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About RF Cafe

Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe Webmaster

Copyright: 1996 - 2024

Webmaster:

    Kirt Blattenberger,

    BSEE - KB3UON

RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while tying up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.

My Hobby Website:

AirplanesAndRockets.com

Axiom Test Equipment - RF Cafe

Homepage Archive for January 2022 (Page #4) - RF Cafe (business name: Kirt Blattenberger)Homepage Archive - January 2022 (page 4)

See Page 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 of the January 2022 homepage archives.

Monday the 31st

Sunday the 30th

Friday the 28th

Thursday the 27th

Wednesday the 26th

Tuesday the 25th

Carl and Jerry: The Black Beast

Carl and Jerry: The Black Beast, May 1960 Popular Electronics - RF CafeBefore a plethora of readily available and affordable electronic and mechanical components of all sorts was at your fingertips (on a keyboard), often times project builders and repairmen either did without, substituted "close enough" parts, waited a long time for mail order, drove long distances to a supply house, or did like Carl and Jerry did in this May 1960 Popular Electronics magazine adventure - they modified on-hand equipment to suit the need. Replacing the center conductor of a length of RG-58 coaxial cable in order to change its capacitance (and impedance) might seem like an extreme measure to take, but half a century go it was de rigueur with hobbyist of all sorts. Magazines of the era nearly always had monthly hints, kinks, tip, and suggestions features, enthusiastically provided by readers who had already reaffirmed the old adage of necessity being the mother of invention. As is author John Frye's normal practice...

Thales & Airbus Perlan Glider Test Extreme Altitude Communications

Thales & Airbus Perlan Glider Test Extreme Altitude Communications - RF Cafe"Thales has partnered with the climate and aerospace research project Airbus Perlan Mission II, with plans to create the 'highest ever Wi-Fi hotspot.' Airbus Perlan Mission II Through the partnership, Thales will aim to fly its latest mobile satellite communications system, FlytLink, in a zero-emission glider to more than twice the altitude of a commercial airline flight. Based in Nevada, the Airbus Perlan Mission II team is planning for a possible return to flight this year in the US and El Calafate, Argentina. The group has already set aviation world altitude records in the Perlan 2 glider, which was designed, built and deployed to fly to 90,000ft. Launched in 2015, the Perlan 2 achieved its highest record-setting flight of above 76,000 in 2018. The organisation's mission is to conduct climate, atmospheric and aeronautical research at extreme high altitudes. Applications of its research include informing more accurate climate change models, innovating zero-emission aviation and demonstrating feasibility of using energy-efficient winged aircraft on Mars..."

Radio History and Growth

Radio History and Growth, September 1942 Radio Retailing Today - RF CafeDuring my daily technical headlines search, one of the websites I regularly visit is Radio Ink. As a lifelong fan of over-the-air broadcast radio (and TV), it is interesting to see what trends are playing themselves out. OTA (over the air) broadcasting is struggling to survive in this modern world of Podcasts and Internet streaming broadcasts; indeed, I do a lot of my radio listening via the Internet because the local stations don't provide what I want. The Big Media types are involved in a major lobbying effort to mandate FM radio receivers in all cellphones, which of course is a prime example of corporate chieftains using their financial might to pay off politicians for something that the rest of us will ultimately have to foot the bill for. Radio's early days faced no such dilemma. People the world over were excited about the advent of radio and eagerly awaited their favorite broadcasts each day...

RF Superstore Is Your Source for Bulk Coaxial Cable

RF Superstore Your Source for Bulk Coaxial Cable - RF CafeRF Superstore offers a wide selection of popular coaxial cable in bulk lengths at exceptional prices - order by the foot for any custom length needed for your project. RF coaxial connectors are available for terminations. RF Superstore also offers power couplers, attenuators, terminations, DC blocks, surge protectors, waveguide, and more. The launch of RF Superstore in 2017 marked the return of Murray Pasternack to the RF and Microwave Industry. As founder and CEO of Pasternack Enterprises from 1972 to 1992, Mr. Pasternack fundamentally changed the way RF components were sold throughout the industry. His signature catalog greatly simplified the ordering process and became the industry standard for RF component sales. We're leading the way again...

