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Homepage Archive - October 2021 (page 1)

See Page 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 of the October 2021 homepage archives.

Thursday the 7th

Can You Pay Yourself a Salary?

Can You Pay Yourself a Salary?, June 1952 Radio & Television News - RF CafeThose of you who have or have had a business where you employed workers can relate to this article which appeared in a 1952 issue of Radio & Television News magazine. Never having had that responsibility, I cannot relate directly. Small business owners I have known have told me about how their first responsibility is to pay employees before paying themselves, and no one who has never been in that position can truly relate to it. What I find interesting in these kinds of vintage articles is the cost of goods and services back in the day, with the help of the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Inflation Calculator. For instance $100 per week ($5,200/year) income back in 1952 is supposedly equivalent to $1,024 per week ($53,248/year), which really is pretty good. I don't know how generous fringe benefits were in 1952 compared to today...

Please Thank RF Superstore for Their Continued Support

RF Superstore coaxial cable, connectors, adapters - RF CafeRF Superstore launched in 2017, marking the return of Murray Pasternack, founder of Pasternack Enterprises, to the RF and microwave Industry. Pasternack fundamentally changed the way RF components were sold. Partner Jason Wright manages day-to-day operations, while working closely with Mr. Pasternack to develop RF Superstore into a world class RF and microwave component supplier. RF coaxial connectors & adapters, coaxial cable & cable assemblies, surge protectors, attenuators. Items added daily. Free shipping on orders over $25. We're leading the way again!

Carl & Jerry: Treachery of Judas

Carl & Jerry: Treachery of Judas, July 1961 Popular Electronics - RF Cafe"But nine times out of ten when you draw a blank in analytic geometry or calculus, you'll find that your trouble is caused by weakness in algebraic manipulation." That statement is not a major factor in the plot, but it does ring true in a familiar way. I remember noting that the guys who had trouble in calculus class usually did so because they were weak in basic algebra and trigonometry. An engineering calculus class moves at such a rapid pace, with many new concepts thrown at you every day, that you absolutely must not have to learn algebra and trig concurrently. My high school algebra skills were pathetic, so prior to taking my first calculus course I took not only an algebra course but also a precalculus course that taught trig identities, complex numbers, and logarithms...

Will Reversible Logic Save Moore's Law?

Will Reversible Logic Save Moore's Law? - RF Cafe"In this era of semiconductor technology, reversible computing plays a vital role in diminishing power dissipation and the increment of energy efficiency in building up processors or any kind of simple or complex digital logic circuits. Several research areas have been going on in the modern world which could improve in an existing or impressive manner energy efficiency. Moore's law states that as transistors were made smaller, they would become faster, cheaper, and more efficient. Because of this fact, the semiconductor industry is busy building smaller, more densely packed transistors for fabrication. But nowadays, some experts in industry and academia say that making the transistor size smaller will no longer yield the improvements it used to. The reason behind building chips with multiple cores is that smaller transistors..."

So You Want to Be a Ham

So You Want to Be a Ham, December 1954 Popular Electronics - RF CafeBeing able to pass a 5 words-per-minute (wpm) Morse code test at one time was a primary requirement for obtaining the lowest level amateur radio operator license - Novice Class - in addition to passing a written test. Many more people failed the code test than failed the written test. In fact, the code portion kept many aspiring amateur radio operators from ever even taking the test. It was a barrier which anyone worthy of the brotherhood must overcome. The intimidation factor was pretty significant. As time marched on and the ranks of amateur license holders was dwindling quickly, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1990 dropped the code requirement and created the Technician Class license that required only the passing of a 35-question true/false written test. Amateur license holders began increasing immediately. This story from the pre-no-code days describes the preparation...

