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Homepage Archive - October 2021 (page 2)

See Page 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 of the October 2021 homepage archives.

Thursday the 14th

WWV Moves to Colorado

WWV Moves to Colorado - Part II, February 1967 QST - RFCafeThis is the second of a two-part series on the move of the WWV transmitter stations operated by the National Bureau of Standards (now called National Institute of Standards and Technology) from Greenbelt, Maryland, to Boulder, Colorado. WWV Part I appeared in the January 1967 edition of the ARRL's QST magazine. WWV began transmitting time / frequency standards in 1920 in order to provide a means for remote stations and laboratories to calibrate local standards that would prevent transmitting stations from interfering with each other. Although most people don't realize it, the 60 kHz signal that their 'atomic' clocks and watches use to self-adjust time emanates from the WWVB antenna in Boulder. The first installment of the article discusses the history and rationale for relocating the WWV facility to a new location...

WWVB - National Bureau of Standards

WWVB - National Bureau of Standards (Kirt's Cogitations #226) - RF CafeAs is typical for Gary Breed, editor of High Frequency Electronics magazine, he wrote a great general interest article about the time and frequency broadcasts put out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) – originally National Bureau of Standards (NBS). His piece concerned the history of the WWV and WWVH signals that have been used since their origin in 1920 by amateur and professional radio operators to calibrate and synchronize time and frequency standards. I highly recommend reading the one-page article. There is yet another standard signal that is broadcast continually from the NIST site in Boulder, Colorado, that just about everyone is familiar with whether they know it or not. That would be the WWVB signal used by all of the "radio-controlled" or "atomic" clocks...

Matrix Topology for Beamforming Networks

Matrix Topology for Beamforming Networks - RF Cafe"Most Next-generation wireless systems are based on beamforming networks (BFNs). These systems are complex, expensive and require multiple circuit layers for implementation. Scientists at the Tokyo Institute of Technology and the European Space Agency have now introduced a novel matrix topology for a BFN that reduces the number of layers BFNs typically need. This paves the way for cheaper and more efficient next-generation wireless systems. Wireless technology is responsible for enabling pivotal innovations such as radio and satellite communication. Central to these systems are antennas that can transmit and receive signals. As the scope of wireless technology continues to grow, the next generation of wireless systems require multibeam antennas that are capable of efficiently handling multiple beams...

Engineering & Technician Jobs at NuWaves Engineering

Engineering Job NuWaves Engineering - RF CafeWhile on the LinkedIn website I happen to see a post by NuWaves Engineering announcing multiple job opportunities for engineers, technicians, and managers. Per their Careers webpage; "A veteran-owned small business founded in 2000. NuWaves is a premier supplier of RF and microwave solutions for aerospace and defense customers. NuWaves provides quick-tempo design and engineering services, from HF through Ku-band, that address the most demanding customer requirements, such as electronics hardware miniaturization, project cost, and schedule. NuWaves offers a competitive benefits package that rivals or exceeds what larger companies can provide..." Please mention you saw this on RF Cafe (no, I'm not getting paid for it).

1957 Popular Electronics Crossword Puzzle

Crossword Puzzle, October 1957 Popular Electronics - RF CafeHere is a vintage crossword puzzle from the October 1957 edition of Popular Electronics magazine. Being created at a time solidly into the semiconductor era, you do not need a knowledge of vacuum tube terminology. This one contains mostly words relating to electronics similar to the weekly electronics, math, science, technology, and RF & microwave theme crosswords from RF Cafe. It won't take you too long to complete...

Analog Devices "Tech Day" 2021 - Oct. 14th

Analog Devices "Tech Day" 2021- RF CafeAnalog Devices (ADI) will host "Tech Day: RF & Microwave" on Thursday, October 14th, from 11:00 AM to 1:00 PM Eastern Time. Of course the focus will be on Analog Devices' products and their contributions to end item products of their customers. Although these types of events are essentially high-tech infomercials, the presenters are usually the company's top applications engineering people and often the device designer is there to pitch the part and answer question. Topics include X−band direct RF sampling, instrument grade signal fidelity at mm-wave frequencies, X− and Ku−band radar development...