Test Tube for Sound: Bell Telephone Labs

Test Tube for Sound: Bell Telephone Labs, December 1947 Radio News - RF CafeSome people like to demean engineers and scientists for their propensity to want to conduct experiments and obtain measured, empirical data rather than "winging it" and being satisfied with intuitive knowledge or the contemporarily popular term "gut." If mankind had not adopted scientific methods and ventured beyond the so−called cradle of civilization on the African continent, we would all still be living in grass huts, hurling rocks at prey, and foraging for berries. Quantifying and categorizing all things in nature helps inventors create new and improved implements that help make life better. Early on it was mostly individuals like Archimedes, Euler, Newton, and Edison who built the pool of knowledge that fed and evolved into corporations, governments, and universities doing the vast majority of the work. Bell Laboratories is probably one of the most recognizable names for a group of people that collectively produced an immense amount of data and products...

RF & Electronics Stencils for Visio

RF & Electronics stencils for Visio r4 - RF CafeWith more than 1000 custom-built stencils, this has got to be the most comprehensive set of Visio Stencils available for RF, analog, and digital system and schematic drawings! Every stencil symbol has been built to fit proportionally on the included A-, B-, and C-size drawing page templates (or use your own page if preferred). Components are provided for system block diagrams, conceptual drawings, schematics, test equipment, racks (EIA 19", ETSI 21"), and more. Test equipment and racks are built at a 1:1 scale so that measurements can be made directly using Visio built-in dimensioning objects. Page templates are provided with a preset scale (changeable) for a good presentation that can incorporate all provided symbols...

Many Thanks to San Francisco Circuits for Continued Support!

San Francisco CircuitsSF Circuits' specialty is in the complex, advanced technology of PCB fabrication and assembly, producing high quality multi-layered PCBs from elaborate layouts. With them, you receive unparalleled technical expertise at competitive prices as well as the most progressive solutions available. Their customers request PCB production that is outside the capabilities of normal circuit board providers. Please take a moment to visit San Francisco Circuits today. "Printed Circuit Fabrication & Assembly with No Limit on Technology or Quantity."

Monday the 24th

R/C Triplex: 3 Controls on 1 Channel

R/C Triplex: Three Controls on One Channel, November 1956 Popular Electronics - RF CafeThis "R/C Triplex: Three Channels on One Channel" article that appeared in a 1956 issue of Popular Electronics magazine was written by a fellow who was well known in the aeromodeling world at the time - Claude McCullough. Claude won many titles in precision scale for both control line (C/L) and radio control (R/C). As was the case with many R/C modelers of the era, he did a lot of experimentation with transmitters, receivers, and electromechanical devices used to move control surfaces. Rubber-band-powered escapements dominated the field, but some servomechanisms were being developed to provide a means for proportional control and/or a more powerful means of multiposition control. As can be seen in the video I produced showing how a typical escapement worked, the output drove the airplane's rudder to either neutral, full left, or full right deflections, with no position in-between. To actuate the control, the R/C pilot pushed a button on the transmitter the number of times required to affect the desired control movement. That made for somewhat jerky flights, but it was a very popular setup...

Superpower Molecule Could Revolutionize Science

Superpower Molecule Could Revolutionize Science - RF Cafe"When scientists discovered DNA and learned how to control it, not only science but society was revolutionized. Today researchers and the medical industry routinely create artificial DNA structures for many purposes, including diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Now an international research team reports to have created a powerful supermolecule with the potential to further revolutionize science. The work is published in Nature Communications. The researchers describe their supermolecule as a marriage between DNA and peptides. DNA is one of the most important biomolecules, and so are peptides; peptide structures are used, among other things, to create artificial proteins and various nanostructures. 'If you combine these two, as we have, you get a very powerful molecular tool..."