New for 2021! RF & Electronics Symbols for Office™

RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols for Office™ r2 - RF CafeIt was a lot of work, but I finally finished a version of the "RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols" that works well with Microsoft Office™ programs Word™, Excel™, and Power Point™. This is an equivalent of the extensive set of amplifier, mixer, filter, switch, connector, waveguide, digital, analog, antenna, and other commonly used symbols for system block diagrams and schematics created for Visio™. Each of the 1,000 or so symbols was exported individually from Visio in the EMF file format, then imported into Word on a Drawing Canvas. The EMF format allows an image to be scaled up or down without becoming pixelated, so all the shapes can be resized in a document and still look good. The imported symbols can also be UnGrouped into their original constituent parts for editing. Check them out!

Many Thanks to Exodus Advanced Communications for Their Support

Exodus Advanced Communications - RF CafeExodus Advanced Communications is a multinational RF communication equipment and engineering service company serving both commercial and government entities and their affiliates worldwide. Power amplifiers ranging from 10 kHz to 51 GHz with various output power levels and noise figure ranges, we fully support custom designs and manufacturing requirements for both small and large volume levels. decades of combined experience in the RF field for numerous applications including military jamming, communications, radar, EMI/EMC and various commercial projects with all designing and manufacturing of our HPA, MPA, and LNA products in-house.

Wednesday the 6th

Manpower Problems - Today and Tomorrow

For the Record: Manpower Problems - Today and Tomorrow, June 1952 Radio & Television News - RF CafeOliver Read started as the editor of Radio & Television News magazine, and then stayed with it during its transformation in 1954 to Popular Electronics. He was an electronics industry veteran and witnessed many changes to manufacturing and service sectors through times of war and times of peace. The post Korean War era saw a huge increase in demand for both televisions and radios, and accompanying it was a severe shortage of qualified service technicians. Compounding the issue was the FCC's removal of the freeze on construction of new broadcasting stations, which was peppering the landscape with towers and broadening reception areas. Just about anyone could handle the sales end of the business, but keeping customers happy took people willing to suffer the initial and constant need to become familiar with a multitude of new and old models, and that were also able to cope with often testy clients. Salesmen just blamed...

Test Instruments: The Tube Tester  

Test Instruments: The Tube Tester, August 1960 Popular Electronics - RF CafeLike a fool, many years ago I donated a perfectly fine vacuum tube tester that had been given to me by an über-engineer/ham I worked with during the time (nearly 35 years ago) I was restoring my first vintage tube radio. Big mistake. It was a really nice tester: a B&K Model 650 Dyna-Quik Dynamic Mutual Conductance Tube & Transistor Tester. It was sold shortly after I had also given away as a wedding gift the Crosley floor console radio that I restored. Another bad move. Now, many moons later, I am working to restore yet another Crosley tube radio and I sure wish I had held on to it. Similar tube testers are routinely selling on eBay for $100-$200. I finally found a really nice B&K Model 650 on eBay and got it for a decent price. Mistake corrected...

Engineering Your Career (Part 2): Licensing

Engineering Your Career (Part 2): Licensing - RF Cafe"An important step in an engineer's career is obtaining a professional engineering license. The license, and the PE after your name, sets you apart from others and tells the public you have the education, experience and qualifications to solve their engineering problems. To understand the value of a PE license in relation to an individual career, here's a look at the history of licensure in the U.S., the value of the PE and challenges to the current licensing system. History It is common to see professions and occupations regulated through a licensure system, but it wasn't always so. As late as the early 1900s, anyone could practice engineering, and this put public safety at risk..."

EMC Directory - Easy to Find EMC Testing Products

EMC Directory Makes it Easy to Find Products Required for EMC Testing - RF CafeEMC Directory, the largest directory of EMC / EMI Testing companies, has introduced the largest online product database of equipment for EMC Testing. Products have been added in more than 25 categories that include EMC Power Amplifiers, EMC Antennas, Immunity Test Systems, E-Field Generators and more. The addition of EMC Equipment categories to EMC Directory makes it easier for engineers to find products across multiple manufacturers in a single place. Users can search for products from multiple manufacturers using parametric search tools – narrowing down products based on frequency band, features, form factor...

