May 1935 Short Wave Craft
Wax nostalgic about and learn from the history of early electronics. See articles
from Short Wave Craft,
published 1930 - 1936. All copyrights hereby acknowledged.
If you think government bureaucracies meddling in the affairs of
private business is a relatively new phenomenon, think again. Elected
and unelected persons and agencies have since the inception of control
over the populace made it their business to dictate which pursuits
of technology are sanctioned and which are not. Often, the motivation
lies in who within those bureaucracies stands to benefit monetarily
from the decision. In this story lamenting the painfully and, in
the author's opinion, unnecessarily long time experienced in bringing
commercial broadcast television to the marketplace - in 1935. One
of the primary stumbling blocks was the Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) preventing companies from televising paid commercials during
programs because, in the FCC's view, picture quality was not good
enough to serve advertisers' interests. In the process, development
dollars were not forthcoming. Of course the arrogance in such an
attitude is that it assumes the companies who would be paying for
advertising services are not smart enough to determine for themselves
whether it would be a good investment. As you know if you have read
any of the other articles I have posted on the development of television,
there were many major schemes in the works for television systems,
some of which relied heavily on mechanical apparati with mirrors
and spinning discs. An agreement among manufacturers on a 'standard'
that would allow all systems to play well together ended up being
another big reason for the delay.
How Soon Shall We Have Television?
What is delaying the development and application of television
in America? Various factors, including the question of finance -
failure of the Government to permit sponsored programs - lack of
experimental image transmission - and other factors which are here
By H. Winfield Secor
Television for the public has recently received considerable
impetus, so far as the daily newspaper reports are concerned at
least, and most of us have undoubtedly read the recent opinion expressed
by Senatore Marconi that he hoped to see practical television established
between Europe and America by means of microwaves. This means that
he places great faith in the possibilities of long-distance transmission
by microwaves, having such an extremely short length as 60 centimeters
or 24 inches.
It is unfortunate that our short-wave experimenters
cannot today enjoy the reception of television programs, the transmitting
stations being partly subsidized by the Government, if necessary
- all of which would serve to greatly spur the development of television
in this country.
Dr. Alfred N. Goldsmith, well-known radio expert and consulting
engineer to the Radio Corporation of America, said that the possibility
of using radio waves of very short length to carry television across
the ocean had both a bright and dark side. On the dark side, is
the interference which such waves would cause to the radio systems
of other countries. This would mean that the micro-waves spectrum
would have to be considered on an international basis and allocated
so that one nation's transmission would not interfere with others.
If the micro-wave radio spectrum proves to be, upon development,
the form in which television signals can cross the Atlantic, it
is likely to be the only medium we can use for the purpose.
British to Launch Big Television Service
One of the new and interesting reports on television for the
public comes from England where the engineers of the British Broadcasting
Corporation are said to have planned swift action on the government
authorization of a public television service. Working in cooperation
with the Marconi and Baird television companies, they are about
to decide on a site for a high television transmitting tower, which
will be of sufficient altitude to provide an uninterrupted path
for the ultra-short waves between the television transmitter and
receiver over the 30 mile radius it is primarily intended to serve.
It is possible that the Crystal Palace tower rising 280 feet above
the level of the Thames, will be used for the first television broadcast.
Demonstrations of the Baird experts at a distance of 25 miles from
Crystal Palace have shown vision and sound to be satisfactory. Recently
a demonstration by two Baird home television receivers operating
on Crystal Palace transmitting signals gave brilliant black and
white images. One model, which cost $250, gave an image 6x8 inches
and the second larger machine, valued at $450, produced a brilliant
image 9x12 inches, sufficiently large to be enjoyed by the whole
Another demonstration by the Baird engineers in England the other
day, and which shows how far behind we have fallen in America, consisted
of a demonstration or transmission of outdoor scenes. These scenes,
due to the difficulty of being picked up well by the average televisor,
were photographed on a motion picture "talkie" film and, with a
delay of but 30 seconds for the development and drying of the film,
it was sent through the television transmitter and the image picked
up on short waves!
What Is Delaying Television in America?
According to the best authority, the television'
dream of one or two of the large American radio corporations is
illustrated in this picture. Must we wait 3 to 5 years more until
this grand television scheme can be placed into operation, before
we can enjoy television In our homes?
