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DC-70 GHz RF Cables - RF Cafe

Homepage Archive - June 2021 (page 4)

See Page 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 of the June 2021 homepage archives.

Wednesday the 30th

New Advertising Scheme Planned for Fall 2021

New Banner Advertising Plan for Fall 2021 - RF CafeFlashing light - RF Caferfcafe.com first went live in 1999, and the Banner Ad program began around 2005. Advertising options have remained essentially the same since then. With the current scheme, the six (6) Banner Ad positions (Slots) are occupied by up to four (4) companies, and each of the six Slots is priced according to its relative position on the page. A random number generator selects which Banner is displayed each time a page is loaded (or reloaded). A new scheme is planned beginning sometime in Fall 2021. Rather than each company's Banner Ad having a dedicated Slot on the page, each company's Banner Ad will have an equally likely chance of appearing in any of the six positions each time a page is loaded (or reloaded). Everyone will pay the same low price...

Hallicrafters Radio Steerable Beam

Hallicrafters Radio Steerable Beam, July 1945 Radio-Craft - RF CafeHallicrafters was a big name in radio from the 1930s through the 1960s, after which it was sold to Northrop Corporation, then soon thereafter permitted to die. As evidenced by their many pro military and pro America advertisements in the electronics magazines of the World War II era (many of them are reproduced here on RF Cafe, including this one from a 1945 issue of Radio-Craft), great pride was taken by employees in the production of communications equipment that could be easily deployed and operated in the field under adverse conditions. Professional and amateur radio operators came to know and respect the Hallicrafters name. Vintage Hallicrafters radio equipment is very popular amongst collectors both for archival purposes and for actual use. eBay always has many listings for Hallicrafters gear...

Signal Hound SM435B 43.5 GHz Spectrum Analyzer

Signal Hound Announces the SM435B 43.5-GHz High-Performance Spectrum Analyzer - RF CafeSignal Hound, a developer of highly optimized solutions for RF signal test and measurement, has announced the SM435B 43.5 GHz RF spectrum analyzer and monitoring receiver. This new product indicates the company's entry into millimeter-wave spectrum analysis. With broad application ranging from 5G cellular, to military, aerospace, and a host of other uses, this next-level production unit expands the company's reach into this next tier of the market. "We have taken a big step in the development of the SM435B," said Bruce Devine, CEO at Signal Hound. "Investment into 50 GHz test equipment, refining layout and design at a higher millimeter wave frequency, and stepping up our PCB technology were all part of bringing this unique product to our market segment...

Wavelength <--> Frequency  Converter

Wavelength <-> Frequency Calculator Converter - RF CafeHere is a simple JavaScript routine that converts between frequency and wavelength in the electromagnetic field realm. Wavelength and frequency are related by the following formula: c = λ * ν * √εr ; where c = speed of light, λ = wavelength, ν = frequency, and εr = relative permittivity. Here are some familiar objects and their equivalent wavelength-related frequencies in air...

Modelithics Expands the Qorvo GaN Library

Modelithics® Expands the Modelithics Qorvo® GaN Library v21.4.5 - RF CafeModelithics, Inc. today announced plans to expand the highly-demanded Modelithics Qorvo GaN Library of high accuracy non-linear models for Qorvo transistors. The current GaN library version (v21.4.5) includes a total of 82 models containing 59 packaged power models, 17 GaN die power transistor products and 6 small-signal models. The expansion will now add more than 20 new high-power Qorvo GaN transistor models to the library. The Modelithics Qorvo GaN Library is a set of non-linear models for Qorvo package and die GaN devices, designed for excellent accuracy, and validated with broadband S-parameters and load pull data at multiple frequencies. Each model has a detailed datasheet summarizing model features, development details, and model performance plots. Some devices are also represented with small-signal and noise models in addition to non-linear models. "This long-term relationship on GaN power transistor modeling, now in its 8th year, has been an outstanding model of multi-company collaboration under the Modelithics Vendor Partner (MVP) Program...