Energy Crisis: China's Factories in Shock Slowdown

Energy Crisis: China's Factories in Shock Slowdown - RF CafeChina's largely coal-powered electric generation system is being strained to the extent that severe slowdowns in manufacturing are being reported - in extreme cases causing 1-day workweeks. "Output, orders and employment all fell in September, according to official data, as Beijing turns to Russia to ease its electricity shortages," reports The Guardian. CNN's report claims, "Factories in China are struggling at a time when the world's second largest economy has to contend with yet another concern: a growing power supply crunch." Part of the cause is a backup of cargo ships sitting off the U.S. coast awaiting docking and offloading. Is this strategic planning or just poor logistics?

Station Design for DX - Propagation Quirks & Operating Tips

Station Design for DX (Part IV), December 1966 QST - RF CafeIn 1966, Paul Rockwell wrote a 4-part series for the ARRL's QST magazine on station design for long distance communications (DX) that covered antenna selection and siting (Part I), economics and construction (Part II), Station Configuration and Receiver Topics (Part III), and Propagation Quirks and Operating Tips (Part IV). This the the forth and final installment. One of the handy-dandy items shown is a Geochron Map-Clock which had a template of the familiar day-night analemma-based curve superimposed on the projection map of the earth. It was quite a deal in its day, and believe it or not, the company is still in business offering software-based Map-Clocks and restoring models all the way back to when they first came out in 1965 (only a year before it appeared here). Of course if you have the $$$, you can buy vintage Geochrons on eBay...

Raul Midón, AE3RM, Ham Radio Operator - Morse Code in Songs

Raul Midón, AE3RM, Amateur Radio Operator & Morse Code in Songs - RF CafeRaul Midón "A World Within a World" - RF CafeA couple years ago I wrote an article about instances of Morse code in popular songs, featuring among others "Western Union," by The Five Americans. The October 2021 issue of ARRL's QST magazine has an article on blind jazz musician and amateur radio enthusiast Raul Midón, AE3RM. He has worked Morse code messages into some of his works, and even has an entire song, "Bottom Cycle Blues," devoted to Ham radio. A Morse code message played on the guitar closes out the composition. Reportedly, "Sittin' in the Middle," "Peace on Earth," and "I Can See for Miles" also include Morse code. Raul takes his portable radio gear with him while touring in order to keep touch with fellow operators.

Post Your Engineer & Technician Job Openings on RF Cafe for Free

/jobs.htm" target="_top"> Engineering Job Board - RF CafeRF Cafe's raison d'être is and always has been to provide useful, quality content for engineers, technicians, engineering managers, students, and hobbyists. Part of that mission is offering to post applicable /jobs.htm" target="_top">job openings. HR department employees and/or managers of hiring companies are welcome to submit opportunities for posting at no charge. 3rd party recruiters and temp agencies are not included so as to assure a high quality of listings. Please read through the easy procedure to benefit from RF Cafe's high quality visitors...

Thanks to PCB Directory for Continued Support!

PCB  Directory - RF CafePCB Directory is the largest directory of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Manufacturers, Assembly houses, and Design Services on the Internet. We have listed the leading printed circuit board manufacturers around the world and made them searchable by their capabilities - Number of laminates used, Board thicknesses supported, Number of layers supported, Types of substrates (FR-4, Rogers, flexible, rigid), Geographical location (U.S., China), kinds of services (manufacturing, fabrication, assembly, prototype), and more. Fast turn-around on quotations for PCB fabrication and assembly.

Tuesday the 5th

Bell Telephone Labs - Find New Ways to Use the Phone

Bell Telephone Laboratories Promo, August 1949 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeAmerica's interstate highway system and telephone system are often named as two of the most important factors in building an economy that reigned over the rest of the world. Together, they constituted a monumental logistical synergy that enables planning and implementing coast-to-coast transportation of goods and services that could exploit local concentrations of talent and resources and have the capability of distributing it across the country and around the world quickly and cheaply. Bell Telephone Laboratories (Labs) ran many advertisements in print, on radio, and on television pitching the major role it played in the big scheme of things. One statement in this promo appearing in a 1949 issue of Radio-Electronics magazine encourages telephone users to discover new ways to utilize the equipment. Facsimile (fax) was already in a primarily experimental mode, but shortly thereafter it became a fundamental way of exchanging data...