Windfreak App Note: Testing RF Generators for Reliability

Windfreak App Note: Testing RF Generators for Reliability - RF CafeDavid Goins, founder of and chief engineer for Windfreak Technologies, has written a number of application notes pertaining to the specification and testing of RF and microwave frequency signal generators. Most of the articles include features and applications for Windfreak Technologies products, but the concepts are universally applicable. His latest, "Testing RF Generators for Reliability" is featured here. It begins: "We pride ourselves in designing, building, and selling high value radio frequency products that are thoroughly evaluated and tested. All of our products go through rigorous testing before releasing to our customers. Our devices have proven to be very reliable. In rare cases, we have had a product come back for repair caused by output amplifier failures. In this post, we explain the testing process we go through to ensure our high-quality products and the two reasons for output amplifier failures..."

The Semiconductor Diode

The Semiconductor Diode, May 1961 Popular Electronics - RF Cafe"What are these devices?" "How do they work?" "What are their characteristics?" "How are they used?" Those are the kinds of questions about semiconductor diodes posed - and answered - in this article in a 1961 issue of Popular Electronics. Author Jim Kyle runs through a short history of he diode and then delves with more detail into physical construction, I-V curves, power handling, junctions capacitance, resistance, etc. An interesting point mentioned is that while a semiconductor diode will conduct some finite amount of current when biased in the reverse direction (sometimes a desired characteristic), a vacuum tube diode will not conduct at all when reverse biased - thereby making the tube a more perfect rectifier...

Westinghouse "Columnaire" Radio Service Data Sheet

Westinghouse "Columnaire" Models WR-8 and WR-8-R (Remote Control) Radio Service Data Sheet, June 1931 Radio-Craft - RF CafeWestinghouse's motive for dubbing the Model WR−8 the "Columnaire" is apparent when you see a photograph of it. This model also had a −R version with remote control. The remote, though, has a cable attached to it; it's not wireless like today's remote controls. There are some very nice photos of a fully restored WR−8−R version on the AntiqueRadios.com website forum. Look about half-way down the page. Near the bottom of the page is a copy of an advertisement for the Westinghouse WR-8 with a price of $193 (~$3,563 in 2022 money per the BLS Inflation Calculator). The fundamental circuit of these receivers is the WRV5 receiver chassis and power pack shown in Data Sheet No. 29. The model WR-6 is a highboy; its circuit is the same as used in the WR−6, except as modified for tone control. The Model WR−7 is similar to the model WR−6, except as modified for an electric phonograph...

Radio Electromagnetic Spectrum Frequency Bands

Radio Electromagnetic Spectrum Frequency Bands - RF CafeIn response to my solicitation for information on the origin of band letter designations, a website visitor offered this: "I just looked at your web page that gives the names of the various RF bands, and, in one place asked for any information on origins of the names. I have some history on the band names that apply to UHF and above. In the early days of radar (during WWII), the British and the U.S. researchers at MIT chose, arbitrarily I believe, letter designations for radar frequencies. The frequencies that were then possible to use for radio communication were just called by their 'meter range' names: HF, VHF and UHF. The new frequencies that were then only used for deployable radar sets, and for new technology looking for even shorter wavelength radars, were given letter designations. So, in the 1940s and 1950s, radar sets were identified as being UHF, L-Band, S-Band, C-Band, X-Band and K-Band. Later they added Ku-Band - presumably for 'K Upper,' but I do not know..."

RF Cascade Workbook

RF Cascade Workbook - RF Cafe RF Cascade Workbook is the next phase in the evolution of RF Cafe's long-running series, RF Cascade Workbook. Chances are you have never used a spreadsheet quite like this (click here for screen capture). It is a full-featured RF system cascade parameter and frequency planner that includes filters and mixers for a mere $45. Built in MS Excel, using RF Cascade Workbook 2018 is a cinch and the format is entirely customizable. It is significantly easier and faster than using a multi-thousand dollar simulator when a high level system analysis is all that is needed. An intro video takes you through the main features...