Me Technician You Engineer

Me Technician You Engineer, February 1963 Popular Electronics - RF CafeThis story from a 1963 edition of Popular Electronics proves that my ongoing effort to point out that the sometimes harmless, sometimes harmful tensions between engineers and technicians is not a recent development. I have told of my own witnessing of engineer vs. technician pi**ing contests stretching back into the early 1980s during my first job as an electronics technician at Westinghouse Electric. Rather than joining the fray, I appreciated the abilities of engineers to provide, typically but with some exceptions, a good combination of academic and real-world experience. Being a technician myself at the time, I also recognized a tech's typically much closer association with hands-on experiences building, operating, and troubleshooting electronic equipment. I was going to college at night working on earning my BSEE, so I was determined to benefit from the strong points of both groups. Having taken both technician level and engineering level classes in subjects like circuit system analysis, I knew of the much higher level...

Many Thanks to San Francisco Circuits for Continued Support!

San Francisco CircuitsSF Circuits' specialty is in the complex, advanced technology of PCB fabrication and assembly, producing high quality multi-layered PCBs from elaborate layouts. With them, you receive unparalleled technical expertise at competitive prices as well as the most progressive solutions available. Their customers request PCB production that is outside the capabilities of normal circuit board providers. Please take a moment to visit San Francisco Circuits today. "Printed Circuit Fabrication & Assembly with No Limit on Technology or Quantity."

Tuesday the 29th

Skin Depth Calculator

Skin Depth Calculator - RF CafeThis JavaScript skin depth calculator takes as inputs the frequency, resistivity (ρ), and relative permeability (μr). It uses the standard textbook equation to compute the skin depth. Since data sources for materials properties typically present permeability in term of relative permeability (μr), that is what is used for input in the calculator. Most typical materials used for signal and power carrying cables - e.g., copper, aluminum - have a relative permeability of 1. Materials with magnetic properties such as steel and iron have relative permeabilities ranging from hundreds to hundreds of thousands...

History of the BCD Integrated Circuit

History of the BCD Integrated Circuit - RF Cafe"Integrated circuits have become the backbone of consumer electronics. They are used in medical equipment, household appliances, personal computers, cellphones, cars, and more. In fact, chips are in such demand that there's currently a shortage of them. After ICs were introduced in the 1950s, several variations of the technology emerged: those based on bipolar transistors, invented in the 1950s; CMOS in the 1960s; and double-diffused metal oxide semiconductors (DMOS) in the 1970s. But in the early 1980s, some applications demanded all three kinds of chips - which required higher voltage and chips with faster switching speeds. In 1985 BCD chips - developed by using the super-integrated silicon-gate process - were invented by semiconductor manufacturer SGS, now STMicroelectronics..."

Qorvo High-Efficiency PAs for 5G Small Cell Networks

Qorvo® High-Efficiency Power Amplifiers for 5G Small Cell Networks - RF CafeQorvo® (Nasdaq:QRVO), a leading provider of innovative RF solutions that connect the world, today unveiled a family of high efficiency power amplifiers (PAs) designed for 5G small cell infrastructure applications. These new PAs help small cell base station OEMs deploy 5G networks and services in densely populated, urban indoor and outdoor areas. Qorvo's new family of high efficiency PAs offers customers high power-added efficiency (PAE), greater than 30% in most cases, and covers major sub-7 GHz 3GPP frequency bands. These devices are designed to handle true 5G New Radio (NR) signal bandwidths of up to 200 MHz with dynamic spectrum sharing (DSS) in a small, 50 Ω-matched, 5 mm x 5 mm SMT package. Qorvo's extensive global manufacturing capabilities and high-volume production support the ongoing global deployment of 5G...

Transients and Time Constants

Transients and Time Constants, September 1944 Radio News - RF CafeHere is a very nice introduction / refresher on RC (resistor | capacitor) and RL (resistor | inductor) time constants and the waveforms they produce based on the applied signal and component values. Author Tatz presented the information in a 1944 issue of Radio News magazine. Only basic mathematical formulas are used, and the illustrations make the subject of RC time constants understandable even without the equations. Don't be put off by the vacuum tubes in Figure 1 because that oscillator schematic is only given as a means for generating square wave and rectangular wave inputs to the RC and RL test circuits, in case you don't have a signal generator handy. I remember in college how much more meaningful the integrated and differentiated waveforms were...

