and faster than using a multi-thousand dollar simulator when a high level system analysis is all that is needed. An intro video takes you through the main features...

RF & Electronics Symbols for Visio

RF Electronics Wireless Analog Block Diagrams Symbols Shapes for Visio - RF CafeWith more than 1000 custom-built symbols, this has got to be the most comprehensive set of Visio Symbols available for RF, analog, and digital system and schematic drawings! Every object has been built to fit proportionally on the provided A-, B- and C-size drawing page templates (or can use your own). Symbols are provided for equipment racks and test equipment, system block diagrams, conceptual drawings, and schematics. Unlike previous versions, these are NOT Stencils, but instead are all contained on tabbed pages within a single Visio document. That puts everything in front of you in its full glory. Just copy and paste what you need on your drawing. The file format is XML so everything plays nicely with Visio 2013 and later...

Get Your Custom-Designed RF Cafe Gear!

Custom-Designed RF-Themed Cups, T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks (Cafe Press) - RF CafeThis assortment of custom-designed themes by RF Cafe includes T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks, Tote Bags, Coffee Mugs and Steins, Purses, Sweatshirts, and Baseball Caps. Choose from amazingly clever "We Are the World's Matchmakers" Smith chart design or the "Engineer's Troubleshooting Flow Chart." My "Matchmaker's" design has been ripped off by other people and used on their products, so please be sure to purchase only official RF Cafe gear. My markup is only a paltry 50¢ per item - Cafe Press gets the rest of your purchase price. These would make excellent gifts for husbands, wives, kids, significant others, and for handing out at company events or as rewards for excellent service. It's a great way to help support RF Cafe. Thanks...

Post Your Engineer & Technician Job Openings on RF Cafe for Free

Engineering Job Board - RF CafeRF Cafe's raison d'être is and always has been to provide useful, quality content for engineers, technicians, engineering managers, students, and hobbyists. Part of that mission is offering to post applicable job openings. HR department employees and/or managers of hiring companies are welcome to submit opportunities for posting at no charge. 3rd party recruiters and temp agencies are not included so as to assure a high quality of listings. Please read through the easy procedure to benefit from RF Cafe's high quality visitors...


Beam Propagation mm-Wave Directed Energy Weapons

Beam Propagation mm-Wave Directed Energy Weapons - RF Cafe"Comparing the relatively simple Fraunhofer or 'far field' approximation commonly used in radar and high-powered microwave systems with the more complex near field propagation model based on the field equivalence principle demonstrates which approach achieves reasonable modeling fidelity with minimal compute power. Modeling and Simulation can be used to explore the design trade space of directed energy weapons. M&S can be particularly helpful when that trade space is influenced by a large number of parameters and when acquiring field data to explore those parameters requires a large amount of resources. One example involves the Active Denial Technology system, a non-lethal, counter-personnel..."

Electron Beam Sculpts Graphene in 3D

Electron Beam Sculpts Graphene in 3D - RF Cafe"Graphene can be sculptured by electron beams, according to researchers at Georgia Tech. Carbon atoms can be added or subtracted - and in the case of graphene oxide, surface oxygen can be used to remove carbon atoms with no additional chemicals. 'By timing and tuning the energy of the electron beam, we can activate interaction of the beam with oxygen in the graphene oxide to do etching, or interaction with hydrocarbons on the surface to create carbon deposition,' said mechanical engineer Professor Andrei Fedorov. 'With atomic-scale control, we can produce complicated..."

Design Principles for Spin-Based Quantum Materials

Design Principles for Spin-Based Quantum Materials - RF Cafe"As our lives become increasingly intertwined with technology - whether supporting communication while working remotely or streaming our favorite show - so too does our reliance on the data these devices create. Data centers supporting these technology ecosystems produce a significant carbon footprint - and consume 200 terawatt hours of energy each year, greater than the annual energy consumption of Iran. To balance ecological concerns yet meet growing demand, advances in microelectronic processors must be efficient and environmentally friendly. Northwestern University materials scientists have developed new design principles that could help spur development of future quantum materials used to advance (IoT) devices and other resource-intensive technologies while limiting ecological damage..."

Thermal Diode Rectifies Heat in Both Directions

Unusual Thermal Diode Rectifies Heat in Both Directions - RF Cafe"You can feel it on your laptop and mobile phone. It's behind your refrigerator and office copy machine. While heat is desirable for appliances like a coffee maker, it can jeopardize the reliability and safety of electronic systems in other devices, causing premature failure at best and explosions at worst. Active control of heat transport, as with thermal switches and thermal diodes, is important for a range of applications in heating and cooling, energy conversion, materials processing, and data storage. In practice, thermal diodes are highly desirable thermal components for many engineering applications because they allow energy systems to transfer heat to designated areas..."

Lighting the Way to Infrared Detection

Lighting the Way to Infrared Detection - RF Cafe"EPFL physicists propose a new path to detect infrared radiation with outstanding sensitivity, allowing detection of signals as low as that of a single quantum of light. When using our webcam or cell phone camera, we experience the tremendous capabilities of cheap and compact sensors developed in the past decades for the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. On the contrary, detection of lower frequency radiation not visible to the human eye (such as mid- and far-infrared radiation) requires complex and costly equipment. Lack of a compact technology impedes widespread access to sensors for the recognition of molecules and the imaging of thermal radiation naturally emitted by our bodies. A new conceptual breakthrough in this field may therefore..."

Creating Cross-Domain Kill Webs in Real Time

Creating Cross-Domain Kill Webs in Real Time - RF Cafe"Two DARPA-developed technologies - a novel decision aid for mission commanders and a rapid software integration tool - played a critical role in the recent Air Force demonstration of the Advanced Battle Management System (ABMS). The Adapting Cross-domain Kill-webs (ACK) program and the System-of-systems Technology Integration Tool Chain for Heterogeneous Electronic Systems (STITCHES) were among a number of technologies employed in the Aug. 31 - Sep. 4 ABMS on-ramp demonstration, which involved attacks using live aircraft, ships, air defense batteries, and other assets. ACK is developing a decision aid for mission commanders to assist them with rapidly identifying and selecting options for tasking - and re-tasking - assets within and across organizational boundaries. Specifically, ACK assists users with selecting sensors, effectors..."


  European Space Agency Develops a Mesh Reflector for Shaped Radio Beams   


  Electron Hole, Meet Your Fractional Cousin   


   Smallest thermoelectric cooler, by 10,000 times  













Anatech Electronics (RF Filters) - RF Cafe PCB Directory (Assembly)
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Copyright: 1996 - 2024
    Kirt Blattenberger,

RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while typing up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

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