Many Thanks for Alliance Test Equipment's Support!

Allied Test Equipment Products - RF CafeAlliance Test Equipment sells used / refurbished test equipment and offers short- and long-term rentals. They also offer repair, maintenance and calibration. Prices discounted up to 80% off list price. Agilent/HP, Tektronix, Anritsu, Fluke, R&S and other major brands. A global organization with ability to source hard to find equipment through our network of suppliers. Alliance Test will purchase your excess test equipment in large or small lots. Blog posts offer advice on application and use of a wide range of test equipment. Please visit Allied Test Equipment today to see how they can help your project.

Sunday the 23rd

Amateur Radio Theme Crossword Puzzle for January 23rd

Amateur Radio Theme Crossword Puzzle for January 23rd, 2022 - RF CafeThis January 23rd custom made crossword puzzle has an Amateur Radio theme, compliments of RF Cafe. All RF Cafe crossword puzzles are custom made by me, Kirt Blattenberger, and have only words and clues related to RF, microwave, and mm-wave engineering, optics, mathematics, chemistry, physics, and other technical subjects. As always, this crossword puzzle contains no names of politicians, mountain ranges, exotic foods or plants, movie stars, or anything of the sort unless it/he/she is related to this puzzle's technology theme (e.g., Reginald Denny or the Tunguska event in Siberia). The technically inclined cruciverbalists amongst us will appreciate the effort. Enjoy!

Google's White Spaces Spectrum Database

Google's White Spaces Spectrum Database - RF Cafe SmorgasbordThere are not many technical realms where Google engineers have not either entered or created. Wireless connectivity is key to their continued dominance in the information domain, so they understandably have a vested interest in the "white space" spectrum debate. White space comprises portions of the electromagnetic spectrum where bands are either unlicensed or where licensed bands are or will be up for grabs. An example of the former is the 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi band, and an example of the latter is some parts of the broadcast television band that is being vacated in areas. Although this information is a few years old, it shows how Google was working early−on with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to build a real-time database of what they term "dynamic spectrum" in order to provide useful information about available white space (now directs here) to both users and providers. A separate database is available for fixed and mobile spectrum. Enter your location of interest and the map zooms into that region. For instance, in my town (at the time) of Erie, Pennsylvania (see marker on map below), as of January 2013 when this was first posted there were 21 channels available...

Get Your Custom-Designed RF Cafe Gear!

Custom-Designed RF-Themed Cups, T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks (Cafe Press) - RF CafeThis assortment of custom-designed themes by RF Cafe includes T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks, Tote Bags, Coffee Mugs and Steins, Purses, Sweatshirts, and Baseball Caps. Choose from amazingly clever "We Are the World's Matchmakers" Smith chart design or the "Engineer's Troubleshooting Flow Chart." My "Matchmaker's" design has been ripped off by other people and used on their products, so please be sure to purchase only official RF Cafe gear. My markup is only a paltry 50¢ per item - Cafe Press gets the rest of your purchase price. These would make excellent gifts for husbands, wives, kids, significant others, and for handing out at company events or as rewards for excellent service. It's a great way to help support RF Cafe. Thanks...

Many Thanks to Reactel for Their Long-Time Support!

Reactel Filters - RF Cafe

Reactel has become one of the industry leaders in the design and manufacture of RF and microwave filters, diplexers, and sub-assemblies. They offer the generally known tubular, LC, cavity, and waveguide designs, as well as state of the art high performance suspended substrate models. Through a continuous process of research and development, they have established a full line of filters of filters of all types - lowpass, highpass, bandpass, bandstop, diplexer, and more. Established in 1979. Please contact Reactel today to see how they might help your project.