Romex Cable >$150/Roll!!!

Romex Cable >$150/Roll!!! - RF CafeHoly guacamole! I saw in Home Depot last night that the price of a 250-foot roll of 12/2 Romex cable now costs more than $150!!! Just a few months ago it was under $70. Last year I bought a 250' roll of 10-3 Romex for $140; today it costs >$400. Prices of both copper and plastic have skyrocketed since summer. The plastic electrical box aisle has been nearly empty for many months - it looks like the toilet paper aisle in the grocery stores did at the beginning of the Wuhan Flu plandemic. Gas prices here in PA are up nearly 50%, and food is getting outrageous. Folks, we are getting screwed big-time by politicians causing all this turmoil worldwide. I'm not sure what their end game is, but things are not looking good. Unlimited immigration burdening supplies and resources, shutting down domestic energy production, stranding container ships offshore, etc. How far will this social engineering and cost of living escalation go? I am feeling the pain. Evidently "We the People" have no control over it anymore.

New for 2021! RF & Electronics Symbols for Office™

RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols for Office™ r2 - RF CafeIt was a lot of work, but I finally finished a version of the "RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols" that works well with Microsoft Office™ programs Word™, Excel™, and Power Point™. This is an equivalent of the extensive set of amplifier, mixer, filter, switch, connector, waveguide, digital, analog, antenna, and other commonly used symbols for system block diagrams and schematics created for Visio™. Each of the 1,000 or so symbols was exported individually from Visio in the EMF file format, then imported into Word on a Drawing Canvas. The EMF format allows an image to be scaled up or down without becoming pixelated, so all the shapes can be resized in a document and still look good. The imported symbols can also be UnGrouped into their original constituent parts for editing. Check them out!

Many Thanks to Electro-Photonics for Their Continued Support

Electro-PhotonicsElectro-Photonics is a global supplier of RF & Microwave components. Their products include SMT hybrid and directional couplers, wire bondable passive components, mounting tabs, filters, transmission lines, and very useful test boards for evaluating components (spiral inductors, single-layer capacitors). The Electro-Photonics team can support your small R&D design requirements with RF & Microwave test fixtures and save you valuable design and characterization time. Please take a moment to visit Electro-Photonics' website and see how your project might benefit. 

Wednesday the 13th

ARRL Online Auction October 8-14

ARRL Online Auction October 8-14, 2021 - RF CafeARRL's Annual Online Auction is running October 8-14 this year. I somehow missed posting a notice earlier, but there's still more than a day left to get in on it - both for buying and for selling. Many items have 10 or more bids on them, so you had better act quickly if you are looking for something in particular. There are also many "ARRL Lab Mystery Junque Box" listings for the gamblers out there. Probably a lot of people are willing to bid on them figuring if nothing else they are helping to support the ARRL. Happy hunting.

ConductRF TSA89 TESTeLINK Flexible RF Cables to 40 GHz

ConductRF Performance TSA89 TESTeLINK Flexible RF Test Cables to 40 GHz, February 16 - RF CafeConductRF announces availability of professional high frequency TSA89 series of RF test cables with performance to 40 GHz. Precision connector choices include; SMA, Type-N, 3.5mm, 2.92mm, & 2.4mm. Key features: High-frequency point to point cable, light weight rugged double-shielded, flexible cable, low loss <0.68 dB/ft @ 40 GHz, low VSWR < 1.35:1 (Typical < 1.25:1), RF leakage >−100 dB to 18 GHz, temperature rated from -55ºC to 125ºC. 100% factory VSWR and insertion loss tested. Wide selection of configurations & lengths. Cables are in stock and available immediately from Digi−Key...