If you talk to some of the business and technical experts connected
with our large American radio corporations, you will find several
similar arguments they will give you as to why television has apparently
been "put to sleep" for the past several years, and also why we
can hardly hope to have practical television for the enjoyment of
the vast radio public in this country for several years to come.
One of the first arguments is that it did not pay to keep on broadcasting
television images, because the Federal Communications Commission
would not issue licenses to the operating companies for "sponsored"
television programs, owing apparently to the fact that sufficiently
clear images were not produced.
This is part of a vicious circle as it were, and another argument
is and has been the lack of any great amount of capital for developing
television during the past few years, and, added to this, a pronounced
lack of interest on the part of the radio public.
There are several answers to some of these questions, a few of
which may be catalogued in the following manner: If television broadcasting
by first-class stations, such as that operated by the Columbia Broadcasting
System up to about two and one-half years ago, had been maintained
and experiments continually conducted which were aimed to improve
the clarity of the image, we would be two and one-half years nearer
our goal of practical and satisfactory television for the public.
The writer's contact with that section of the radio public who at
one time or other had occasion to see some of the television images
demonstrated both on "home-type" machines, as well as public exhibition
screens as large as 6 to 8 feet square, shows that undoubtedly a
pretty bad impression resulted as the images would frequently fade
and become "fuzzy," etc. It is the writer's contention, however,
that if some of the radio broadcasting companies, such as CBS, NBC,
and others as well as private plants of the large radio concerns
- like those operating station WLW, had "followed through", as they
did in the early days of American sound broadcasting, we would have
had a very different state of television affairs today than we have
Only a Few Stations Transmitting
At present, there are twenty-eight American television broadcasting
stations licensed by the Federal Communications Commission - half
a dozen of these are actively broadcasting television images, one
or two in the eastern part of the United States, two or three in
the central part of the country and one or two on the west coast.
So far as the public and the great army of half a million or more
"live" radio experimenters are concerned, there is practically a
complete dearth of television images to be picked up.
As Dr. O. H. Caldwell, former Federal Radio Commissioner, recently
put it - "England's move to start television broadcasting in earnest
will undoubtedly furnish the necessary impetus to spur America to
develop, or rather apply, practical television for the benefit of
the public." Dr. Caldwell said further that the results of putting
television into active use at once will be far-reaching and will
go a long way in pulling us out of the depression. In Germany, he
stated further, Hitler is supplying money to advance the transmission
of images by radio. The only thing that is holding back the
development of the industry in America on a scale comparable to
the early days of broadcasting, is the need for capital to finance
the construction and equipment of image transmitters. To provide
television programs throughout the country would require an initial
investment estimated at 50 to 200 million dollars or more. This
sum seems staggering to private capital, but to a government that
is handing out billions for purposes that seem less constructive,
even $200,000,000 for television is not unthinkable. Television
transmitters really have a sounder claim to government financing,
in the present unemployment situation, than do other enterprises
that have received generous Federal aid. Each television transmitter
built will be the means of initiating the manufacture of thousands
of television receivers, involving new factories, restoring employment
and injecting new impetus into the machine of national business.
American capitalists have never been slow to offer their financial
cooperation for the development of any new and promising invention.
Undoubtedly one of the reasons why some of the ambitious television
inventors in this country have found it difficult to find capital
to carryon and develop practical television to the stage it should
have reached by this time, is due to another link in the vicious
circle already mentioned, namely, the rather poor images obtained
a few years ago; and for one reason and another, the failure of
those radio broadcasting companies, who could have easily kept on
broadcasting images, to carry on, and thus keep the television engineers
continually on the job, which would have certainly resulted in a
much finer image today than we were used to seeing say 3 years ago.
It is certainly to be regretted that there has been nothing, practically,
during the past three years to sustain experimental interest in
television, such as would have been the case had a number of stations
been broadcasting images regularly.
"The British are to be commended for their enterprise ... What
they plan exactly parallels tests made in New York and other cities
several years ago. England's problem is comparatively simple ...
As the area of the United States is 38 times as large as the British
Isles, our television problem is more than 38 times as large as
Dr. Alfred N. Goldsmith, Prominent American Radio Engineer.
"We will follow England's experiment with keen interest. Experiments
two years ago with television transmission gave us a sympathetic
understanding of the difficulties to be encountered to sustain public
interest in images possessing limited detail ... A conservative
policy of watchful investigation will best serve our interest."