 
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Resistance Measurements

Resistance Measurements, January 1946 Radio News - RF CafeThe advent of FET-input multimeters greatly reduced reading accuracy errors due to not taking into account the impedance of devices being measured. A certain amount of familiarity with how to interpret the indication on a meter movement on analog meters is still required based on the multiplier switch position and scale selected, but for most users simply reading the number beneath the pointer - or interpolating its position between two numbers - is good enough. Mirrored scales take the some of guesswork out of that by reducing parallax issues. Finally, digital multimeters (DMMs) hit the scene and made slackers out of just about all of us when it comes to making voltage, current, and resistance measurements. With few exceptions, only production test, research, and metrology environments require pulling out the meter specifications to determine precision and accuracy numbers...

Hogarth in Echophone Radio Company Ad

Hogarth in Echophone Radio Company Ad, June 1945 Radio-Craft - RF CafeHogarth is a comic character invented by the Echophone Radio Company. Their bespectacled Army grunt was one of the first technology nerd types who always managed to appear with pretty girls. His caricature evolved quickly over the two or three year run of the advertisements in electronics magazine. Most Echophone Radio ads I have seen either feature Hogarth and his woman/women or Hogarth and a demanding sergeant. This full-page advertisement appeared in the June 1945 edition of Radio−Craft magazine. Echophone radios can still be found on eBay for fairly low prices - often less than the shipping cost...

FCC Cancellation Notice for Amateur Radio Station During WWII

FCC Cancellation Notice for Amateur Radio Station During WWII - RF Cafe SmorgasbordYou probably read a while back of the San Francisco's Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART - good acronym, as in Simpson) shutting down cellphone service in order to thwart a rumored attempt to organize a flash mob attack. 1st Amendment groups have sued BART over the action. Also in the news has been the government's plan for being able to shut down the Internet in the event of a national emergency (defined as whatever they need it to mean). We already know that Big Brother has the capability to universally control both wired and wireless phone service. OnStar-equipped vehicles have been shut down remotely by law enforcement. It all seems very Orwellian, but it began before the publication of "1984" (in 1949). Did George just dream up the book's theme of total government control and a lemming populace, or did it come from astute observations of past behavior that was projected into the future? On December 8, 1941, the day after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the FCC issued a "Notice to All Amateur Licensees" that began thusly: "All amateur licensees are hereby notified that the Commission has ordered the immediate suspension of all amateur radio operation in the continental United States...

Velocity Modulation of Electron Beams

Velocity Modulation of Electron Beams, May 1939 QST - RF CafeVarian is a company familiar to most people involved in early development of radar and other higher power microwave systems. While the name sounds like a moniker construed from a combination of technical terms, it is actually the surname of engineer brothers Russell H. and Sigurd F. Varian. They are credited with building the first practical reflex klystron tube, and its variant the rhumbatron, while at Stanford University. Velocity modulation, the subject of this 1939 QST magazine article, changes the speed of a stream of electrons flowing at a constant current rate, rather than modulating the current. It was a big deal that eventually found application in CRT displays for adding another dimension to information on monochrome presentations...

Tesla's Trickery

Tesla's Trickery, May 1960 Popular Electronics - RF Cafe

Standing Wave Ratio

Standing Wave Ratio, December 1974 Popular Electronics - RF Cafe

R&S Equips German Navy's NH90 MRFH w/Secure Comms

Rohde & Schwarz Equips German Navy's NH90 MRFH with Secure Communications - RF CafeRohde & Schwarz will equip the German Navy's NH90 Multi-Role Frigate Helicopter (MRFH), with SOVERON family airborne radios that include embedded COMSEC. Each aircraft is fitted with three VHF/UHF transceivers plus spares. The navy will receive 31 helicopters - a naval version of the NH90 - that offer close-range protection, anti-surface-warfare (ASuW) und anti-submarine-warfare (ASW), transport, and search and rescue capabilities. The SOVERON family airborne transceiver uses state-of-the-art communications algorithms that were standardized throughout NATO, and particularly for naval applications. The transceiver's interfaces...