Best Practices of Successful Test Engineering Solutions

6 Best Practices of Successful Test Engineering Solutions - RF CafeMr. Steven Seiden published an very usefule article on the Electronic Design website entitled The 6 Best Practices for Developing Successful Test Engineering Solutions. He begins: "Learn the six best practices to follow to help you develop successful automated test solutions faster and at lower cost. Many companies choose a solution because the initial capital outlay on the system appears acceptable; however other important key cost drivers should be considered. These include: Set-up costs: These are the costs associated with taking the hardware, integrating it into a mechanical enclosure, wiring the system, building the test fixtures, checking that the software drivers are compatible, and developing the software code to provide a suitable application. Reducing set-up costs and risks can be done by finding a suitable single supply resource partner who has domain and industry knowledge across multi-vendor solutions. Overheads: Recruiting and training staff to develop a successful solution can add considerably..."

A Simple 5- and 10-Meter Transmitter

A Simple 5- and 10-Meter Transmitter, February 1941 QST - RF Cafe4 tubes and sockets, 12 capacitors, 7 resistors, 4 inductors, 3 transformers, a crystal, a meter movement, a switch , a bulb, 3 jacks (for a tuning meter), a project box, a handle and and little hookup wire and solder. That's all it used to take to construct a home brew dual band (5- and 10-meters) amateur radio transmitter as featured in the February 1941 edition of QST. You can probably find all the parts at a Hamfest to make one today, but you will need to modify the 5-meter band circuit to current 6-meter band operation since there is no 5-meter band anymore (lost to VHF television)...

Snow, Sleet, Hail, & Freezing Rain Facts

Snow, Sleet, Hail, & Freezing Rain Facts - RF CafeAs we approach the snow season, this info might prove useful to you. When I was young, I loved snow for many reasons. Perhaps the biggest reason I loved snow was that it created the potential for getting a day off of school. Of course, sledding, building snow men, snowball fights, and just watching the snow fall were great pastimes, especially if done while enjoying a day off school. Unfortunately, where I grew up in Annapolis, Maryland, there was never enough snow for my liking. I recall vividly laying in bed on a school morning listening to the AM radio hoping to hear a report of a school closing. Usually, it would be raining at my house while the announcer would report that kids at schools in the northern and western counties would be off for the day. Only my parents were happy about that. Later in life, I still enjoy the snow...

The Radio Month News

The Radio Month News, August 1949 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeEach edition of Radio-Electronics magazine featured a couple pages of industry news entitled "The Radio Month." This August 1949 issue started out with a rather tragic items reporting on the death of Philco chairman John Ballantyne evidently while making a speech at his 13-year-old son's school commencement ceremony. It's hard to imagine the scenario. Also included was news of one of the first attempts in the country to impose training and licensing mandates on electronics repairmen. Illinois and New York led the effort. Fortunately, the attempted legislation did not succeed. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) marked it 15th year of existence as a federal bureaucracy after it replaced the former Federal Radio Commission (FRC) in 1934...

RF Cascade Workbook 2018

RF Cascade Workbook 2018 Is Available Now! - RF CafeRF Cascade Workbook 2018 is the next phase in the evolution of RF Cafe's long-running series, RF Cascade Workbook. Chances are you have never used a spreadsheet quite like this (click here for screen capture). It is a full-featured RF system cascade parameter and frequency planner that includes filters and mixers for a mere $45. Built in MS Excel, using RF Cascade Workbook 2018 is a cinch and the format is entirely customizable. It is significantly easier and faster than using a multi-thousand dollar simulator when a high level system analysis is all that is needed. An intro video takes you through the main features...

Many Thanks to Aegis Power Systems for Their Continued Support!

Aegis Power Systems - RF CafeAegis Power Systems is a leading supplier of AC-DC and DC-DC power supplies for custom and special applications. Aegis has been designing and building highly reliable custom power supplies since 1995. They offer a complete line of switch mode power supplies and power converters for a variety of markets including defense, industrial, aircraft, VME, and telecom. Supports military, aircraft, EV, telecom, and embedded computing applications. Design and manufacture of custom power supply solutions to meet each customer's exacting specifications. Please visit Aegis Power Systems today.