Revolutionary New Oscillator-Amplifier

Revolutionary New Oscillator-Amplifier, June 1955 Radio Electronics - RF CafeWhen I read about Du Mont's Iconumerator, the first thing that came to mind was the video of the Rockwell Retro Encabulator and General Electric's Turboencabulator. As it turns out, the Du Mont device is real. This article from a 1955 issue of Radio Electronics discusses a new type of oscillator-amplifier that works on the principle of microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (maser). It used ammonia as a masing medium. Masers were quickly applied to commercial broadcast systems, to military communications systems, and in laboratories. The state of the art has of course advanced far beyond the relatively crude apparatus shown here, but it is always good to have a working knowledge of the technology's history...

Solid-State Battery Created

Solid-State Battery Created - RF Cafe"Engineers created a new type of battery that weaves two promising battery sub-fields into a single battery. The battery uses both a solid state electrolyte and an all-silicon anode, making it a silicon all-solid-state battery. The initial rounds of tests show that the new battery is safe, long lasting, and energy dense. It holds promise for a wide range of applications from grid storage to electric vehicles. The battery technology is described in the 24 September, 2021 issue of the journal Science. University of California San Diego nanoengineers led the research, in collaboration with researchers at LG Energy Solution..."

Space ... the Final Frontier

Capt. James T. Kirt to Fly into Space on Blue Origin - RF CafeAt long last Captain James Tiberius Kirk will boldly go to "the final frontier." On October 12th, William Shatner rides aboard Blue Origin's New Shepard NS-18 rocket ship for a suborbital flight. At 90 years old, he will be the world's oldest astronaut. "Fascinating," as Mr. Spock might say. NS-18 is no starship Enterprise, but it will cross the "Kármán Line" which officially marks the FAI's boundary between inner and outer space 100 km above the Earth. It will be a 10 minute mission as opposed to 5 years. While never formally a Trekkie, I did (and still do via DVD) like watching Star Trek and appreciate the good captain's trademark character of bravery with a penchant for making humane and selfless decisions, all the while retaining good humor and compassion. Live long and prosper, Capt. Kirk.

Engineering Your Career: Challenges Facing the Profession

Engineering Your Career: Challenges Facing the Profession - RF Cafe"Engineering entails solving societies' real-world problems using machines, systems, materials and processes. There are many different engineering disciplines and diverse specializations, but all involve solving problems for people and therefore they all inherently affect society. This means licensed professional engineers are ethically obliged to hold paramount the health, safety and welfare of the public. Although our country and the world looked different in 1946 when the National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) endorsed its first code of ethics, engineers' obligation to the public has become more important than ever as the infrastructure and technology around us become ever more complex. As the world rapidly changes, the problem-solving skills that are foundational to engineering are needed now more than ever. Here are just a few trends that may alter our profession..."

1st Mercury Photos from BepiColombo Probe

1st Mercury Photos from BepiColombo Probe - Airplanes and RocketsTwo spacecraft built by Europe and Japan captured their first up-close look at the planet Mercury in a weekend flyby, revealing a rocky world covered with craters. The two linked probes, known together as BepiColombo, snapped their first image of Mercury late Friday (Oct. 1) during a flyby that sent them zooming around the planet. The encounter marked the first of six Mercury flybys for BepiColombo, a joint effort by the space agencies of Europe and Japan, to slow itself enough to enter orbit around the planet in 2025. BepiColombo took its first official photo of Mercury at 7:44 p.m. EDT (2344 GMT) with its Mercury Transfer Module Monitoring Camera 2, a black-and-white navigation camera, as the probe was about 1,502 miles (2,418 kilometers) away from the planet...

New for 2021! RF & Electronics Stencils for Visio

RF & Electronics stencils for Visio r4 - RF CafeWith more than 1000 custom-built stencils, this has got to be the most comprehensive set of Visio Stencils available for RF, analog, and digital system and schematic drawings! Every object has been built to fit proportionally on the provided A-, B- and C-size drawing page templates (or can use your own). Stencils are provided for equipment racks and test equipment, system block diagrams, conceptual drawings, and schematics. Unlike previous versions, these are NOT Stencils, but instead are all contained on tabbed pages within a single Visio document. That puts everything in front of you in its full glory. Just copy and paste what you need on your drawing. The file format is XML so everything plays nicely with Visio 2013 and later...