Transistor Roundup

Transistor Roundup, December 1961 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeWhen this "Transistor Roundup" article appeared in 1961 issue of Popular Electronics magazine, the world was just getting serious about the transition from vacuum tubes to semiconductors. The slow take-up with solid state diodes and transistors was not simply a matter of not wanting or trusting the newfangled technology; it was also a practical matter of components being available which could be used in place of existing technology from both a performance and price perspective. In looking through the transistor parameter pages, the highest cutoff frequency I find is 800 mc (MHz), which was pretty good for the day, but most topped out in the tens of MHz. Power dissipation was a mere 75  mW, so that limited applications to low power oscillators, switches, and amplifiers. As we now know, within a decade semiconductors would completely replace tubes in new equipment except for high power and high voltage circuits...

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Antenna Theme Crossword Puzzle for January 30th

Antenna Theme Crossword Puzzle for January 30th, 2022 - RF CafeThis custom made Antenna theme crossword puzzle for January 30th is provided compliments of RF Cafe All RF Cafe crossword puzzles are custom made by me, Kirt Blattenberger, and have only words and clues related to RF, microwave, and mm-wave engineering, optics, mathematics, chemistry, physics, and other technical subjects. As always, this crossword puzzle contains no names of politicians, mountain ranges, exotic foods or plants, movie stars, or anything of the sort unless it/he/she is related to this puzzle's technology theme (e.g., Reginald Denny or the Tunguska event in Siberia). The technically inclined cruciverbalists amongst us will appreciate the effort. Enjoy!

 

 

 

 

Engineering Job Opening

Promote Your Company on RF Cafe for as Little as $40/Month

Sponsor RF Cafe for as Little as $40 per Month - RF CafeNew Scheme rotates all Banners in all locations on the page! RF Cafe typically receives 8,000-15,000 website visits each weekday. RF Cafe is a favorite of engineers, technicians, hobbyists, and students all over the world. With more than 12,000 pages in the Google search index, RF Cafe returns in favorable positions on many types of key searches, both for text and images. New content is added on a daily basis, which keeps the major search engines interested enough to spider it multiple times each day. Items added on the homepage often can be found in a Google search within a few hours of being posted. I also re-broadcast homepage items on LinkedIn. If you need your company news to be seen, RF Cafe is the place to be.

RF Cascade Workbook

RF Cascade Workbook - RF Cafe RF Cascade Workbook is the next phase in the evolution of RF Cafe's long-running series, RF Cascade Workbook. Chances are you have never used a spreadsheet quite like this (click here for screen capture). It is a full-featured RF system cascade parameter and frequency planner that includes filters and mixers for a mere $45. Built in MS Excel, using RF Cascade Workbook 2018 is a cinch and the format is entirely customizable. It is significantly easier and faster than using a multi-thousand dollar simulator when a high level system analysis is all that is needed. An intro video takes you through the main features...

RF & Electronics Stencils for Visio

RF & Electronics stencils for Visio r4 - RF CafeWith more than 1000 custom-built stencils, this has got to be the most comprehensive set of Visio Stencils available for RF, analog, and digital system and schematic drawings! Every stencil symbol has been built to fit proportionally on the included A-, B-, and C-size drawing page templates (or use your own page if preferred). Components are provided for system block diagrams, conceptual drawings, schematics, test equipment, racks (EIA 19", ETSI 21"), and more. Test equipment and racks are built at a 1:1 scale so that measurements can be made directly using Visio built-in dimensioning objects. Page templates are provided with a preset scale (changeable) for a good presentation that can incorporate all provided symbols...