Tuesday the 12th

Radar Rockets

Radar Rockets, July 1946 Radio-Craft - RF CafeDuring World War II, Germany terrorized Europe with it rocket bombs, most notably the V−1 Buzz Bomb and the V−2 Rocket. The "V" prefix, BTW, stands for Vergeltungswaffe, translated as "vengeance weapon," or "retribution weapon." Both "vengeance" and "retribution" are really misnomers since it was Germany that was the aggressor in both WWI and WWII. The vengeance or retribution in Hitler's view was likely the punishment and restrictions imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles for its vicious and inhumane behavior before and during World War I. History shows they doubled down on it during World War II. But I digress. This 1946 article in Radio−Craft magazine proposes a scheme for a "radar rocket" system that could detect, acquire, and intercept an enemy rocket bomb in flight - a concept that was never really successful until the Patriot Missile...

Boosting Efficiency of On-Chip Frequency Combs

Boosting Efficiency of On-Chip Frequency Combs - HP"On the cover of the Pink Floyd album Dark Side of the Moon, a prism splits a ray of light into all the colors of the rainbow. This multicolored medley, which owes its emergence to the fact that light travels as a wave, is almost always hiding in plain sight; a prism simply reveals that it was there. For instance, sunlight is a mixture of many different colors of light, each bobbing up and down with their own characteristic frequency. But taken together the colors merge into a uniform yellowish glow. A prism, or something like it, can also undo this splitting, mixing a rainbow back into a single beam. Back in the late 1970s, scientists figured out how to generate many colors of light, evenly spaced in frequency, and mix them together - a creation that became known as a frequency comb because of the spiky way the frequencies..."

"Sweater Girls" Are Really in Demand at This Plant

"Sweater Girls" Are Really in Demand at This Plant, November 1944 Radio-Craft - RF Cafe"He no sooner gets alone with a sweater girl than he's trying to pull the wool over her eyes." That's a really old joke that only old guys like me remember. "Sweater Girl" was a term used to describe... how to properly put it... um, you know, the Dolly Parton types... those who have a good singing voice Winking Smiley - RF Cafe. While that is not the purpose of a sweater girl overtly used in this article from a 1944 edition of Radio-Craft, you can bet the authors intended the term as an eye-catcher. I thought you might need to be apprised of the origin of the term to appreciate the title. You're welcome...

Professional Societies and Community Groups

Engineering Your Career (Part 3): Professional Societies and Community Groups - RF CafeEngineering Your Career (Part 3): Professional Societies and Community Groups, compliments of the Machine Design website, is now available. Per Tricia Hatley: "Professional societies and community groups can help build networks of design professionals that help engineers stay technically relevant. Engineers who invest time and energy in professional associations and community groups will quickly find that those investments pay dividends in terms of building networks of engineers and design professionals and staying technically relevant. Both of these can be critical to an engineer’s career success. Investing in Your Profession and Community When you join a professional association or a community group, you've taken an important first step in boosting your career. But that membership likely won't pay dividends until you engage..."

Wireless World: Practical Hints and Tips

RF Cafe - March 9th 1932 Wireless World CoverI finally managed to get an early edition of The Wireless World magazine for a reasonable price on a eBay auction. Now I will be able to post a few of those articles from the UK to compliment those from some of the American magazines. This particular edition is from March 9th, 1932. My next target is to get a few from the World War II era which although it began on December 7, 1941 from America's perspective, it officially began on September 1, 1939 for Europe. Warning for the weak of heart - epochal words like "niggardly" and "parsimonious" are used herein, and therefore adult supervision should be employed if ignorance might cause an objection to at least one of the aforementioned...