Bittele Full Turnkey PCB Services

Bittele Electronics Helps Enterprises Reduce Manufacturing Costs with Full Turnkey PCB Services - RF CafeBittele Electronics, a Toronto-based manufacturing firm specializing in prototype and low-to-mid volume printed circuit board (PCB) assembly, announced today that it has expanded its Full Turnkey Services to help more companies reduce costs and save money. By combining PCB Fabrication, Parts Procurement, and Assembly into a one-stop Full Turnkey Service, Bittele will provide dramatic time and cost savings to its customers. Bittele's Full Turnkey Services save customers time and money with a free Design for Manufacturing (DFM) check, which eliminates manufacturability issues before PCBs are fabricated and also reduces the chances of costly re-spins. Amidst today's global semiconductor shortage, Bittele realizes the importance of keeping costs low. Bittele's Full Turnkey Service includes a BOM pricing team to check prices from authorized vendors to ensure customers receive the lowest cost. "With no markup on component pricing, you not only receive the lowest possible BOM price, you also save the time and resources of managing...

National Catalog & NC80X / NC81X Receiver Ad

National Catalog & NC80X / NC81X Receiver Ad, September 1937 QST - RF CafeThe National Company of Cambridge, Massachusetts, was one of the first large distributors of electronics components and appliances. Believe it or not, National began life as the National Toy Company. Thanks to the efforts of Mr. James Millen, W1HRX, in designing and marketing high quality radio products, the company evolved into a favorite source by both amateur radio operators and casual listeners of shortwave radios. The NC80X covered the commercial broadcast band and a couple shortwave bands, whereas the NC81X covered only multiple shortwave bands for amateur radio use. This full-page advertisement appeared in a 1937 issue of QST magazine...

New for 2021! RF & Electronics Symbols for Office™

RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols for Office™ r2 - RF CafeIt was a lot of work, but I finally finished a version of the "RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols" that works well with Microsoft Office™ programs Word™, Excel™, and Power Point™. This is an equivalent of the extensive set of amplifier, mixer, filter, switch, connector, waveguide, digital, analog, antenna, and other commonly used symbols for system block diagrams and schematics created for Visio™. Each of the 1,000 or so symbols was exported individually from Visio in the EMF file format, then imported into Word on a Drawing Canvas. The EMF format allows an image to be scaled up or down without becoming pixelated, so all the shapes can be resized in a document and still look good. The imported symbols can also be UnGrouped into their original constituent parts for editing. Check them out!

Many Thanks for Alliance Test Equipment's Support!

Allied Test Equipment Products - RF CafeAlliance Test Equipment sells used / refurbished test equipment and offers short- and long-term rentals. They also offer repair, maintenance and calibration. Prices discounted up to 80% off list price. Agilent/HP, Tektronix, Anritsu, Fluke, R&S and other major brands. A global organization with ability to source hard to find equipment through our network of suppliers. Alliance Test will purchase your excess test equipment in large or small lots. Blog posts offer advice on application and use of a wide range of test equipment. Please visit Allied Test Equipment today to see how they can help your project.

Monday the 28th

Carl & Jerry: Pure Research Rewarded

Carl & Jerry: Pure Research Rewarded, June 1962 Popular Electronics - RF CafeCarl Anderson and Jerry Bishop in handcuffs? Say it ain't so! Has the pair of good-natured, upstanding high-tech sleuths gone to the Dark Side (George Lucas was 18 years old in 1962 when this was written)? Read the tale entitled "Pure Research Rewarded" as told in this 1962 issue of Popular Electronics magazine to see how the two figure into a plot to kill a local judge, and why they decide to cannibalize a service station television set for parts. What has come over Carl and Jerry?

ePiccolo Engineering Design Services

ePiccolo Engineering - RF CafeePiccolo Engineering is an electronic design service provider specialized in all aspects of electronic product design, design of PCB boards, firmware for DSPs / microcontrollers as well as FPGA RTL design. We provide outsourcing services and have acquired expertise in specific fields such as TI mmWave sensors, ADI PLL Synthesizers and RF chains, Blackfin DSP, Silicon labs EFR32, Ultrawideband positioning systems, Xilinx Zync ultrascale+ FPGAs and more. Based in Haifa, Israel, ePiccolo Engineering was established in 2008 by Guy Shemesh.

VSWR | Return Loss | Reflection Coefficient Calculator

VSWR to Return Loss to Reflection Coefficient Conversion Calculator - RF CafeThis online calculator converts between return loss (RL), voltage standing wave ration (VSWR), and reflection coefficient (Γ). It also calculates the amplitude and phase error created by imperfect impedances. Two VSWR values are taken as input. Finally, VSWR improvement due to attenuation is calculated. Numerical inputs are not error trapped. Absolute values of inputs are used for calculation.