Many Thanks to Withwave for Continued Support!

Withwave RF & Microwave Components - RF CafeWithwave manufactures an extensive line of metrology quality coaxial test cable assemblies, connectors (wave-, end-, vertical-launch, board edge, panel mount), calibration kits (SOLT), a fully automated 4-port vector network analyzer (VNA) calibrator, between- and in-series connector adaptors, attenuators, terminations, DC blocks, torque wrenches, test probes & probe positioner. Special test fixtures for calibration and multicoax cable assemblies. Frequency ranges from DC through 110 GHz. Please contact Withwave today to see how they can help your project succeed.

Monday the 4th

Microwaves Part IV - Waveguide

Microwaves Part IV - Waveguide, August 1949 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeA well-planned and installed waveguide system is always impressive. With enough switches, couplers, transitions, adapters, and various and sundry other accoutrements, the result can be downright artistic in appearance. Although usually the most costly form of electromagnetic wave transmission, it has the decided advantage of having by far the lowest path loss and highest isolation of any of the other forms of transmission - over the air, coaxial cable, twin lead, etc. This, Part IV of an VIII-part series on microwaves by author C.W. Palmer, appeared in the August 1949 issue of Radio-Electronics magazine. He discusses E- and H-planes, inductive and capacitive "windows," tuning screws, proper joining of waveguide sections, and more...

Moiré Superlattice Makes Magic-Angle Laser

Moiré Superlattice Makes Magic-Angle Laser - RF Cafe"A team of researchers from Peking University in China has fabricated an optical analogue of 'magic-angle' graphene bilayers in a photonic nanocrystal. They have used the structure to create a completely new type of highly-efficient nanolaser. Graphene is a flat crystal of carbon just one atom thick. When two such sheets are placed on top of each other with a small angle misalignment, they form a Moiré superlattice. At a twist angle of 1.08°, the material becomes highly correlated and begins to show properties such as superconductivity at low temperatures. At this so-called magic angle, the way in which electrons move in the two coupled sheets changes because they are now forced to organize themselves at the same energy..."

What Are Quantum Bits and Why Do They Matter?

What Are Quantum Bits and Why Do They Matter? - RF Cafe"Quantum bits or qubits are a prerequisite for quantum computing. But why? John Blyler | Sep 28, 2021 To use quantum computers on a large scale, the qubit technology the drives them must be improved. Qubits are the quantum version of conventional computer bits. Increasing the number of available qubits leads to more powerful and accessible quantum computers. What Is a Qubit? A qubit (or quantum bit) is the quantum-mechanical analog of a classical computer bit. In classical computing, information is encoded in bits, where each bit can have the value zero or one. Similarly, in quantum computing, the information is encoded in qubits, a two-level quantum system where the two qubit states are written as |0> and |1>. However, qubits (unlike a classical bit) can also occupy a linear combination of both states. This is known as superposition..."

Antenova Intros Allani Antenna for Compact 4G/5G Designs

Antenova Intros Intros Its Allani Antenna for Compact 4G/5G Designs - RF CafeAntenova introduces its Allani high performing antenna for compact 4G/5G designs with high speed data or video Antenova Ltd, the UK-based manufacturer of antennas and RF antenna modules for M2M and the IoT, is announcing "Allani," part no SR4L069 - a compact SMD antenna for the 4G and 5G cellular bands. This new antenna measures just 45.0 mm x 10.0 mm x 3.3 mm. It achieves good efficiency with a short ground plane, making it a good choice for designs with relatively little space on the PCB for the antenna. The Allani antenna only requires clearances of 3.25 mm beneath the antenna and 15 mm from each side to perform well in the sub 1 GHz bands...