Post Your Engineer & Technician Job Openings on RF Cafe for Free

Engineering Job Board - RF CafeRF Cafe's raison d'être is and always has been to provide useful, quality content for engineers, technicians, engineering managers, students, and hobbyists. Part of that mission is offering to post applicable job openings. HR department employees and/or managers of hiring companies are welcome to submit opportunities for posting at no charge. 3rd party recruiters and temp agencies are not included so as to assure a high quality of listings. Please read through the easy procedure to benefit from RF Cafe's high quality visitors...

Many Thanks to Berkeley Nucleonics for Continued Support!

Berkeley Nucleonics Corp - RF CafeBerkeley Nucleonics Corporation (BNC) is a leading manufacturer of precision electronic instrumentation for test, measurement, and nuclear research. Founded in 1963, BNC initially developed custom pulse generators. We became known for meeting the most stringent requirements for high precision and stability, and for producing instruments of unsurpassed reliability and performance. We continue to maintain a leadership position as a developer of custom pulse, signal, light, and function generators. Our designs incorporate the latest innovations in software and hardware engineering, surface mount production, and automated testing procedures.

Monday the 11th

G2 Geomagnetic Storm Alert - October 11, 2021

Geomagnetic Storm October 11, 2021 - RF CafeG2 Geomarnetic Storm - RF Cafe"A massive solar flare is due to hit Earth today, authorities are warning - potentially disrupting power grids and bringing the Northern Lights as far south as New York. The flare - officially known as a coronal mass ejection (CME) - was observed on Saturday on the side of the sun directly facing our planet and comes as we enter a period of increased solar activity. An alert was published by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) which warned the geomagnetic storm could cause power grid fluctuations with voltage alarms at higher latitudes, where the Earth is more exposed."

Crosley Fiver Chassis "Chairside" Model 567 Radio

Crosley Fiver Chassis "Chairside" Model 567 Radio Service Data Sheet, January 1938 Radio-Craft - RF CafeThe Crosley Model 567 "Chairside" chassis was an out-of-the-box concept in the day when nearly all radios were of the familiar tabletop or floor console variety. At least for now, I am going to only scan and post Radio Service Data Sheets like this one featuring the Crosley Fiver Chassis "Chairside" Model 567 radio in graphical format, rather than run OCR on them to separate the textual content. There are still many people who restore and service these vintage radios, and often it can be difficult or impossible to find schematics and/or tuning information. I will keep a running list of all data sheets to facilitate a search...

Directional Electrical Properties in Carbon Fibres

Directional Electrical Properties in Carbon Fibres - RF Cafe"The electrical properties of a carbon fibre are very different when measured across its width or along its length, according to a new study by Satoshi Matsuo and Nancy Sottos at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the US. Using a technique designed to probe the electrical resistivity of 2D materials, the duo has showed for the first time that fibres are significantly less conductive in the transverse direction. When carbon fibres are woven into interlocking sheets, the composite materials they produce can display a unique variety of electrical properties, with applications including electromagnetic shielding; sensing for structural damage in buildings; and protection against lightning strikes. To tailor these composites for specific uses, it is important to have accurate models of their electrical behaviours..."

Lies, Damn Lies, and Lethal Statistics

Lies, Damn Lies, and Lethal Statistics - RF CafeRegarding the testing of autonomous vehicles in public roadways, Colin Barnden in an EE Times website article emphatically states: "I loathe statistical averages because they are misleading. ...what really makes me furious is hearing AV executives spouting the '94 percent human error' garbage. I am clearly not alone in my concerns about the AV industry demonstrating a loose relationship with hard facts. Writing on Twitter on October 4, Jennifer Homendy, Chair of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) wrote: 'Stop with the 94%!' followed by a link to a blog piece entitled 'The 94% Error: We Need to Understand the True Cause of Crashes.' Dissemination of the dodgy statistic is common and was even spoken by..."