New for 2021! RF & Electronics Symbols for Office™

RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols for Office™ r2 - RF CafeIt was a lot of work, but I finally finished a version of the "RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols" that works well with Microsoft Office™ programs Word™, Excel™, and Power Point™. This is an equivalent of the extensive set of amplifier, mixer, filter, switch, connector, waveguide, digital, analog, antenna, and other commonly used symbols for system block diagrams and schematics created for Visio™. Each of the 1,000 or so symbols was exported individually from Visio in the EMF file format, then imported into Word on a Drawing Canvas. The EMF format allows an image to be scaled up or down without becoming pixelated, so all the shapes can be resized in a document and still look good. The imported symbols can also be UnGrouped into their original constituent parts for editing. Check them out!

Please Thank RF Superstore for Their Continued Support

RF Superstore coaxial cable, connectors, adapters - RF CafeRF Superstore launched in 2017, marking the return of Murray Pasternack, founder of Pasternack Enterprises, to the RF and microwave Industry. Pasternack fundamentally changed the way RF components were sold. Partner Jason Wright manages day-to-day operations, while working closely with Mr. Pasternack to develop RF Superstore into a world class RF and microwave component supplier. RF coaxial connectors & adapters, coaxial cable & cable assemblies, surge protectors, attenuators. Items added daily. Free shipping on orders over $25. We're leading the way again!

Sunday the 27th

Technology Theme Crossword Puzzle for June 27th

Technology Theme Crossword Puzzle for June 27th, 2021 - RF CafeThis Technology Theme Crossword Puzzle for June 27th has many words and clues related to RF, microwave, and mm-wave engineering, optics, mathematics, chemistry, physics, and other technical subjects. As always, this crossword contains no names of politicians, mountain ranges, exotic foods or plants, movie stars, or anything of the sort unless it/he/she is related to this puzzle's technology theme (e.g., Reginald Denny or the Tunguska event in Siberia). The technically inclined cruciverbalists amongst us will appreciate the effort. Enjoy!

Friday the 25th

Electronics-Themed Comics, November 1960 Radio-Electronics

Electronics-Themed Comics, November 1960 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeWhat better way to finish out a week that to enjoy a few vintage electronics-themed comics? This quartet appeared in the November 1960 issue of Radio-Electronics magazine. The one on page 81 reminds me of where I worked as an electrician on a work-study program my senior year of high school (and for another year thereafter). The company was Bausum & Duckett Electric, in Edgewater, Maryland. Shortly after arriving there the conference room where the managers, engineers, and upper level electricians (none of which included yours truly) held meetings was renovated, and part of the new furniture was a huge table in the shape of a mercury vapor lamp - pretty darn clever IMHO. The comic on page 100 is my favorite from this batch; the look on the guy's face is priceless! Solar power was just becoming a big deal in the early 1960s, so there were a lot of comics built on that theme...

Radar Production Manager Needed by Numerica

Radar Production Manager Needed by Numerica Corporation - RF Cafe

Numerica is seeking a Radar Production Manager to plan, manage and execute the production of state-of-the art integrated RF systems to deliver powerful new sensing capabilities to our partners and Government Customers. Working in small innovative teams, our engineers build solutions that make a difference. Our research endeavors don't end once we've written a journal or conference paper describing our technology; rather, our work is complete when our technology has been deployed in mission-critical systems and our customers within government and industry are successful. Responsibilities include customer interface for Spyglass production program, establishing and controlling program cost, interacting with engineering, manufacturing, and test disciplines, ensuring programs are completed on time and within budget, and are contractually compliant...

Looking at Hybrid Supercapacitors

Looking at Hybrid Supercapacitors - RF Cafe"The electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) - most often called a 'supercapacitor' and sometimes an 'ultracapacitor' - is an amazing passive energy-storage component. As a result of its high capacitance of multiple farads and small size, it provides high-density energy storage by both volume and weight. In some remote sensing, IoT, and energy harvesting-sourced applications, supercaps are an alternative to rechargeable batteries; in other situations, they are used in conjunction with batteries to overcome some of the weaknesses of those electrochemical-based energy-storage components..."