A Yell from an XYL

A Yell from an XYL, June 1963 Popular Electronics - RF CafeMost amateur operators know that "YL" is Hamese for "young lady," meaning a female operator. Less well known these days is "XYL" which decades ago, referred to an ex-young lady, implying either an older woman or the wife of a Ham. According to the FCC's Universal Licensing System (ULS) online call sign lookup service, Popular Electronics' poet laureate K8AOU call sign is no longer assigned to anyone, so it's up for grabs. If there is a YL out there wanting a notable call sign, this might be worthy of your consideration. When I first posted this article in 2014 (it has been colorized and updated), the call sign had been assigned to an OM ("old man;" i.e., male operator)...

Promote Your Company on RF Cafe

Sponsor RF Cafe for as Little as $40 per Month - RF CafeNew Scheme rotates all Banners in all locations on the page! RF Cafe typically receives 8,000-15,000 website visits each weekday. RF Cafe is a favorite of engineers, technicians, hobbyists, and students all over the world. With more than 16,000 pages in the Google search index, RF Cafe returns in favorable positions on many types of key searches, both for text and images. New content is added on a daily basis, which keeps the major search engines interested enough to spider it multiple times each day. Items added on the homepage often can be found in a Google search within a few hours of being posted. I also re-broadcast homepage items on LinkedIn. If you need your company news to be seen, RF Cafe is the place to be.

Many Thanks to Anatech Electronics for Long-Time Support!

Anatech Electronics logo - RF CafeAnatech Electronics (AEI) manufactures and supplies RF and microwave filters for military and commercial communication systems, providing standard LP, HP, BP, BS, notch, diplexer, and custom RF filters, and RF products. Standard RF filter and cable assembly products are published in our website database for ease of procurement. Custom RF filters designs are used when a standard cannot be found, or the requirements dictate a custom approach for your military and commercial communications needs. Sam Benzacar's monthly newsletters address contemporary wireless subjects. Please visit Anatech today to see how they can help your project succeed. 

Sunday the 3rd

Engineering Theme Crossword Puzzle for October 3rd

Engineering Theme Crossword Puzzle for October 3rd, 2021 - RF CafeThis Engineering-Theme Crossword Puzzle for October 3rd has many words and clues related to... you guessed it... engineering - including RF, microwave, optics, mathematics, chemistry, physics, and other technical subjects. As always, this crossword puzzle contains no names of politicians, mountain ranges, exotic foods or plants, movie stars, or anything of the sort unless it/he/she is related to this puzzle's technology theme (e.g., Hedy Lamarr or the Bikini Atoll). The technically inclined cruciverbalists amongst us will appreciate the effort. Enjoy!

Thanks to Copper Mountain Technologies for Continued Support

Copper Mountain TechnologiesCopper Mountain Technologies develops innovative and robust RF test and measurement solutions for engineers all over the world. Copper Mountain's extensive line of unique form factor Vector Network Analyzers include an RF measurement module and a software application which runs on any Windows PC, laptop or tablet, connecting to the measurement hardware via USB interface. The result is a lower cost, faster, more effective test process that fits into the modern workspace in lab, production, field and secure testing environments.

Friday the 1st

A PCB Manufacturing Checklist

A PCB Manufacturing Checklist by San Francisco Circuits - RF CafeSan Francisco Circuits' (SFC) specialty is in the complex, advanced technology of PCB fabrication and assembly, producing high quality multi-layered PCBs from elaborate layouts. Our "Seamless PCB Manufacturing Checklist" will help minimize mistakes as much as possible in all stages of bareboard PCB manufacturing and provide a good starting point for some of the essentials needed in the majority of PCB manufacturing quotes. San Francisco Circuits has put together a new PCB manufacturing checklist resource on their website. When planning the fabrication of a printed circuit board (PCB), a lot of things have to be planned carefully to minimize mistakes. If one step or consideration is overlooked in the manufacturing process, it may have disastrous consequences resulting in a malfunctioning board. The overall goal of the seamless PCB manufacturing checklist is to help ensure every part of the circuit board is considered and potential mistakes...