RF & Electronics Symbols for Office™

RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols for Office™ r2 - RF Cafe It was a lot of work, but I finally finished a version of the "RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols" that works well with Microsoft Office™ programs Word™, Excel™, and Power Point™. This is an equivalent of the extensive set of amplifier, mixer, filter, switch, connector, waveguide, digital, analog, antenna, and other commonly used symbols for system block diagrams and schematics created for Visio™. Each of the 1,000 or so symbols was exported individually from Visio in the EMF file format, then imported into Word on a Drawing Canvas. The EMF format allows an image to be scaled up or down without becoming pixelated, so all the shapes can be resized in a document and still look good. The imported symbols can also be UnGrouped into their original constituent parts for editing. Check them out!

RF & Electronics Symbols for Visio

RF Electronics Wireless Analog Block Diagrams Symbols Shapes for Visio - RF Cafe With more than 1000 custom-built symbols, this has got to be the most comprehensive set of Visio Symbols available for RF, analog, and digital system and schematic drawings! Every object has been built to fit proportionally on the provided A-, B- and C-size drawing page templates (or can use your own). Symbols are provided for equipment racks and test equipment, system block diagrams, conceptual drawings, and schematics. Unlike previous versions, these are NOT Stencils, but instead are all contained on tabbed pages within a single Visio document. That puts everything in front of you in its full glory. Just copy and paste what you need on your drawing. The file format is XML so everything plays nicely with Visio 2013 and later...

Post Your Engineer & Technician Job Openings on RF Cafe for Free

Engineering Job Board - RF Cafe RF Cafe's raison d'être is and always has been to provide useful, quality content for engineers, technicians, engineering managers, students, and hobbyists. Part of that mission is offering to post applicable job openings. HR department employees and/or managers of hiring companies are welcome to submit opportunities for posting at no charge. 3rd party recruiters and temp agencies are not included so as to assure a high quality of listings. Please read through the easy procedure to benefit from RF Cafe's high quality visitors...

Get Your Custom-Designed RF Cafe Gear!

Custom-Designed RF-Themed Cups, T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks (Cafe Press) - RF CafeThis assortment of custom-designed themes by RF Cafe includes T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks, Tote Bags, Coffee Mugs and Steins, Purses, Sweatshirts, and Baseball Caps. Choose from amazingly clever "We Are the World's Matchmakers" Smith chart design or the "Engineer's Troubleshooting Flow Chart." My "Matchmaker's" design has been ripped off by other people and used on their products, so please be sure to purchase only official RF Cafe gear. My markup is only a paltry 50¢ per item - Cafe Press gets the rest of your purchase price. These would make excellent gifts for husbands, wives, kids, significant others, and for handing out at company events or as rewards for excellent service. It's a great way to help support RF Cafe. Thanks...

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Electrically Adaptive Liquid Camera Lens

Electrically Adaptive Liquid Camera Lens - RF Cafe"Researchers in China have developed an adaptive liquid lens based on dibutyl adipate (DBA), a new electrically responsive fluid that changes focal length when a voltage is applied. According to the team, the lens is suitable for mobile phone cameras, endoscopes, eyeglasses and machine vision applications because it is lightweight, compact and simple to fabricate. 'The human eye can arbitrarily focus on objects at different distances at incredibly fast speeds,' said research team leader Miao Xu from Hefei University of Technology. 'Inspired by this functionality, we developed an eye-like adaptive liquid lens that can be used to diverge or converge light by changing the shape of the DBA liquid.' In Optics Letters, the researchers describe their new DBA-based adaptive liquid lens..."

How Electrons Respond to X-rays

How Electrons Respond to X-rays - RF Cafe"A study of electron dynamics timed to millionths of a billionth of a second reveals the damage radiation can do on a molecular level. The first-of-its kind study used ultrafast X-ray laser pulses to disrupt the electrons in a molecule of nitrous oxide and measure the resultant changes with unprecedented accuracy. The work, published today in Science, was performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre (SLAC), Stanford, U.S. and was supported by a team of five scientists from Imperial College London. Conventional X-rays used in imaging and radiotherapy can cause damage to cells, but exactly how on a molecular level is not known. Additionally, new high-intensity and short-pulse-duration X-ray lasers are being proposed to image smaller molecules with greater precision, leading to questions about potential damage this could cause to living tissue. For the first time..."