An Impedance-Matching Transformer Tutorial

An Impedance-Matching Transformer Tutorial, February 1943 QST - RF CafeThe word "transformer" in the title for this 1943 QST magazine article does not refer to a mutual inductance transformer, but an impedance transformer for matching transmission lines to antennas (or anything else for that matter). Author T.A. Gadwa gives examples of impedance-matching circuits both for when the antenna impedance is lower than the characteristic impedance of the transmission line and when the antenna impedance is higher than that of the feed line. "L," "pi," and a couple other circuit configurations are covered. Equations are also given...

RF Cascade Workbook 2018

RF Cascade Workbook 2018 Is Available Now! - RF CafeRF Cascade Workbook 2018 is the next phase in the evolution of RF Cafe's long-running series, RF Cascade Workbook. Chances are you have never used a spreadsheet quite like this (click here for screen capture). It is a full-featured RF system cascade parameter and frequency planner that includes filters and mixers for a mere $45. Built in MS Excel, using RF Cascade Workbook 2018 is a cinch and the format is entirely customizable. It is significantly easier and faster than using a multi-thousand dollar simulator when a high level system analysis is all that is needed. An intro video takes you through the main features...

Many Thanks to Reactel for Their Long-Time Support!

Reactel Filters - RF Cafe

Reactel has become one of the industry leaders in the design and manufacture of RF and microwave filters, diplexers, and sub-assemblies. They offer the generally known tubular, LC, cavity, and waveguide designs, as well as state of the art high performance suspended substrate models. Through a continuous process of research and development, they have established a full line of filters of filters of all types - lowpass, highpass, bandpass, bandstop, diplexer, and more. Established in 1979. Please contact Reactel today to see how they might help your project.

Thursday the 24th

Vintage International Resistance Co. Ad

International Resistance Co., September 1944 Radio News - RF CafeWhen reading the opening copy from this 1944's era Radio News magazine advertisement from the International Resistance Company, I wonder whether the same can be said of today's population: "Americans are not sissies. When they know the truth, they can take it - especially when it relates to the war. It's only when somebody tries to fool them, that they rear up on their hind legs and yowl." At the time the "war" was WWII, but today the war and the enemies of our existence as a sovereign nation is not as well defined. The latest example is the COVID-19 virus cooked up in a Wuhan research laboratory and released on the world, while politicians, pundits, and media receiving fortunes and favors from China do their best to excuse and cover the deed. In 1944, people of the free world would never have succumbed to the useless mask and business restriction mandates imposed in 2020 and continued through today...

Quantum Repeaters Enable Scalable Quantum Internet

Quantum Repeaters Enable Scalable Quantum Internet - RF Cafe"Quantum repeaters that can store multiplexed signals; provide heralded signals of entanglement; and operate at telecommunications wavelengths have been developed by two independent research teams. Their work could prove to be an important step towards the creation of a scalable quantum internet. If it can be built, a quantum internet would allow calculations to be distributed between multiple quantum computers - allowing larger and more complex problems to be solved. A quantum internet would also provide secure communications because eavesdropping on the exchange of quantum information can be easily identified. The backbone of such a quantum network would be quantum-mechanically entangled links between different network points..."

Anatech Electronics May 2021 Newsletter

Anatech Electronics May 2021 Newsletter - RF CafeSam Benzacar of Anatech Electronics, an RF and microwave filter company, has published his May 2021 newsletter that features his short op−ed entitled "More Interference to Come – in Vehicles," where he discusses the increasingly hostile electromagnetic environment present in and around cars and trucks as wireless electronics gains an ever increasing presence. Says Sam, "This problem will only worsen with the 'digitalization' of vehicles that, in the not-too-distant future, will make them rolling IoT platforms." I like that rolling IoT platforms comment. Fortunately, the art and science of RF filter design and manufacturing is advancing to enable coexistence of multiple platforms - at least for now - and Anatech is at the front line of the battle. Sam also presents some relevant industry news items as well.

A Primer on Capacitors - What Is a Capacitor?

A Primer on Capacitors - What Is a Capacitor?, October 1954 Popular Electronics - RF CafeA timeless introduction for newcomers to electronics, this article in the 1954 Popular Electronics - the very first issue - presents the basics of what a capacitor is and how it works. As you might expect in a premier edition of an electronics hobbyist magazine, a lot of fundamental information was introduced over a wide range of topics including resistor and capacitor color codes, neon bulbs, televisions, radio control model airplanes, amateur radio, home-built electronics projects, electronic products kit building, model trains, stereo hi-fi equipment, solar cells, and more. Popular Electronics pretty much stayed that course for the first decade, and then began to adjust content to address new technologies...