Advanced Signal Processing Technology to SFF Platforms

Advanced Signal Processing Technology to Rugged SFF Platforms - RF Cafe"The latest data acquisition and signal processing devices are critical for capturing and manipulating wideband sensor signals for real-time radar, electronic countermeasures, EW, and SIGINT systems. These include new data converter technology and advanced FPGA designs, including the RFSoC (radio frequency system-on-chip). To maintain strategic superiority for military and aerospace platforms, embedded systems must constantly evolve to embrace the latest technologies, counter new threats, and deal with new constraints. To meet these objectives, systems engineers must exploit new architectures that deliver effective solutions..."

The Litz Wire Website

Litz Wire Website by New England Wire - RF CafeThere's a website for every topic nowadays. Having a domain name that is the same as the primary content is a definite advantage from a Search Engine Optimization (SEO) perspective. For anyone looking for information on Litz wire, the eponymously name website is a good first stop. BTW, my linking to litzwire.com on the text "litz wire" is absolutely the best possible scenario for SEO. New England Wire Technologies hosts the site. Per them, "In 1898, New England Wire Technologies became the first company in the United States to manufacture litz wire on a commercial basis." As you might expect, they are authorities on Litz wire. What is Litz wire and where is it used? Litz wire is a twisted multi-strand set of insulated conductors used in high frequency applications (coils, wound AM antennas, transformers, baluns, etc.) because of its properties of mitigation of skin and proximity effect, minimization of eddy current losses, lower operating temperatures, and other benefits over solid single-conductor wires...

Cross-Number Puzzle

Cross-Number Puzzle, April 1959 Popular Electronics - RF CafeHere is a rather unique type of crossword puzzle that uses numbers rather than words. It appeared in the April 1959 edition of Popular Electronics magazine. The software that I use to create the RF Cafe crossword puzzles each week has the ability to create such a puzzle, but I have never made one because it would take a lot of time to build a clue / answer file to be drawn upon for input. My custom word-based database has been built up to thousands of technical, science, and engineering terms and clues. Maybe some day I'll do it, though...

AMP2085E-LC, 2.0–8.0 GHz TWT Replacement!

AMP2085E-LC, 2.0–8.0 GHz, 400 W, an Outstanding TWT Replacement!  - RF CafeExodus Advanced Communications introduces the AMP2085E-LC, a rugged quiet broadband class A/AB design for all industry applications. Frequency 2.0-8.0 GHz, 400W minimum, 500 W typical, 57 dB gain, unprecedented performance. The AMP2085E-LC makes an outstanding TWT replacement high power amplifier. Excellent power/gain flatness as compared to other amplifiers. Forward/Reflected power monitoring, VSWR, voltage / current / temperature sensing for superb reliability and ruggedness. The nominal weight is 55 kg in a compact 7U chassis 12.25" H x 19" W x 27" D...

Promote Your Company on RF Cafe

Sponsor RF Cafe for as Little as $40 per Month - RF CafeNew Scheme rotates all Banners in all locations on the page! RF Cafe typically receives 8,000-15,000 website visits each weekday. RF Cafe is a favorite of engineers, technicians, hobbyists, and students all over the world. With more than 16,000 pages in the Google search index, RF Cafe returns in favorable positions on many types of key searches, both for text and images. New content is added on a daily basis, which keeps the major search engines interested enough to spider it multiple times each day. Items added on the homepage often can be found in a Google search within a few hours of being posted. I also re-broadcast homepage items on LinkedIn. If you need your company news to be seen, RF Cafe is the place to be.

Thanks to PCB Directory for Continued Support!

PCB  Directory - RF CafePCB Directory is the largest directory of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Manufacturers, Assembly houses, and Design Services on the Internet. We have listed the leading printed circuit board manufacturers around the world and made them searchable by their capabilities - Number of laminates used, Board thicknesses supported, Number of layers supported, Types of substrates (FR-4, Rogers, flexible, rigid), Geographical location (U.S., China), kinds of services (manufacturing, fabrication, assembly, prototype), and more. Fast turn-around on quotations for PCB fabrication and assembly.


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