The Transistor - A Picture Report of Progress

The Transistor Bell - Telephone Laboratories, June 1952 Radio & Television News - RF CafeIt was just before Christmas in 1948 that Bell Telephone Laboratories announced the invention of the transistor by Messrs. Bardeen, Shockley, and Brattain. Though constructed of a slab of germanium and a flimsy point contact of wire, it represented for the first time the use of a semiconductor which exhibited signal gain. The technical gauntlet had been thrown down for manufacturers worldwide to develop improved versions with higher gain, wider operating frequency, greater current and voltage handling, more robustness and higher power handling, while shrinking the physical size of bare die and packaging, and lowering costs... and doing it all without infringing on the blitzkrieg of patents being filed in scores of countries. This self-promotion in a 1952 issue of Radio & Television News magazine...

Promote Your Company on RF Cafe

Sponsor RF Cafe for as Little as $40 per Month - RF CafeNew Scheme rotates all Banners in all locations on the page! RF Cafe typically receives 8,000-15,000 website visits each weekday. RF Cafe is a favorite of engineers, technicians, hobbyists, and students all over the world. With more than 16,000 pages in the Google search index, RF Cafe returns in favorable positions on many types of key searches, both for text and images. New content is added on a daily basis, which keeps the major search engines interested enough to spider it multiple times each day. Items added on the homepage often can be found in a Google search within a few hours of being posted. I also re-broadcast homepage items on LinkedIn. If you need your company news to be seen, RF Cafe is the place to be.

Many Thanks to Amplifier Solutions Corporation (ASC) for Continuing Support!

Amplifier Solutions Corporation (ASC) - RF Cafe ASC designs and manufactures hybrid, surface mount flange, open carrier and connectorized amplifiers for low, medium and high power applications using gallium nitride (GaN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and silicon (Si) transistor technologies. ASC's thick film designs operate in the frequency range of 300 kHz to 6 GHz. ASC offers thin film designs that operate up to 20 GHz.

Sunday the 10th

Lebanon's Electric Grid Collapses

Lebanon's Electric Grid Collapses - RF CafeComing to a country near you? "Lebanon's electricity network collapsed on Saturday after the two most important power stations ran out of fuel, leaving private generators as the only source of power. The state-owned electricity company has been providing citizens with just a few hours of power a day for months, but the total collapse of the national grid will compound the misery of those who can’t afford to run generators and had relied on those few hours. The outage marks the latest milestone in the unraveling of Lebanon, which is undergoing what the World Bank has described as one of the world’s three biggest financial collapses of the past 150 years..."

Please Thank Werbel Microwave for Continued Support!

Werbel MicrowaveWerbel Microwave is a manufacturer of RF directional and bidirectional couplers (6 dB to 30 dB) and RF power dividers / combiners (2- to 16-way) with select models operating up to 18 GHz and 100 W of CW power (3 kW peak). All are RoHS and REACH compliant and are designed and manufactured in our Whippany, NJ, location. Custom products and private label service available. Please take a couple minutes to visit their website and see how Werbel Microwave can help you today.

Technical Theme Crossword Puzzle for October 10th

Technical Theme Crossword Puzzle for October 10th, 2021 - RF CafeThis Technical Themed Crossword Puzzle for October 10th has many words and clues related to... you guessed it... engineering - including RF, microwave, optics, mathematics, chemistry, physics, and other technical subjects. As always, this crossword puzzle contains no names of politicians, mountain ranges, exotic foods or plants, movie stars, or anything of the sort unless it/he/she is related to this puzzle's technology theme (e.g., Hedy Lamarr or the Bikini Atoll). The technically inclined cruciverbalists amongst us will appreciate the effort. Enjoy!

Friday the 8th

Electronics-Themed Comics: Radio Term Illustrated

Electronics-Themed Comics: Radio Term Illustrated Technical Term Illustrated, March and June 1946, Radio-Craft - RF CafeThese "Radio Term Illustrated" and "Technical Term Illustrated" electronics-themed comics are amongst the best I can remember seeing. They appeared in two 1946 issues of Radio−Craft magazine. For the uninitiated, WAVES is an acronym for Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service. They were a World War II phenomenon established on July 30, 1942, half a year after the Pearl Harbor attack. Their Navy Reserve status granted both commissioned officers and enlisted women official service duty status for the duration of the war and entitled them to the privileges (and in some case dangers) that came with it. As with women occupying manufacturing and even airplane ferrying jobs previous dominated by men, WAVES freed up men to go fight the war. The artist, Frank Beaven (FB), solicited suggestions from readers and then turned them into a sort of double entendre form of comics...