Get Your Custom-Designed RF Cafe Gear!

Custom-Designed RF-Themed Cups, T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks (Cafe Press) - RF CafeThis assortment of custom-designed themes by RF Cafe includes T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks, Tote Bags, Coffee Mugs and Steins, Purses, Sweatshirts, and Baseball Caps. Choose from amazingly clever "We Are the World's Matchmakers" Smith chart design or the "Engineer's Troubleshooting Flow Chart." My "Matchmaker's" design has been ripped off by other people and used on their products, so please be sure to purchase only official RF Cafe gear. My markup is only a paltry 50¢ per item - Cafe Press gets the rest of your purchase price. These would make excellent gifts for husbands, wives, kids, significant others, and for handing out at company events or as rewards for excellent service. It's a great way to help support RF Cafe. Thanks...

Many Thanks to Berkeley Nucleonics for Continued Support!

Berkeley Nucleonics Corp - RF CafeBerkeley Nucleonics Corporation (BNC) is a leading manufacturer of precision electronic instrumentation for test, measurement, and nuclear research. Founded in 1963, BNC initially developed custom pulse generators. We became known for meeting the most stringent requirements for high precision and stability, and for producing instruments of unsurpassed reliability and performance. We continue to maintain a leadership position as a developer of custom pulse, signal, light, and function generators. Our designs incorporate the latest innovations in software and hardware engineering, surface mount production, and automated testing procedures.

Wednesday the 23rd

The Crosley SCR-284 Field Radio

The Crosley SCR-284 Field Radio, September 1944 Radio News - RF CafeIf you are looking for information on the Crosley SCR-284 Field Radio, you've come to the right place - at least for learning about how manually intensive the manufacturing process for it was. If you want to know about the history and operation, then you'll want to visit the N6CC (Navy 6 Combat Comms) website. It is a wealth of amazing details, including, "The SCR-284 was used extensively during WWII. The basic component is the BC-654-A receiver transmitter. Designed as a portable field radio, the complete field set could be carried by 3 men (three 55 pound loads) or it could be mounted in vehicles. US Army procurement records indicate that 63,972 sets were procured between 1940 and 1945. Apparently all were built by Crosley Corp." That works out to more than 10,000 units per year, each requiring the kind of assembly and testing shown here. Along with the highly skilled and dedicated labor force required to turn out such quantities (while also producing other equipment) are the design, test, and production engineers needed to dream up, implement, and support such a massive effort...

Signal Hound BB60D 6 GHz Real-Time Spectrum Analyzer

Signal Hound Announces the BB60D 6 GHz Real-Time Spectrum Analyzer - RF CafeSignal Hound, a manufacturer of highly-optimized solutions for RF test and measurement equipment, announces the BB60D - a much anticipated 6 GHz real-time spectrum analyzer with significant performance improvements as compared to the highly regarded industry favorite BB60C. The new BB60D has a fully integrated preselector covering 130 MHz to 6 GHz, 10 dB more dynamic range, and 10 dB better phase noise from 100 Hz to 10 kHz offsets. With selectable IF bandwidth from 27 MHz down to 4 kHz, 24 GHz/sec sweep speeds, and exceptionally clean spurious responses, the BB60D fits in your hand for accurate, clean, and fast RF analysis on the go...

Fully Digital Beamforming for Radar and EW

Fully Digital Beamforming for Radar and Electronic Warfare - RF Cafe"While the basic physics of beamforming were first identified more than a century ago, it wasn't until the past two decades that advances in supporting technology enabled the rapid expansion of the types of applications that can take advantage of this technology. As early adopters of beamforming technology in the 1960s, aerospace and defense organizations have a lot of experience using the initial large-scale active electronically scanned arrays (AESAs) for military radar tracking applications. As a result of the innovations led by military organizations for several decades, commercial applications such as weather detection and radio broadcasting were able to benefit from the use of beamforming..."