Edwin K. Cohan, Director of General Engineering, Columbia Broadcasting
"Television will go a long way in pulling us out of the depression
... The only thing that is holding back the development of this
new industry is capital to finance the construction and equipment
of image transmitters. To provide television programs here would
require an initial investment of from $50,000,000 to $200,000,000
Dr. O. H. Caldwell, Formerly Federal Radio Commissioner.
Perfect "Laboratory" Images Reported - But Not for Public
On the brighter side of American television developments, we
have had the secret reports which leak out now and then from the
laboratories of such great operating companies as the R.C.A., that
first-class television images have been obtained in their laboratory
tests - images in fact equivalent in quality to those projected
by home movie machines! The writer has been told by people who have
seen some of these images that such is the fact, and this being
the case, it is indeed unfortunate that apparently the public, as
well as a great section of the army of the unemployed, as Dr. Goldsmith
has pointed out, cannot benefit by the immediate or at least early
application of this television service.
Unofficially, from bits of information gathered from various
sources, the "grand" television scheme for we Americans seems to
be all tied up, due to patents, lack of finances by the smaller
radio and television concerns, etc., in a plan whereby one or two
of the largest American radio companies are planning to erect a
series of ultra-short-wave television transmitting stations in all
the larger cities across the country. In other words, these images
are to be transmitted on waves of 5 to 6 meters or less, which,
of course, with their extremely high frequency, lend themselves
ideally to the practically perfect transmission of a first-class
clear image, one of good size on a "home televisor" and having possibly
300 to 400 scanning lines. At least two large laboratories have
been busy the past few years on the development of cathode-ray televisors,
and according to reports given by those who have seen the images
produced by this type of televisor, the results are well worth waiting
This is but one angle of the situation, however, and it does
seem too bad that during the past few years we could not have had
a number of stations broadcasting television images in this country,
even though mechanical scanning had to be used. John V. L. Hogan,
well-known American radio engineer, who, let it be said to his credit,
has kept on broadcasting television images for the benefit of the
experimenters during the past few years, told the writer there is
no reason why we cannot obtain good clear television images of sufficiently
fine detail by mechanical scanning. In other words, it is not an
immutable law that we have got to have cathode-ray tube televisors
to give us satisfactory images at the receiver. Another point in
this same direction, and one which will be vouched for by thousands
of people who saw daily demonstrations some years ago by the Bell
Telephone Laboratories and the New York Telephone Company, is the
fact that very good likenesses of people's faces were televised
over a distance of several miles by wire - all by mechanical scanning.
About 5 years ago, the Bell Telephone Laboratories' television
experts, headed by Dr. H. E. Ives, gave several remarkable demonstrations
to editors and others in which not only outdoor scenes picked up
directly by one of their televisors and projected over a circuit
to a receiver in another part of the laboratory, but television
images in colors were transmitted and received with wonderful fidelity
and one of the onlookers remarked that one of the strawberries "looked
so real" that it seemed that one of them could be picked out of
One of the writer's main contentions is that with all this really
remarkable television development, which was in actual operation
5 and 6 years ago, we, in this country, should be miles ahead of
the point at which we now find ourselves. But in fact - insofar
as the radio public is concerned - we have no television!
A "New Deal" for American Television
The question of how soon shall we have television for the American
public is, therefore, practically unanswerable at the present time.
It has been reported several times in the past 2 years, that one
of the large radio companies would put their perfected cathode-ray
television receivers on the market, and "start the ball rolling"
- but so far as any definite word from any of the American radio
business leaders is concerned, they will say nothing definite.
One of the best hopes for an early break in television for the
public seems to lie in a Government subsidy, which could be later
paid back to the Government, and as already pointed out, some immediate
action in the development and application of television would help
to start factories going and help us to catch up with the television
activities of our British and German friends. What the writer and
many others who have been in close touch with American television
would like to see, would be a rebirth of the activity shown a few
years ago on the part of the smaller television and radio companies,
who started doing a very creditable job with mechanical scanning
systems. Furthermore, there is nothing to stop these companies from
procuring the services of competent engineers who could devise for
them new systems of cathode-ray scanning or its electro-mechanical
equivalent, for it is foolishness to believe that all of the real
genius in television engineering is encompassed within the brains
of possibly half a dozen engineers in the employ of two or three
large radio concerns.
Posted August 7, 2015