The Mother of All Filter Software - FREE

Iowa Hills Software Logo - RF CafeFree Filter Design Software (Iowa Hills) - RF CafeÜber RF/microwave engineer and Ham radio aficionado Cornell D. sent me an e-mail about a website called Iowa Hills Software. Per the site's tag line, "The analog and digital filter design programs on this site are FREE. This web site, and the programs on it, are a retired RF engineer's winter time hobby." If your primary interest is in calculating theoretical values for filters and not being able to simulate "real world" effects of component geometry and materials, packaging, and circuit boards, then it would be hard to find a more comprehensive program for investigating the potential for filter designs. However, the software goes beyond presenting only the canonical form (basic) of the circuits because, particularly for bandpass and bandstop filters, it is often difficult or impossible to realize with actual components. To wit: "The canonical form, or simplest form, is described in most textbooks, but is almost useless in practice..."

Spin-Orbit-Torque Tackles MRAM Constraints

Spin-Orbit-Torque Tackles MRAM Constraints - RF Cafe"The next generation of embedded MRAM (magneto-resistive RAM) may boil down to changing the order of ingredients in the recipe. Spin-orbit-torque (SOT) MRAM addresses the 'trilemma' that Spin-transfer torque (STT) MRAM currently faces, said Antaios CEO Jean-Pierre Nozières in an interview with EE Times. The significant voltage across the device tunnel oxide that's required for writing means there is a continual tradeoff between data retention, write endurance, and write speed. That means even though it's reached near maturity, STT MRAM is still constrained when it comes to meeting the demands of high-speed RAM applications that require a combination of high speed and infinite endurance, along with acceptable data retention..."

Choose the Best Chamber for Your Next Project

Axiom Test Equipment Temperature and Humidity Chambers and Systems - RF CafeAxiom Test Equipment, an electronic test equipment rental and sales company has published a new blog entitled "Choose the Best Chamber for Your Next Project" that informs people about the use of environmental chambers for many testing applications. Temperature and humidity environmental test chambers are able to provide rapid product temperature change rates and use varying levels of relative humidity to locate design problems prior to shipping your products, improving product quality and reliability. Axiom stocks models for sale or lease from a number of leading manufacturers, such as Temptronic, Tenney, Thermonics, and Test Equity. We have small benchtop size chambers up to larger reach-in chambers...

Push-Pull Class B Transistor Power-Output Circuits

Push-Pull Class B Transistor Power-Output Circuits, November 1960 Electronics World - RF CafeThe fundamentals of Class-B push-pull amplifiers have not changed since 1960 when this article appeared in Electronics World magazine. The transistors for making them have improved in most cases, but the design procedures are basically the same. Class-B amplifiers, in case you are not familiar with the topology, are able to amplify zero-referenced sinusoidal signals throughout the full 360 degrees of rotation signals without an offset voltage bias; they are constructed from two Class-A amplifiers in a cascode configuration. Issues like crossover distortion and thermal runaway are discussed in the amplifier design procedure...

Many Thanks to LadyBug Technologies for Their Continued Support!

LadyBug Technologies RF Power Sensors - RF CafeLadyBug Technologies was founded in 2004 by two microwave engineers with a passion for quality microwave test instrumentation. Our employees offer many years experience in the design and manufacture of the worlds best vector network analyzers, spectrum analyzers, power meters and associated components. The management team has additional experience in optical power testing, military radar and a variety of programming environments including LabVIEW, VEE and other languages often used in programmatic systems. Extensive experience in a broad spectrum of demanding measurement applications. You can be assured that our Power Sensors are designed, built, tested and calibrated without compromise.

   

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RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while tying up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

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