Passion Radio Shop

Passion-Radio.com Amateur Radio Equipment - RF CafePassion Radio Shop proprietor Alexandre wrote to request that I post a notice here on RF Cafe regarding their Amateur Radio equipment supply service. Based in Paris, France, Passion Radio Shop is able to provide worldwide shipping on products. I suppose the company name including the word "Passion" is apropos for a company located in "The City of Love," and a company run by Hams radio enthusiasts for Ham radio enthusiasts. Transceivers, antennas, cables, connectors, test equipment, and many other items are available for immediate shipment. Please take a little time to visit Passion Radio Shop. I have no affiliation with them, but provide this as a service to both them and RF Cafe visitors.

PCBONLINE Provides Many Types of Ceramic PCBs and Products

PCBONLINE Provides Many Types of Ceramic PCBs and Products - RF CafeCeramic PCBs are the printed circuit boards using ceramic as the substrate. PCBONLINE provides alumina PCB, aluminum nitride PCB, COB LED (chip on board), DOB LED (drive on board), 3D aluminum products, etc. These types of circuit boards are used for high-power electronic modules, automotive electronics, aerospace, military electronics, high-power LED lighting products, etc. Compared with the normal FR4 and metal core PCBs, ceramic PCBs have these advantageous characteristics: Stable shape warping and low expansion coefficient | Large current carrying capacity and good insulation performance | Higher thermal conductivity and lower thermal resistance | Stable high-frequency performance and lower AK and DK values | Have good insulation and can achieve a better conductivity and insulation effect...

America's Next Great Industry - Television - is Ready

America's Next Great Industry - Television - is Ready, January 1945 Radio News - RF CafeBy 1945 everyone of importance in the electronics industry was blowing the figurative horn of television. The country would transform from "a chicken in every pot" to "a TV in every living room" (OK, I just made that up). The NTSC (National Television System Committee) had set the standards for transmission, but hardware implementation was by no means agreed upon. If my memory is correct, there were still some manufacturers clinging to the mechanical spinning disc with a projection screen rather than using electronic circuits and a CRT (cathode ray tube). Entire industries - not only electronics - were bursting at the seams in anticipation of the war ending and being allowed to release all the pent up knowledge and inventions developed during the years working toward the defeat of Axis powers across the globe being applied to creature comforts for the civilian marketplace. Television, with its countless dependents and dependencies, truly changed the planet. Some say for the better, others say for the worse...

New for 2020! RF & Electronics Symbols for Visio

RF Electronics Wireless Analog Block Diagrams Symbols Shapes for Visio - RF CafeWith more than 1000 custom-built symbols, this has got to be the most comprehensive set of Visio Symbols available for RF, analog, and digital system and schematic drawings! Every object has been built to fit proportionally on the provided A-, B- and C-size drawing page templates (or can use your own). Symbols are provided for equipment racks and test equipment, system block diagrams, conceptual drawings, and schematics. Unlike previous versions, these are NOT Stencils, but instead are all contained on tabbed pages within a single Visio document. That puts everything in front of you in its full glory. Just copy and paste what you need on your drawing. The file format is XML so everything plays nicely with Visio 2013 and later...

Many Thanks to Electro-Photonics for Their Continued Support

Electro-PhotonicsElectro-Photonics is a global supplier of RF & Microwave components. Their products include SMT hybrid and directional couplers, wire bondable passive components, mounting tabs, filters, transmission lines, and very useful test boards for evaluating components (spiral inductors, single-layer capacitors). The Electro-Photonics team can support your small R&D design requirements with RF & Microwave test fixtures and save you valuable design and characterization time. Please take a moment to visit Electro-Photonics' website and see how your project might benefit. 

Tuesday the 22nd

Webinar: High-Performance Arbitrary Waveform Generators

BNC Webinar: High-Performance Arbitrary Waveform Generators (Free Admission) - RF CafeMark it on your calendar! On Wednesday, June 30th at 1:00 PM EDT, Berkeley Nucleonics will be hosting a live webinar that will dive into the immersive world of High-Performance Arbitrary Waveform Generators. Admission is free. Arbitrary waveform generators (AWG's) are built to handle the most complex experiments and innovative applications, from advanced research, RF-Wireless to quantum computing. Join Edgar Guzman with Berkeley Nucleonics and Stefano Parma with Active Technologies to discuss AWG's and their role in the electrifying advancements in waveform development and signal generation. The High-Performance Arbitrary Waveform Generator that will be demonstrated is the Model 685 from Berkeley Nucleonics, which offers some of the most exciting advancement...