Impossible Material Possible in Graphene Sandwich

Impossible Material Possible in Graphene Sandwich - RF Cafe"Atoms bind together by sharing electrons. The way this happens depends on the atom types but also on conditions such as temperature and pressure. In two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene, atoms join along a plane to form structures just one atom thick, which leads to fascinating properties determined by quantum mechanics. Researchers at the University of Vienna in collaboration with the Universities of Tübingen, Antwerp and CY Cergy Paris, together with Danubia NanoTech, have produced a new 2D material made of copper and iodine atoms sandwiched between two graphene sheets. The design of new materials allows for either improved efficiency of known applications or totally new applications that were out of reach with the previously existing materials..."

Century-Old Electrochemistry Law Updated

Century-Old Electrochemistry Law Updated - RF Cafe"The Gouy-Chapman theory describes what happens near an electrode when it is in contact with a salt solution, but this description does not match reality. Researcher Kasinath Ojha, assistant professor Katharina Doblhoff-Dier and professor Marc Koper present a new version. 'The next generation of textbooks on electrochemistry is going to look different.' When you look inside a fuel cell, one of the things you will see is an electrode, often made of platinum. This piece of metal is in contact with a salt solution, which contains positively and negatively charged particles called ions. If you were to zoom in on the interface between the electrode and the salt solution, you would perceive all kinds of interactions. At the surface of the electrode, a shortage or abundance of electrons exists..."

Semiconductor Flipped to Insulator Above Room Temp

Semiconductor Flipped to Insulator Above Room Temp - RF Cafe"A semiconducting material that performed a quantum "flip" from a conductor to an insulator above room temperature has been developed at the University of Michigan. It potentially brings the world closer to a new generation of quantum devices and ultra-efficient electronics. Observed in two-dimensional layers of tantalum sulfide only a single atom thick, the exotic electronic structure that supported this quantum flip was previously only stable at ultra-cold temperatures of −100 degrees Fahrenheit. The new material remains stable at up to 170 degrees Fahrenheit. 'We've opened up a new playground for the future of electronic and quantum materials,' said Robert Hovden..."

Boosting Transconductance and Squeezing Off-Current

Boosting Transconductance and Squeezing Off-Current - RF Cafe"National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University in Taiwan has reported increased transconductance (gm) and reduced OFF-current (IOFF) for indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) fin field-effect transistors (FinFETs) from remote nitrogen plasma passivation of the gate insulation layers [Hua-Lun Ko et al, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, published online 20 December 2021]. The devices were fabricated from n+-InGaAs on heavily p-type indium phosphide (p+-InP). The source/drain regions were doped with silicon implantation and activation annealing. The fins were etched with plasma, followed by citric acid sidewall smoothing and fin-width shrinking. The fins were oriented in the (010) crystal direction to give the highest aspect ratio. The gate insulators consisted of 0.8nm aluminium nitride and 2.9nm hafnium dioxide, both applied using atomic layer deposition..."

Acoustic Transistor for Electronics

Acoustic Transistor Points Toward Whole New Electronics - RF Cafe"Potential future transistors that consume far less energy than current devices may rely on exotic materials called 'topological insulators,' in which electricity flows across only surfaces and edges, with virtually no dissipation of energy. In research that may help pave the way for such electronic topological transistors, scientists at Harvard have now invented and simulated the first acoustic topological transistors, which operate with sound waves instead of electrons. Topology is the branch of mathematics that explores the nature of shapes independent of deformation. For instance, an object shaped like a doughnut can be deformed into the shape of a mug, so that the doughnut's hole becomes the hole in the cup's handle. However, the object couldn't lose the hole without changing into a fundamentally different shape. Employing insights from topology, researchers developed the first electronic topological insulators in 2007..."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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