Sunspots Aid Radio Signals

Sunspots Aid Radio Signals, July 1957 Radio & TV News - RF CafeSunspot cycles repeat approximately every 11 years, so there had only been six solar maximums from the beginning of long distance radio communications (Marconi in 1901) up until this article was published in 1957. That year ('57) had the sun experiencing an extremely high number of sunspots (see chart below), as had the previous few years, which caused communications to be profoundly affected during the period. Under ideal conditions, high energy electrons typically ejected from the sun (coronal mass ejection, CME) cause the Earth's ionosphere to become an excellent reflector of RF energy at certain wavelengths, resulting in phenomenal long distance contacts. Under the worst conditions, extreme levels of "noise" are injected into radio signals, thereby severely degrading or even eliminating communications. This story reports on a comprehensive study on the effect of such activity on long distance communications...

Radar Production Technician Wanted by Numerica

Radar Production Technician Wanted by Numerica Corporation - RF CafeNumerica, located in Ft. Collins, Colorado, is seeking a Radar Production Technician to assemble, test and calibrate state-of-the art integrated RF systems to deliver powerful new sensing capabilities. Working in small innovative teams, our engineers build solutions that make a difference. Our research endeavors don't end once we've written a journal or conference paper describing our technology; rather, our work is complete when our technology has been deployed in mission-critical systems and our customers within government and industry are successful. Desired skills and qualifications include assembles electronic components, assemblies, subassemblies, RF modules and systems with work orders and visual work instruction as directed by the production manager. Performs mechanical assembly operations while building electronic assemblies using standard measuring tools and techniques. Perform RF measurements (anechoic chamber and benchtop) and provide data...

A Single Digit Is Good Enough for π

A Single Digit Is Good Enough for π - RF CafeSomehow, I managed to miss this from the Evaluation Engineering website. Remember when reading it that good humor always has an element of truth to it, especially considering the recent declaration of mathematics in general as being a form of White privilege. "A group of California lawmakers is working on a bill that stipulates the well-known numerical constant π (pi), which defines the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, be set to a single-digit value of 3 for all texts, tests, and projects in primary, middle school, high school, as well as most college courses. They maintain that this would reduce stress on students who are grappling with many uncertainties, including those caused by the pandemic. 'Setting pi equal to 3 will avoid the need for students to struggle over whether they should use 3, 3.1, 3.14, or even more digits,' offered one source as rationale. 'Let's be honest, there's no need to go beyond 3 for most applications..."

Planar Monolithic Industries (PMI) June 2021 Product Announcement

Planar Monolithic Industries (PMI) June 2021 Product Announcement - RF CafePlanar Monolithic Industries (PMI) introduces six new products for June in their extensive line of RF and microwave components. Included are a 1.0 to 2.0 GHz limiter, a 1.0 to 12.0 GHz threshold detector, a 50 MHz to 4.0 GHz, SP32T absorptive switch, an 8.0 to 22.0 GHz highpass filter, a 0.5 to 18.0 GHz frequency divider, and an 18.0 to 40.0 GHz bi-phase modulator. Contact PMI today for more information...

New for 2021! RF & Electronics Symbols for Office™

RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols for Office™ r2 - RF CafeIt was a lot of work, but I finally finished a version of the "RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols" that works well with Microsoft Office™ programs Word™, Excel™, and Power Point™. This is an equivalent of the extensive set of amplifier, mixer, filter, switch, connector, waveguide, digital, analog, antenna, and other commonly used symbols for system block diagrams and schematics created for Visio™. Each of the 1,000 or so symbols was exported individually from Visio in the EMF file format, then imported into Word on a Drawing Canvas. The EMF format allows an image to be scaled up or down without becoming pixelated, so all the shapes can be resized in a document and still look good. The imported symbols can also be UnGrouped into their original constituent parts for editing. Check them out!

Many Thanks to Aegis Power Systems for Their Continued Support!

Aegis Power Systems - RF CafeAegis Power Systems is a leading supplier of AC-DC and DC-DC power supplies for custom and special applications. Aegis has been designing and building highly reliable custom power supplies since 1995. They offer a complete line of switch mode power supplies and power converters for a variety of markets including defense, industrial, aircraft, VME, and telecom. Supports military, aircraft, EV, telecom, and embedded computing applications. Design and manufacture of custom power supply solutions to meet each customer's exacting specifications. Please visit Aegis Power Systems today.

Monday the 21st

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    Kirt Blattenberger,


RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while tying up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

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